Segregation and Tule Lake

In July 1943, Tule Lake concentration camp was designated as a segregation center for those the camp authorities considered "disloyal" as a result of their answers on the mandatory "loyalty questionnaire." In September 1943, "loyal" Japanese Americans from Tule Lake began departing for other camps and "disloyal" Japanese Americans from other camps started arriving at Tule Lake. The number of guards increased from a few hundred to 930 and an eight-foot high double fence was erected. The camp's capacity was 15,000 but the peak population reached 18,789 as 6,249 original "loyal" Japaense Americans chose to stay rather than be uprooted again.

World War II (218)
Resistance and dissidence (80)
Segregation and Tule Lake (249)

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249 items
Subject: separation of evacuees of doubtful loyalty from loyal evacuees [policy memo by Dillon S. Myer] (ddr-csujad-19-1)
doc Subject: separation of evacuees of doubtful loyalty from loyal evacuees [policy memo by Dillon S. Myer] (ddr-csujad-19-1)
Details the War Relocation Authority's policy to remove to a separate facility "those persons of Japanese ancestry residing in relocation centers who by their acts have indicated that their loyalties lie with Japan during the present hostilities." Along with Policy, headings include Designation of Center for Evacuees of Doubtful Loyalty, referring to Tule Lake; Persons to …
Letter from Michi Weglyn to Frank Chin, May 31, 1993 (ddr-csujad-24-94)
doc Letter from Michi Weglyn to Frank Chin, May 31, 1993 (ddr-csujad-24-94)
A letter from Michi Weglyn to Frank Chin. Also included is a letter to Weglyn and a letter written by Eji Suyama to Pacific Citizen about Japanese American draft resisters during World War II. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: chi_07_011
Manzanar diary (ddr-csujad-34-1)
doc Manzanar diary (ddr-csujad-34-1)
One diary written by Hiroshi Fukuwa, a Kibei Nisei of Los Angeles, California. His diary starts from his departing day from Los Angeles to move into the Manzanar incarceration camp as one of the first group of volunteer incacerees. He was transferred to the Gila River camp, Arizona, to join his brother's family, and segregated into …
Note about Hokoku Seinendan in Tule Lake camp (ddr-csujad-34-7)
doc Note about Hokoku Seinendan in Tule Lake camp (ddr-csujad-34-7)
A handwritten note by Hiroshi Fukuwa. It records that 76 top members of Pro-Japan group, "Hokoku Seinendan," received a notice on January 25. They left the camp at 9 AM on January 26 and got on a train at 4 PM to leave. Included are Oye, Shirozono, and Hamada. They were presumably the incarcerees in the …
Manzanar diary (ddr-csujad-34-2)
doc Manzanar diary (ddr-csujad-34-2)
English translation of a diary written by Hiroshi Fukuwa, a Kibei Nisei of Los Angeles, California. His diary starts from his departing day from Los Angeles to move into the Manzanar incarceration camp as one of the first group of volunteer incacerees. He was transferred to the Gila River camp in Arizona, to join his brother's …
Atsushi Art Ishida and Hisako Yatabe leaving for the Tule Lake camp (ddr-csujad-38-109)
img Atsushi Art Ishida and Hisako Yatabe leaving for the Tule Lake camp (ddr-csujad-38-109)
Photographed is Atsushi Art Ishida, wearing leis posing with Hisako Yatabe. It is taken in the Jerome incarceration camp in Arkansas when he is leaving for the Tule Lake segregation camp. The attached note reads: Off to Tule Lake, Art Ishida friend. A photo from "George Naohara photo album" (csudh_nao_0001), page 25. See this object in …
Covered truck leaving Jerome camp for Tule Lake camp (ddr-csujad-38-86)
img Covered truck leaving Jerome camp for Tule Lake camp (ddr-csujad-38-86)
Photographed are a covered truck and incarcerees presumably in the Jerome incarceration camp in Arkansas. It was probably taken when the volunteers were leaving for the Tule Lake camp in California. A photo from "George Naohara photo album" (csudh_nao_0001), page 21. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: nao_01_21_001
Volunteers leaving from Jerome camp to Tule Lake camp (ddr-csujad-38-297)
img Volunteers leaving from Jerome camp to Tule Lake camp (ddr-csujad-38-297)
