Segregation and Tule Lake

In July 1943, Tule Lake concentration camp was designated as a segregation center for those the camp authorities considered "disloyal" as a result of their answers on the mandatory "loyalty questionnaire." In September 1943, "loyal" Japanese Americans from Tule Lake began departing for other camps and "disloyal" Japanese Americans from other camps started arriving at Tule Lake. The number of guards increased from a few hundred to 930 and an eight-foot high double fence was erected. The camp's capacity was 15,000 but the peak population reached 18,789 as 6,249 original "loyal" Japaense Americans chose to stay rather than be uprooted again.

World War II (218)
Resistance and dissidence (80)
Segregation and Tule Lake (249)

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249 items
Letter from Joseph W. Stilwell, General, U.S. Army, to Lt. Frank S. Okusako, November 15, 1945 (ddr-csujad-55-236)
doc Letter from Joseph W. Stilwell, General, U.S. Army, to Lt. Frank S. Okusako, November 15, 1945 (ddr-csujad-55-236)
Correspondence from Joseph Stilwell to Frank Okusako regarding the case of Okusako's family. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: sac_jaac_0238
Memo from A.M. Tollefson, Colonel, CMP, Director, Prisoner of War Operations Division to CG US Army Forces, October 23, 1945 (ddr-csujad-55-231)
doc Memo from A.M. Tollefson, Colonel, CMP, Director, Prisoner of War Operations Division to CG US Army Forces, October 23, 1945 (ddr-csujad-55-231)
Memorandum of understanding from A. M. Tollefson to CG US Army Forces regarding relocation of enemy aliens to Hawaii. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: sac_jaac_0233
Letter from Raymond R. Best, Project Director, Tule Lake Project, to Lt. Frank S. Okusako, October 19, 1945 (ddr-csujad-55-232)
doc Letter from Raymond R. Best, Project Director, Tule Lake Project, to Lt. Frank S. Okusako, October 19, 1945 (ddr-csujad-55-232)
Correspondence from Raymond R. Best to Frank Okusako regarding the status of his family members at the Tule Lake incarceration camp including records of their conduct and renunciation of citizenship. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: sac_jaac_0234
Letter from Raymond R. Best, Project Director, Tule Lake Center, to Takaichi Tsukamoto, August 26, 1943 (ddr-csujad-55-1291)
doc Letter from Raymond R. Best, Project Director, Tule Lake Center, to Takaichi Tsukamoto, August 26, 1943 (ddr-csujad-55-1291)
Correspondence from Raymond R. Best to Takaichi Tsukamoto regarding segregation at Tule Lake. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: sac_jaac_1293
Segregation of evacuees (ddr-csujad-55-333)
doc Segregation of evacuees (ddr-csujad-55-333)
Report on the segregation of incarcerated individuals at Tule Lake incarceration camp. Includes a description of the segregated population at Tule Lake. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: sac_jaac_0335
Advance release (Office of War Information), OWI-2712 (November 1, 1943) (ddr-csujad-55-1908)
doc Advance release (Office of War Information), OWI-2712 (November 1, 1943) (ddr-csujad-55-1908)
Press release regarding the purpose and process of segregation at Tule Lake, movement of segregants between WRA Centers, security at Tule Lake, unrest among incarcerees, strike and violence, interventions by the administration, and international press. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: sac_jaac_1911
Letter from Frank S. Okusako, 1st Lt., Infantry, 1945 (ddr-csujad-55-233)
doc Letter from Frank S. Okusako, 1st Lt., Infantry, 1945 (ddr-csujad-55-233)
Statement by Frank Okusako describing his family's loyalty to the United States, his upbringing in Auburn, California, service in the United States Army, and arguing for his family's release from Tule Lake incarceration camp. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: sac_jaac_0235
Tule Lake: at this segregation center are 18,000 Japanese considered disloyal to U.S. (ddr-csujad-55-2502)
doc Tule Lake: at this segregation center are 18,000 Japanese considered disloyal to U.S. (ddr-csujad-55-2502)
Pictorial report published in "Life Magazine" detailing life and living conditions in Tule Lake incarceration camp. Covers segregation, facilities, co-ops, administration, and daily life in the incarceration camp.
Segregation of persons of Japanese ancestry in relocation centers (ddr-csujad-55-367)
doc Segregation of persons of Japanese ancestry in relocation centers (ddr-csujad-55-367)
Pamphlet covering the War Relocation Authority's segregation program at Tule Lake incarceration camp. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: sac_jaac_0369
Letter from Ivan Williams, Officer in Charge, United States Department of Justice to Sadae Hirota, October 6, 1945 (ddr-csujad-55-1902)
doc Letter from Ivan Williams, Officer in Charge, United States Department of Justice to Sadae Hirota, October 6, 1945 (ddr-csujad-55-1902)
Notice to Sadaye [Sadae] Hirota ordering her "internment" at the Tule Lake Segregation Center. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: sac_jaac_1905
