Segregation and Tule Lake

In July 1943, Tule Lake concentration camp was designated as a segregation center for those the camp authorities considered "disloyal" as a result of their answers on the mandatory "loyalty questionnaire." In September 1943, "loyal" Japanese Americans from Tule Lake began departing for other camps and "disloyal" Japanese Americans from other camps started arriving at Tule Lake. The number of guards increased from a few hundred to 930 and an eight-foot high double fence was erected. The camp's capacity was 15,000 but the peak population reached 18,789 as 6,249 original "loyal" Japaense Americans chose to stay rather than be uprooted again.

Segregation and Tule Lake (205)

205 items
Michi Weglyn Interview Segment 12 (ddr-densho-122-22-12)
vh Michi Weglyn Interview Segment 12 (ddr-densho-122-22-12)
Thoughts on the Tule Lake "segregees"

This interview was conducted by filmmaker Frank Abe for his 2000 documentary, Conscience and the Constitution, about the World War II resisters of conscience at the Heart Mountain incarceration camp. As a result, the interviews in this collection are typically not life histories, instead primarily focusing on issues surrounding ...

Toyoko Okumura Interview Segment 15 (ddr-janm-13-6-15)
vh Toyoko Okumura Interview Segment 15 (ddr-janm-13-6-15)
Transferring to Tule Lake: participating in group exercises in the mornings
Kenge Kobayashi Segment 12 (ddr-densho-1000-37-12)
vh Kenge Kobayashi Segment 12 (ddr-densho-1000-37-12)
Implementation of martial law by camp administrators during the riots at Tule Lake concentration camp
Frank S. Fujii Segment 22 (ddr-densho-1000-8-22)
vh Frank S. Fujii Segment 22 (ddr-densho-1000-8-22)
Attending Japanese language school in camp

This interview was conducted over two days due to electrical problems. The majority of the interview was completed on the second day, September 5.