Photographed are incarcerees seeing off the volunteers moving from the Jerome camp in Arkansas, to the Tule Lake Segregation Center in California. The caption reads: From Jerome Relocation Camp, volunteers to Tule Lake were transported by truck and later by train. A photo from: Mitzi Naohara photo album (csudh_nao_0200), page 18. See this object in the …
Volunteers leaving from Jerome camp to Tule Lake camp (ddr-csujad-38-298)
img Volunteers leaving from Jerome camp to Tule Lake camp (ddr-csujad-38-298)
Photographed are the volunteers on the train, moving from the Jerome camp in Arkansas to the Tule Lake camp in California, and incarcerees seeing off the volunteers. The caption reads: From Jerome Relocation Camp, volunteers to Tule Lake were transported by truck and later by train. A photo from: Mitzi Naohara photo album (csudh_nao_0200), page 18. …
George Naohara leaving Jerome camp for Tule Lake camp (ddr-csujad-38-259)
img George Naohara leaving Jerome camp for Tule Lake camp (ddr-csujad-38-259)
Photographed is George Nobuo Naohara on a truck. It is taken when he is leaving the Jerome camp in Arkansas, for the Tule Lake Segregation Center in California. A photo from: Mitzi Naohara photo album (csudh_nao_0200), page 14. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: nao_02_14_004
Leaving Jerome Arkansas for Tule Lake (ddr-csujad-38-257)
img Leaving Jerome Arkansas for Tule Lake (ddr-csujad-38-257)
Photographed is George Nobuo Naohara on a truck. It is taken when he is leaving the Jerome camp in Arkansas, for the Tule Lake camp in California. The caption reads: Leaving Jerome Arkansas for Tule Lake. Title from caption. The handwritten note on the back side read: Mitsuko-san, This photo was taken when I was leaving …
George Okada interview (ddr-csujad-6-28)
doc George Okada interview (ddr-csujad-6-28)
Oral history interview with George Okada. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: SCRC_OKADA_GEORGE
Letter from Aiko Takaoka to Ramond Best, Director of Tule Lake Camp, February 1, 1944 (ddr-csujad-2-5)
doc Letter from Aiko Takaoka to Ramond Best, Director of Tule Lake Camp, February 1, 1944 (ddr-csujad-2-5)
Letter from Aiko Takaoka to Raymond Best, Director of Tule Lake Camp, requesting the release of her brother, Yoshio Takaoka from the army stockades at Tule Lake Camp. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: sjs_sch_0005
[Ray R. Best had close call with detention camp mob], biographical news article on Tule Lake Camp Director Raymond Best (ddr-csujad-2-39)
doc [Ray R. Best had close call with detention camp mob], biographical news article on Tule Lake Camp Director Raymond Best (ddr-csujad-2-39)
Biographical newspaper article about Tule Lake Camp Director Raymond R. Best and his role during the November 1943 protests at the camp, lead to martial law. Describes how his life was in danger during the protests and his diplomatic work after the camp closed. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project …
Letter from residents requesting prisoner release, February 18, 1944 (ddr-csujad-2-8)
doc Letter from residents requesting prisoner release, February 18, 1944 (ddr-csujad-2-8)
Letter from residents requesting the release of two incarerees: Wataru Obara, and Hiroichi Shimamura, detained in army stockades at Tule Lake Camp. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: sjs_sch_0008
Letter from incarcerees requesting release of prisoners, April 17, 1944 (ddr-csujad-2-14)
doc Letter from incarcerees requesting release of prisoners, April 17, 1944 (ddr-csujad-2-14)
Letter from incarcerees requesting the release of 21 inmates from the army stockades at Tule Lake Camp. Names: Kazama, Masami; Shimada, Shunichi; Harauchi, Akio; Kusuda, Masanao; Gushiken, Yoshitsune; Gushiken, Yoshio; Matsumoto, Mitsuru; Matsumoto, Tsuneto; Masuoka, Hiro; Tarumoto, Sadaichi; Obara, Wataru; Shimamura, Hiroichi; Fujii, Yoshio; Aoki, Jin; Kurashige, Kenichi; Okata, Masanao; Nakahara, Tokushige; Morikawa, Masao; Morikawa, Shigeto; …
[Report of the informal interview of the divisional responsible men and the detained stockade internees] (ddr-csujad-2-53)
doc [Report of the informal interview of the divisional responsible men and the detained stockade internees] (ddr-csujad-2-53)
