Segregation and Tule Lake

In July 1943, Tule Lake concentration camp was designated as a segregation center for those the camp authorities considered "disloyal" as a result of their answers on the mandatory "loyalty questionnaire." In September 1943, "loyal" Japanese Americans from Tule Lake began departing for other camps and "disloyal" Japanese Americans from other camps started arriving at Tule Lake. The number of guards increased from a few hundred to 930 and an eight-foot high double fence was erected. The camp's capacity was 15,000 but the peak population reached 18,789 as 6,249 original "loyal" Japaense Americans chose to stay rather than be uprooted again.

World War II (215)
Resistance and dissidence (80)
Segregation and Tule Lake (248)

248 items
Memo from A.M. Tollefson, Colonel, CMP, Director, Prisoner of War Operations Division to CG US Army Forces, October 23, 1945 (ddr-csujad-55-231)
doc Memo from A.M. Tollefson, Colonel, CMP, Director, Prisoner of War Operations Division to CG US Army Forces, October 23, 1945 (ddr-csujad-55-231)
Memorandum of understanding from A. M. Tollefson to CG US Army Forces regarding relocation of enemy aliens to Hawaii. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: sac_jaac_0233
Letter from Raymond R. Best, Project Director, Tule Lake Project, to Lt. Frank S. Okusako, October 19, 1945 (ddr-csujad-55-232)
doc Letter from Raymond R. Best, Project Director, Tule Lake Project, to Lt. Frank S. Okusako, October 19, 1945 (ddr-csujad-55-232)
Correspondence from Raymond R. Best to Frank Okusako regarding the status of his family members at the Tule Lake incarceration camp including records of their conduct and renunciation of citizenship. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: sac_jaac_0234
Letter from Raymond R. Best, Project Director, Tule Lake Center, to Takaichi Tsukamoto, August 26, 1943 (ddr-csujad-55-1291)
doc Letter from Raymond R. Best, Project Director, Tule Lake Center, to Takaichi Tsukamoto, August 26, 1943 (ddr-csujad-55-1291)
Correspondence from Raymond R. Best to Takaichi Tsukamoto regarding segregation at Tule Lake. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: sac_jaac_1293
Segregation of evacuees (ddr-csujad-55-333)
doc Segregation of evacuees (ddr-csujad-55-333)
Report on the segregation of incarcerated individuals at Tule Lake incarceration camp. Includes a description of the segregated population at Tule Lake. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: sac_jaac_0335
Letter from Ivan Williams, Officer in Charge, United States Department of Justice to Sadae Hirota, October 6, 1945 (ddr-csujad-55-1902)
doc Letter from Ivan Williams, Officer in Charge, United States Department of Justice to Sadae Hirota, October 6, 1945 (ddr-csujad-55-1902)
Notice to Sadaye [Sadae] Hirota ordering her "internment" at the Tule Lake Segregation Center. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: sac_jaac_1905
Complaint, War Relocation Authority vs. Ray Ishibashi (ddr-csujad-55-248)
doc Complaint, War Relocation Authority vs. Ray Ishibashi (ddr-csujad-55-248)
Complaint regarding Ray Ishibashi's refusal to register at Tule Lake incarceration camp. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: sac_jaac_0250
Memo from V.R. Miller, Colonel, Infantry, Commanding, to the Adjutant General, War Department, Washington 25, D.C., September 6, 1945 (ddr-csujad-55-230)
doc Memo from V.R. Miller, Colonel, Infantry, Commanding, to the Adjutant General, War Department, Washington 25, D.C., September 6, 1945 (ddr-csujad-55-230)
Memorandum of understanding from V. R. Miller regarding Frank Okusako's request for relocation of his family from the Tule Lake incarceration camp. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: sac_jaac_0232
Letter from Tom Clark, Attorney General, to General Mark W. Clark, December 10, 1945 (ddr-csujad-55-235)
doc Letter from Tom Clark, Attorney General, to General Mark W. Clark, December 10, 1945 (ddr-csujad-55-235)
Correspondence from Tom Clark to Mark Clark regarding the case of Frank Okusako's family. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: sac_jaac_0237
Atsushi Art Ishida and Hisako Yatabe leaving for the Tule Lake camp (ddr-csujad-38-109)
img Atsushi Art Ishida and Hisako Yatabe leaving for the Tule Lake camp (ddr-csujad-38-109)
Photographed is Atsushi Art Ishida, wearing leis posing with Hisako Yatabe. It is taken in the Jerome incarceration camp in Arkansas when he is leaving for the Tule Lake segregation camp. The attached note reads: Off to Tule Lake, Art Ishida friend. A photo from "George Naohara photo album" (csudh_nao_0001), page 25. See this object in …
Covered truck leaving Jerome camp for Tule Lake camp (ddr-csujad-38-86)
img Covered truck leaving Jerome camp for Tule Lake camp (ddr-csujad-38-86)
Photographed are a covered truck and incarcerees presumably in the Jerome incarceration camp in Arkansas. It was probably taken when the volunteers were leaving for the Tule Lake camp in California. A photo from "George Naohara photo album" (csudh_nao_0001), page 21. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: nao_01_21_001
Volunteers leaving from Jerome camp to Tule Lake camp (ddr-csujad-38-297)
img Volunteers leaving from Jerome camp to Tule Lake camp (ddr-csujad-38-297)
Photographed are incarcerees seeing off the volunteers moving from the Jerome camp in Arkansas, to the Tule Lake Segregation Center in California. The caption reads: From Jerome Relocation Camp, volunteers to Tule Lake were transported by truck and later by train. A photo from: Mitzi Naohara photo album (csudh_nao_0200), page 18. See this object in the …
Volunteers leaving from Jerome camp to Tule Lake camp (ddr-csujad-38-298)
img Volunteers leaving from Jerome camp to Tule Lake camp (ddr-csujad-38-298)
Photographed are the volunteers on the train, moving from the Jerome camp in Arkansas to the Tule Lake camp in California, and incarcerees seeing off the volunteers. The caption reads: From Jerome Relocation Camp, volunteers to Tule Lake were transported by truck and later by train. A photo from: Mitzi Naohara photo album (csudh_nao_0200), page 18. …
George Naohara leaving Jerome camp for Tule Lake camp (ddr-csujad-38-259)
img George Naohara leaving Jerome camp for Tule Lake camp (ddr-csujad-38-259)
Photographed is George Nobuo Naohara on a truck. It is taken when he is leaving the Jerome camp in Arkansas, for the Tule Lake Segregation Center in California. A photo from: Mitzi Naohara photo album (csudh_nao_0200), page 14. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: nao_02_14_004
Leaving Jerome Arkansas for Tule Lake (ddr-csujad-38-257)
img Leaving Jerome Arkansas for Tule Lake (ddr-csujad-38-257)
Photographed is George Nobuo Naohara on a truck. It is taken when he is leaving the Jerome camp in Arkansas, for the Tule Lake camp in California. The caption reads: Leaving Jerome Arkansas for Tule Lake. Title from caption. The handwritten note on the back side read: Mitsuko-san, This photo was taken when I was leaving …
Subject: separation of evacuees of doubtful loyalty from loyal evacuees [policy memo by Dillon S. Myer] (ddr-csujad-19-1)
doc Subject: separation of evacuees of doubtful loyalty from loyal evacuees [policy memo by Dillon S. Myer] (ddr-csujad-19-1)
Details the War Relocation Authority's policy to remove to a separate facility "those persons of Japanese ancestry residing in relocation centers who by their acts have indicated that their loyalties lie with Japan during the present hostilities." Along with Policy, headings include Designation of Center for Evacuees of Doubtful Loyalty, referring to Tule Lake; Persons to …
Kenji Maruko Interview Segment 22 (ddr-densho-1010-8-22)
vh Kenji Maruko Interview Segment 22 (ddr-densho-1010-8-22)
Transferring to Tule Lake when it was converted to a segregation center

