Segregation and Tule Lake

In July 1943, Tule Lake concentration camp was designated as a segregation center for those the camp authorities considered "disloyal" as a result of their answers on the mandatory "loyalty questionnaire." In September 1943, "loyal" Japanese Americans from Tule Lake began departing for other camps and "disloyal" Japanese Americans from other camps started arriving at Tule Lake. The number of guards increased from a few hundred to 930 and an eight-foot high double fence was erected. The camp's capacity was 15,000 but the peak population reached 18,789 as 6,249 original "loyal" Japaense Americans chose to stay rather than be uprooted again.

World War II (215)
Resistance and dissidence (80)
Segregation and Tule Lake (248)

248 items
Copy of letter to James Omura from Kiyoshi Okamoto (ddr-densho-122-829)
doc Copy of letter to James Omura from Kiyoshi Okamoto (ddr-densho-122-829)
Describing Okamoto and Sam Horino's relocation to Tule Lake from Heart Mountain on the grounds of disloyalty
Copy of agenda for Fair Play Committee meeting (ddr-densho-122-830)
doc Copy of agenda for Fair Play Committee meeting (ddr-densho-122-830)
Re: status of committee and leaders, Okamoto and Horino, written by Minoru Minola Tamesa
Letter to Arthur Emi from WRA (ddr-densho-122-446)
doc Letter to Arthur Emi from WRA (ddr-densho-122-446)
Notifying Emi that his name has been removed from the list of those recommended for segregation
Letter to Guy Robertson from Isamu Horino (ddr-densho-122-456)
doc Letter to Guy Robertson from Isamu Horino (ddr-densho-122-456)
Challenging Horino's deportation to Tule Lake on the grounds of unconstitutionality
Copy of
doc Copy of "Plan of Segregation:" (ddr-densho-122-887)
Outlining criteria for individuals to be sent to segregation camp at Colorado River
Welcome to Amache guide (ddr-densho-356-859)
doc Welcome to Amache guide (ddr-densho-356-859)
Booklet made for Tule Lake transfers that provides information about Granada in both English and Japanese.
Welcome Tuleans poster (ddr-densho-356-858)
doc Welcome Tuleans poster (ddr-densho-356-858)
Poster welcoming transferred detainees from Tule Lake to Amache.
Flowchart for Segregation (ddr-densho-356-985)
doc Flowchart for Segregation (ddr-densho-356-985)
Flowchart of options for individuals who have been deemed disloyal in Granada.
Committee Print of Minority Views on Tule Lake Segregation Center (ddr-densho-356-1039)
doc Committee Print of Minority Views on Tule Lake Segregation Center (ddr-densho-356-1039)
Investigation of Un-American Propaganda activities in the United States: Subcommittee of the Special Committee on Un-American Activities House of Representatives, House Resolution 282, Minority Views on Tule Lake Segregation Center. Minority report by Repressive Herman P. Eberharter of Pennsylvania regarding the Tule Lake Strike and recommendations for WRA leadership regarding their actions during the strike.
Message from the President of the United States on the Segregation of Loyal and Disloyal Japanese in Relocation Centers (ddr-densho-356-1037)
doc Message from the President of the United States on the Segregation of Loyal and Disloyal Japanese in Relocation Centers (ddr-densho-356-1037)
Formal message from President Franklin Roosevelt to the Senate regarding Senate Resolution 166 on the segregation of loyal and disloyal Nikkei in camps.
Incoming Evacuees Reception Committee Outline of Duties (ddr-densho-356-857)
doc Incoming Evacuees Reception Committee Outline of Duties (ddr-densho-356-857)
Document detailing members of the reception committee, their duties, and the time table for the committee to prepare for the arrival for transfers from Tule Lake.
Relocation problems and policies (ddr-densho-381-24)
doc Relocation problems and policies (ddr-densho-381-24)
An address delivered by War Relocation Authority Director, Dillon S. Myer, to the Tuesday Evening Club. Myer discusses a variety of topics, including the creation of the War Relocation Authority, managing the camps, and plans for relocation.
Segregation of persons of Japanese ancestry in relocation centers (ddr-csujad-55-367)
doc Segregation of persons of Japanese ancestry in relocation centers (ddr-csujad-55-367)
Pamphlet covering the War Relocation Authority's segregation program at Tule Lake incarceration camp. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: sac_jaac_0369
Letter from Ivan Williams, Officer in Charge, United States Department of Justice to Sadae Hirota, March 1, 1946 (ddr-csujad-55-1899)
doc Letter from Ivan Williams, Officer in Charge, United States Department of Justice to Sadae Hirota, March 1, 1946 (ddr-csujad-55-1899)
