Segregation and Tule Lake

In July 1943, Tule Lake concentration camp was designated as a segregation center for those the camp authorities considered "disloyal" as a result of their answers on the mandatory "loyalty questionnaire." In September 1943, "loyal" Japanese Americans from Tule Lake began departing for other camps and "disloyal" Japanese Americans from other camps started arriving at Tule Lake. The number of guards increased from a few hundred to 930 and an eight-foot high double fence was erected. The camp's capacity was 15,000 but the peak population reached 18,789 as 6,249 original "loyal" Japaense Americans chose to stay rather than be uprooted again.

World War II (66)
Resistance and dissidence (73)
Segregation and Tule Lake (223)

223 items
Two newspaper articles on Tule Lake Camp protests (ddr-csujad-2-42)
doc Two newspaper articles on Tule Lake Camp protests (ddr-csujad-2-42)
Two newspaper articles on protests and riots at Tule Lake camp November, 1943 which led to martial law being in place for three months. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: sjs_sch_0042
Letter from S. Yoshiyama to Raymond Best, Director of Tule Lake Camp, February 22, 1944 (ddr-csujad-2-3)
doc Letter from S. Yoshiyama to Raymond Best, Director of Tule Lake Camp, February 22, 1944 (ddr-csujad-2-3)
Letter from S. Yoshiyama requesting to meet with his fiance, Hisako Hideya, while detained by the army. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: sjs_sch_0003
[Minutes of the regular meeting of the advisory council and the Co-ordinating Committee of the Tule Lake Center, February 25, 1944] (ddr-csujad-2-28)
doc [Minutes of the regular meeting of the advisory council and the Co-ordinating Committee of the Tule Lake Center, February 25, 1944] (ddr-csujad-2-28)
Meeting minutes of incarceree-led Tule Lake Camp government. Includes discussion of release of prisoners from army stockades, especially who to target for releasing, and lack of employment. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: sjs_sch_0028
Letter from residents to Ramond Best, Director of Tule Lake Camp, February 18, 1944 (ddr-csujad-2-10)
doc Letter from residents to Ramond Best, Director of Tule Lake Camp, February 18, 1944 (ddr-csujad-2-10)
Letter from residents requesting the release of two incarerees: Wataru Obara, and Hiroichi Shimamura, detained in the army stockades at Tule Lake Camp. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: sjs_sch_0010
Letter from Takiko Kozuma to Raymond Best, Director of Tule Lake Camp, February 17, 1944 (ddr-csujad-2-11)
doc Letter from Takiko Kozuma to Raymond Best, Director of Tule Lake Camp, February 17, 1944 (ddr-csujad-2-11)
Letter from Takiko Kozuma to Raymond Best, Director of Tule Lake Camp, requesting the release of her husband, Masaichi Kozuma, from the army stockades at Tule Lake Camp. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: sjs_sch_0011
Letter from incarcerees to Frank Hagan regarding employment, November 12, 1943 (ddr-csujad-2-15)
doc Letter from incarcerees to Frank Hagan regarding employment, November 12, 1943 (ddr-csujad-2-15)
Letter from incarerees requesting Tule Lake administration cut off employment from couples to make employment accessible for large families who have more expenses. Somewhat dire and threatening tone to letter. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: sjs_sch_0015
Letter from residents of Block 30 to Ramond Best, Director of Tule Lake Camp, February 24, 1944 (ddr-csujad-2-6)
doc Letter from residents of Block 30 to Ramond Best, Director of Tule Lake Camp, February 24, 1944 (ddr-csujad-2-6)
Letter from residents of Block 30 to Raymond Best, Director of Tule Lake Camp, requesting the release of Hiroyoshi Tsuda from the army stockades at Tule Lake Camp. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: sjs_sch_0006
[Minutes of the meeting of the Co-ordinating Committee and the Project Director and Colonel Austin, January 10, 1944] (ddr-csujad-2-32)
doc [Minutes of the meeting of the Co-ordinating Committee and the Project Director and Colonel Austin, January 10, 1944] (ddr-csujad-2-32)