This material is based upon work assisted by a grant from the Department of the Interior, National Park Service. Any opinions, finding, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the …

Kenji Maruko Interview Segment 23 (ddr-densho-1010-8-23)
vh Kenji Maruko Interview Segment 23 (ddr-densho-1010-8-23)
Participating in Hoshidan's morning exercises

This material is based upon work assisted by a grant from the Department of the Interior, National Park Service. Any opinions, finding, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the Department of the Interior.

Ernest Besig Interview Segment 4 (ddr-densho-1002-3-4)
vh Ernest Besig Interview Segment 4 (ddr-densho-1002-3-4)
Traveling to Tule Lake concentration camp

This interview was conducted by sisters Emiko and Chizuko Omori for their 1999 documentary, Rabbit in the Moon, about the Japanese American resisters of conscience in the World War II incarceration camps. As a result, the interviews in this collection are typically not life histories, instead primarily focusing on …

Ernest Besig Interview Segment 5 (ddr-densho-1002-3-5)
vh Ernest Besig Interview Segment 5 (ddr-densho-1002-3-5)
Visit to Tule Lake to investigate stockade situation

This interview was conducted by sisters Emiko and Chizuko Omori for their 1999 documentary, Rabbit in the Moon, about the Japanese American resisters of conscience in the World War II incarceration camps. As a result, the interviews in this collection are typically not life histories, instead primarily …

Hiroshi Kashiwagi Interview Segment 4 (ddr-densho-1002-4-4)
vh Hiroshi Kashiwagi Interview Segment 4 (ddr-densho-1002-4-4)
Recalling seeing "agitators" thrown into the stockade at Tule Lake

This interview was conducted by sisters Emiko and Chizuko Omori for their 1999 documentary, Rabbit in the Moon, about the Japanese American resisters of conscience in the World War II incarceration camps. As a result, the interviews in this collection are typically not life histories, …

Hiroshi Kashiwagi Interview Segment 3 (ddr-densho-1002-4-3)
vh Hiroshi Kashiwagi Interview Segment 3 (ddr-densho-1002-4-3)
Deciding to resist the draft registration; memories of the "segregation" period in Tule Lake concentration camp

This interview was conducted by sisters Emiko and Chizuko Omori for their 1999 documentary, Rabbit in the Moon, about the Japanese American resisters of conscience in the World War II incarceration camps. As a result, the interviews in this …

Frank Miyamoto Interview Segment 15 (ddr-densho-1002-1-15)
vh Frank Miyamoto Interview Segment 15 (ddr-densho-1002-1-15)
Discussion of the WRA's segregation policy

This interview was conducted by sisters Emiko and Chizuko Omori for their 1999 documentary, Rabbit in the Moon, about the Japanese American resisters of conscience in the World War II incarceration camps. As a result, the interviews in this collection are typically not life histories, instead primarily focusing on …

Toyoko Okumura Interview Segment 15 (ddr-janm-13-6-15)
vh Toyoko Okumura Interview Segment 15 (ddr-janm-13-6-15)
Transferring to Tule Lake: participating in group exercises in the mornings
John Tomita Interview Segment 19 (ddr-manz-1-76-19)
vh John Tomita Interview Segment 19 (ddr-manz-1-76-19)
Remembering unrest and conflict in the Tule Lake Segregation Center
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