Correspondence from Ivan Williams to Sadaye [Sadae] Hirota regarding her release from Tule Lake Segregation Center. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: sac_jaac_1902
Semi-annual report, January 1 to June 30, 1944 (ddr-csujad-55-1654)
doc Semi-annual report, January 1 to June 30, 1944 (ddr-csujad-55-1654)
Report covering the "relocation program," leave clearance, nisei and the armed forces, closing of Jerome incarceration camp, Tule Lake incident, segregation movements to Tule Lake, Spanish Consular visits, community government, business enterprises, welfare, education, community activities, legal, evacuee property, health and sanitation, fire protection, internal security, military police, agriculture, industries, motor transport and maintenance, construction and …
Tule Lake: at this segregation center are 18,000 Japanese considered disloyal to U.S. (ddr-csujad-55-2502)
doc Tule Lake: at this segregation center are 18,000 Japanese considered disloyal to U.S. (ddr-csujad-55-2502)
Pictorial report published in "Life Magazine" detailing life and living conditions in Tule Lake incarceration camp. Covers segregation, facilities, co-ops, administration, and daily life in the incarceration camp.
Letter from Frank S. Okusako, 1st Lt., Infantry, 1945 (ddr-csujad-55-233)
doc Letter from Frank S. Okusako, 1st Lt., Infantry, 1945 (ddr-csujad-55-233)
Statement by Frank Okusako describing his family's loyalty to the United States, his upbringing in Auburn, California, service in the United States Army, and arguing for his family's release from Tule Lake incarceration camp. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: sac_jaac_0235
Advance release (Office of War Information), OWI-2712 (November 1, 1943) (ddr-csujad-55-1908)
doc Advance release (Office of War Information), OWI-2712 (November 1, 1943) (ddr-csujad-55-1908)
Press release regarding the purpose and process of segregation at Tule Lake, movement of segregants between WRA Centers, security at Tule Lake, unrest among incarcerees, strike and violence, interventions by the administration, and international press. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: sac_jaac_1911
Memo from Frank S. Okusako, 1st Lt, Infantry, Company H, 442d Infantry to Commanding General, Western Defense Command, Presidio of San Francisco, California (Thru Channels), August 30, 1945 (ddr-csujad-55-229)
doc Memo from Frank S. Okusako, 1st Lt, Infantry, Company H, 442d Infantry to Commanding General, Western Defense Command, Presidio of San Francisco, California (Thru Channels), August 30, 1945 (ddr-csujad-55-229)
Memorandum of understanding from Frank S. Okusako to Commanding General, Western Defense Command regarding relocation of Okusako's family from the Tule Lake incarceration camp. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: sac_jaac_0231
Manzanar diary (ddr-csujad-34-1)
doc Manzanar diary (ddr-csujad-34-1)
One diary written by Hiroshi Fukuwa, a Kibei Nisei of Los Angeles, California. His diary starts from his departing day from Los Angeles to move into the Manzanar incarceration camp as one of the first group of volunteer incacerees. He was transferred to the Gila River camp, Arizona, to join his brother's family, and segregated into …
Note about Hokoku Seinendan in Tule Lake camp (ddr-csujad-34-7)
doc Note about Hokoku Seinendan in Tule Lake camp (ddr-csujad-34-7)
A handwritten note by Hiroshi Fukuwa. It records that 76 top members of Pro-Japan group, "Hokoku Seinendan," received a notice on January 25. They left the camp at 9 AM on January 26 and got on a train at 4 PM to leave. Included are Oye, Shirozono, and Hamada. They were presumably the incarcerees in the …
Manzanar diary (ddr-csujad-34-2)
doc Manzanar diary (ddr-csujad-34-2)
English translation of a diary written by Hiroshi Fukuwa, a Kibei Nisei of Los Angeles, California. His diary starts from his departing day from Los Angeles to move into the Manzanar incarceration camp as one of the first group of volunteer incacerees. He was transferred to the Gila River camp in Arizona, to join his brother's …
Letter from Joseph W. Stilwell, General, U.S. Army, to Lt. Frank S. Okusako, November 15, 1945 (ddr-csujad-55-236)
doc Letter from Joseph W. Stilwell, General, U.S. Army, to Lt. Frank S. Okusako, November 15, 1945 (ddr-csujad-55-236)
Correspondence from Joseph Stilwell to Frank Okusako regarding the case of Okusako's family. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: sac_jaac_0238
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