Meeting minutes between incarceree-led Tule Lake Camp government and Camp Director Raymond Best and Commander of Military Police Colonel Verne Austin. Discusses farm worker unrest and release of prisoners from army stockades. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: sjs_sch_0032
[Internal security case report: disorderly conduct] (ddr-csujad-2-44)
doc [Internal security case report: disorderly conduct] (ddr-csujad-2-44)
Internal report describes Internal Security Officer Fenton Mahrt finding Masato Morinaga in a very intoxicated condition at the personnel garage. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: sjs_sch_0044
Segregants' departure from camp (ddr-densho-37-192)
img Segregants' departure from camp (ddr-densho-37-192)
Original WRA caption: Trouble-makers among 400 alien enemies sent to Santa Fe Internment camp 6-24-45, inside project jail.
Hoshidan member (ddr-densho-37-186)
img Hoshidan member (ddr-densho-37-186)
Original WRA caption: Shaved heads, but not shaved faces, were required of the Hokoku as is evidenced by this "alien enemy" sent to Santa Fe Internment Camp June 24, 1945 with 399 other pro-Japan agitators.
Hoshidan members leaving Tule Lake (ddr-densho-37-194)
img Hoshidan members leaving Tule Lake (ddr-densho-37-194)
Original WRA caption: The recalcitrants among the 400 sent to Santa Fe June 24, 1945, leave stockade, in various stages of dress, for march to train.
Segregants' departure from camp (ddr-densho-37-195)
img Segregants' departure from camp (ddr-densho-37-195)
Original WRA caption: Another defiant "enemy alien" sent to Santa Fe Internment Camp June 24, 1945, refuses to leave jail and stockade and is escorted by patrolmen (border).
Camp new arrivals (ddr-densho-37-293)
img Camp new arrivals (ddr-densho-37-293)
Original WRA caption: People from the Manzanar Relocation Center were moved to the Tule Lake Segregation Center and quartered in the ten blocks which had been built as an addition at Tule Lake. They arrived in four special trains and were taken directly from the railroad to their new homes. A total of 1876 people came …
Segregants preparing to leave camp (ddr-densho-37-185)
img Segregants preparing to leave camp (ddr-densho-37-185)
Original WRA caption: The "400" march in small groups from Gate 1 to the stockade for processing before entraining for Santa Fe Internment Camp.
Entrainment of segregants (ddr-densho-37-268)
img Entrainment of segregants (ddr-densho-37-268)
Original WRA caption: Crowd watches entrainment of segregees.
Hokoku Seinen Dan (ddr-densho-37-109)
img Hokoku Seinen Dan (ddr-densho-37-109)
Original WRA caption: Early morning drill of Hokoku Seinin Dan, Pro-Japan society. Note white head bands are part of "uniform."
Hoshidan members unloading mattresses (ddr-densho-37-111)
img Hoshidan members unloading mattresses (ddr-densho-37-111)
Original WRA caption: "Recalcitrant" Hokoku unload mattresses to form beds outside building but within stockade enclosure when 300 are held at stockade over night for questioning.
Processing a segregant (ddr-densho-37-276)
img Processing a segregant (ddr-densho-37-276)
Original WRA caption: Individual segregee folders [being] made up.
Hoshidan members leaving Tule Lake (ddr-densho-37-187)
img Hoshidan members leaving Tule Lake (ddr-densho-37-187)
Original WRA caption: Size of well-wishers diminished as the number of pro-Japan sympathizers sent to internment grew. Although 400 when leaving June 24, 1945, when this picture was taken, the send-off crowd was not nearly up-to-par.
Hokoku Seinen Dan leaving camp (ddr-densho-37-182)
img Hokoku Seinen Dan leaving camp (ddr-densho-37-182)
Original WRA caption: Hokoku and sympathizers gather at Gate 1 March 4, 1945 to witness departure of 125 Hokoku for Internment Camp at Santa Fe, N.M.
Arrival of segregants (ddr-densho-37-259)
img Arrival of segregants (ddr-densho-37-259)
Original WRA caption: Segregee's household effects arrive at apartment.
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