Letter from Ivan Williams, Officer in Charge, United States Department of Justice to Sadae Hirota, March 1, 1946 (ddr-csujad-55-1899)
doc Letter from Ivan Williams, Officer in Charge, United States Department of Justice to Sadae Hirota, March 1, 1946 (ddr-csujad-55-1899)
Correspondence from Ivan Williams to Sadaye [Sadae] Hirota regarding her release from Tule Lake Segregation Center. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: sac_jaac_1902
Memo from V.R. Miller, Colonel, Infantry, Commanding, to the Adjutant General, War Department, Washington 25, D.C., September 6, 1945 (ddr-csujad-55-230)
doc Memo from V.R. Miller, Colonel, Infantry, Commanding, to the Adjutant General, War Department, Washington 25, D.C., September 6, 1945 (ddr-csujad-55-230)
Memorandum of understanding from V. R. Miller regarding Frank Okusako's request for relocation of his family from the Tule Lake incarceration camp. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: sac_jaac_0232
Complaint, War Relocation Authority vs. Ray Ishibashi (ddr-csujad-55-248)
doc Complaint, War Relocation Authority vs. Ray Ishibashi (ddr-csujad-55-248)
Complaint regarding Ray Ishibashi's refusal to register at Tule Lake incarceration camp. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: sac_jaac_0250
Semi-annual report, January 1 to June 30, 1944 (ddr-csujad-55-1654)
doc Semi-annual report, January 1 to June 30, 1944 (ddr-csujad-55-1654)
Report covering the "relocation program," leave clearance, nisei and the armed forces, closing of Jerome incarceration camp, Tule Lake incident, segregation movements to Tule Lake, Spanish Consular visits, community government, business enterprises, welfare, education, community activities, legal, evacuee property, health and sanitation, fire protection, internal security, military police, agriculture, industries, motor transport and maintenance, construction and …
Memo from Frank S. Okusako, 1st Lt, Infantry, Company H, 442d Infantry to Commanding General, Western Defense Command, Presidio of San Francisco, California (Thru Channels), August 30, 1945 (ddr-csujad-55-229)
doc Memo from Frank S. Okusako, 1st Lt, Infantry, Company H, 442d Infantry to Commanding General, Western Defense Command, Presidio of San Francisco, California (Thru Channels), August 30, 1945 (ddr-csujad-55-229)
Memorandum of understanding from Frank S. Okusako to Commanding General, Western Defense Command regarding relocation of Okusako's family from the Tule Lake incarceration camp. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: sac_jaac_0231
Letter from Tom Clark, Attorney General, to General Mark W. Clark, December 10, 1945 (ddr-csujad-55-235)
doc Letter from Tom Clark, Attorney General, to General Mark W. Clark, December 10, 1945 (ddr-csujad-55-235)
Correspondence from Tom Clark to Mark Clark regarding the case of Frank Okusako's family. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: sac_jaac_0237
Copy of agenda for Fair Play Committee meeting (ddr-densho-122-830)
doc Copy of agenda for Fair Play Committee meeting (ddr-densho-122-830)
Re: status of committee and leaders, Okamoto and Horino, written by Minoru Minola Tamesa
Letter to Arthur Emi from WRA (ddr-densho-122-446)
doc Letter to Arthur Emi from WRA (ddr-densho-122-446)
Notifying Emi that his name has been removed from the list of those recommended for segregation
Letter to Guy Robertson from Isamu Horino (ddr-densho-122-456)
doc Letter to Guy Robertson from Isamu Horino (ddr-densho-122-456)
Challenging Horino's deportation to Tule Lake on the grounds of unconstitutionality
Copy of
doc Copy of "Plan of Segregation:" (ddr-densho-122-887)
Outlining criteria for individuals to be sent to segregation camp at Colorado River
Welcome to Amache guide (ddr-densho-356-859)
doc Welcome to Amache guide (ddr-densho-356-859)
Booklet made for Tule Lake transfers that provides information about Granada in both English and Japanese.
Committee Print of Minority Views on Tule Lake Segregation Center (ddr-densho-356-1039)
doc Committee Print of Minority Views on Tule Lake Segregation Center (ddr-densho-356-1039)
Investigation of Un-American Propaganda activities in the United States: Subcommittee of the Special Committee on Un-American Activities House of Representatives, House Resolution 282, Minority Views on Tule Lake Segregation Center. Minority report by Repressive Herman P. Eberharter of Pennsylvania regarding the Tule Lake Strike and recommendations for WRA leadership regarding their actions during the strike.
Flowchart for Segregation (ddr-densho-356-985)
doc Flowchart for Segregation (ddr-densho-356-985)
Flowchart of options for individuals who have been deemed disloyal in Granada.
Welcome Tuleans poster (ddr-densho-356-858)
doc Welcome Tuleans poster (ddr-densho-356-858)
Poster welcoming transferred detainees from Tule Lake to Amache.
Incoming Evacuees Reception Committee Outline of Duties (ddr-densho-356-857)
doc Incoming Evacuees Reception Committee Outline of Duties (ddr-densho-356-857)
Document detailing members of the reception committee, their duties, and the time table for the committee to prepare for the arrival for transfers from Tule Lake.
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