Chizuko Norton Segment 27 (ddr-densho-1000-73-27)
vh Chizuko Norton Segment 27 (ddr-densho-1000-73-27)
Conflict within Tule Lake after it became a "segregation center"
Tom Akashi Interview Segment 26 (ddr-densho-1000-164-26)
vh Tom Akashi Interview Segment 26 (ddr-densho-1000-164-26)
Arrival at Tule Lake, witnessing confusion as many people are arriving and leaving
Jimi Yamaichi Segment 14 (ddr-densho-1000-106-14)
vh Jimi Yamaichi Segment 14 (ddr-densho-1000-106-14)
Memories of martial law in Tule Lake, food scarcity, riots, Hoshidan group grows in strength
Chizuko Norton Segment 28 (ddr-densho-1000-73-28)
vh Chizuko Norton Segment 28 (ddr-densho-1000-73-28)
Tule Lake as a "segregation center," memories of a particular family
Kazie Good Interview Segment 15 (ddr-densho-1000-429-15)
vh Kazie Good Interview Segment 15 (ddr-densho-1000-429-15)
Murder of father's friend prompts immediate plans to leave camp
[Call troops in new outbreak], newspaper article on Tule Lake protests, November 5, 1943 (ddr-csujad-2-37)
doc [Call troops in new outbreak], newspaper article on Tule Lake protests, November 5, 1943 (ddr-csujad-2-37)
Newspaper article about protests at Tule Lake Camp in November, 1943 which led to martial law being in place for three months. Describes thousands of incarcerees protesting and the US army sent in for assistance. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: sjs_sch_0037
Letter from residents of Block 30 to Ramond Best, Director of Tule Lake Camp, February 24, 1944 (ddr-csujad-2-6)
doc Letter from residents of Block 30 to Ramond Best, Director of Tule Lake Camp, February 24, 1944 (ddr-csujad-2-6)
Letter from residents of Block 30 to Raymond Best, Director of Tule Lake Camp, requesting the release of Hiroyoshi Tsuda from the army stockades at Tule Lake Camp. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: sjs_sch_0006
[Internal security case report: disorderly conduct] (ddr-csujad-2-44)
doc [Internal security case report: disorderly conduct] (ddr-csujad-2-44)
Internal report describes Internal Security Officer Fenton Mahrt finding Masato Morinaga in a very intoxicated condition at the personnel garage. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: sjs_sch_0044
Letter from S. Yoshiyama to Raymond Best, Director of Tule Lake Camp, February 22, 1944 (ddr-csujad-2-3)
doc Letter from S. Yoshiyama to Raymond Best, Director of Tule Lake Camp, February 22, 1944 (ddr-csujad-2-3)
Letter from S. Yoshiyama requesting to meet with his fiance, Hisako Hideya, while detained by the army. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: sjs_sch_0003
[Troops alert as Tule Japs defy Colonel], newspaper article on Tule Lake protests, November 13, 1943 (ddr-csujad-2-40)
doc [Troops alert as Tule Japs defy Colonel], newspaper article on Tule Lake protests, November 13, 1943 (ddr-csujad-2-40)
Newspaper article about protests at Tule Lake Camp in November, 1943 which led to martial law being in place for three months. Article describes Colonel Verne Austin, Commander of Military Police, trying to regain control after the protests. He is quoted as saying "Henceforth the Army, and not trouble making Jap 'committees' will dictate camp life." ...
Letter from residents requesting prisoner release, February 18, 1944 (ddr-csujad-2-8)
doc Letter from residents requesting prisoner release, February 18, 1944 (ddr-csujad-2-8)
Letter from residents requesting the release of two incarerees: Wataru Obara, and Hiroichi Shimamura, detained in army stockades at Tule Lake Camp. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: sjs_sch_0008
[Minutes of the special meeting of the divisional heads of the Tule Lake Center, January 22, 1944] (ddr-csujad-2-16)
doc [Minutes of the special meeting of the divisional heads of the Tule Lake Center, January 22, 1944] (ddr-csujad-2-16)
Minutes of divisional heads of the Tule Lake Center. Describes formal recognition of Co-ordinating committee by Camp Director Raymond Best and Military Police Commander Colonel Verne Austin, release 26 prisoners from army stockades, and details of employment and work opportunities. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: sjs_sch_0016
[Informal meeting of the divisional responsible men and the project director and Colonel Austin, January 17,1944] (ddr-csujad-2-17)
doc [Informal meeting of the divisional responsible men and the project director and Colonel Austin, January 17,1944] (ddr-csujad-2-17)
Minutes of informal meeting between Tule Lake Camp Director Raymond Best and Military Police Commander Colonel Verne Austin and incarceree-led Tule Lake Camp Government. Describes theft incidents from the Army's search of barracks by the soldiers and release of detained prisoners from the army stockades. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization ...
Letter from Evacuee Police to Raymond Best, Director of Tule Lake Camp, February 1, 1944 (ddr-csujad-2-13)
doc Letter from Evacuee Police to Raymond Best, Director of Tule Lake Camp, February 1, 1944 (ddr-csujad-2-13)
Letter from Evacuee Police Force to Raymond Best, Director of Tule Lake Camp, requesting the release of Hiroyoshi Tsuda from the army stockades at Tule Lake Camp. Signed names: Kataoka, H.; Okusako, Thomas; Ogata, Roy K.; Miyamoto, H.; Tanaka, K.; Haruyama, N.; Yoshida, Maeko; Hanagata, Ken; Ayabe, Toshi S.; Ono, I; Kanno, Thomas K.; Sato, R.; ...
Tule Lake Center Diary, February 1944 (ddr-csujad-2-29)
doc Tule Lake Center Diary, February 1944 (ddr-csujad-2-29)
Daily diary for March, written by Co-ordinating Committee Secretary Byron Akitsuki at Tule Lake Camp. Primarily describes various unrest and incidents in different blocks, especially Ward 6. Also includes memos and messages sent, release of prisoners from army stockades, and committee member meetings. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: ...
Letter from Takiko Kozuma to Raymond Best, Director of Tule Lake Camp, February 17, 1944 (ddr-csujad-2-11)
doc Letter from Takiko Kozuma to Raymond Best, Director of Tule Lake Camp, February 17, 1944 (ddr-csujad-2-11)
Letter from Takiko Kozuma to Raymond Best, Director of Tule Lake Camp, requesting the release of her husband, Masaichi Kozuma, from the army stockades at Tule Lake Camp. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: sjs_sch_0011
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