Report from the incarceree-led government at Tule Lake Incarceration Camp. A transcript from an interview of the "Divisional Responsible Men" and their attempts to challenge the status-quo in the camp. Discusses hunger strike due to the army stealing incarceree items and attempts to release prisoners from the army stockades at the camp. See this object in …
[Minutes of the regular meeting of the divisional responsible men and the Co-ordinating committee of the Tule Lake Center, March 11, 1944] (ddr-csujad-2-23)
doc [Minutes of the regular meeting of the divisional responsible men and the Co-ordinating committee of the Tule Lake Center, March 11, 1944] (ddr-csujad-2-23)
Meeting minutes of incarceree-led Tule Lake Camp government. Describes clean-up week at the camp, prisoner release, vandalism, construction, clothing and furniture, and reorganization of committee. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: sjs_sch_0023
[Minutes of the special meeting of the divisional heads of the Tule Lake Center, January 22, 1944] (ddr-csujad-2-16)
doc [Minutes of the special meeting of the divisional heads of the Tule Lake Center, January 22, 1944] (ddr-csujad-2-16)
Minutes of divisional heads of the Tule Lake Center. Describes formal recognition of Co-ordinating committee by Camp Director Raymond Best and Military Police Commander Colonel Verne Austin, release 26 prisoners from army stockades, and details of employment and work opportunities. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: sjs_sch_0016
Translation of poster at Tule Lake Camp regarding repatriation and loyalty to Japan (ddr-csujad-2-43)
doc Translation of poster at Tule Lake Camp regarding repatriation and loyalty to Japan (ddr-csujad-2-43)
Translation of a poster within washrooms at the Tule Lake Incarceration Camp. Describes inadequate treatment of incarcerees compared to other camps, loyalty and repatriation to Japan, and the need to quell "disgraceful behavior" such as violence. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: sjs_sch_0043
[Minutes of the regular joint meeting of the advisory council and the Co-ordinating committee of the Tule Lake Center, March 3, 1944] (ddr-csujad-2-30)
doc [Minutes of the regular joint meeting of the advisory council and the Co-ordinating committee of the Tule Lake Center, March 3, 1944] (ddr-csujad-2-30)
Meeting minutes between incarceree-led Tule Lake Camp government and the Advisory Council. Includes discussion on prisoner release from army stockades, the creation of a Young Men's Association and the transfer of incarcerees from Poston Camp. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: sjs_sch_0030
[Informal meeting of the divisional responsible men and the project director and Colonel Austin, January 17,1944] (ddr-csujad-2-17)
doc [Informal meeting of the divisional responsible men and the project director and Colonel Austin, January 17,1944] (ddr-csujad-2-17)
Minutes of informal meeting between Tule Lake Camp Director Raymond Best and Military Police Commander Colonel Verne Austin and incarceree-led Tule Lake Camp Government. Describes theft incidents from the Army's search of barracks by the soldiers and release of detained prisoners from the army stockades. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization …
Letter from S. Yoshiyama to Raymond Best, Director of Tule Lake Camp, February 22, 1944 (ddr-csujad-2-3)
doc Letter from S. Yoshiyama to Raymond Best, Director of Tule Lake Camp, February 22, 1944 (ddr-csujad-2-3)
Letter from S. Yoshiyama requesting to meet with his fiance, Hisako Hideya, while detained by the army. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: sjs_sch_0003
Two newspaper articles on Tule Lake Camp protests (ddr-csujad-2-42)
doc Two newspaper articles on Tule Lake Camp protests (ddr-csujad-2-42)
Two newspaper articles on protests and riots at Tule Lake camp November, 1943 which led to martial law being in place for three months. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: sjs_sch_0042
Tule Lake Center Diary, March 1944 (ddr-csujad-2-25)
doc Tule Lake Center Diary, March 1944 (ddr-csujad-2-25)
Daily diary for March, possibly written by Co-ordinating committee Secretary Byron Akitsuki at Tule Lake Camp. Describes unrest in Block 21, memos and messages sent, and committee member meetings. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: sjs_sch_0025
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