Schools were quickly organized in the concentration camps, but they suffered from crude facilities and lack of teaching materials. Instruction was given for nursery through high school, and adult education was offered. Trained teachers were in short supply, however, and uncertified Japanese Americans with college degrees often filled in. The War Relocation Authority (WRA) deliberately emphasized Americanization in the education program. Some found it painfully ironic to watch incarcerated youth recite the Pledge of Allegiance.

World War II (66)
Concentration camps (618)
Education (949)

949 items
Teacher standing outside classroom barracks (ddr-manz-7-5)
img Teacher standing outside classroom barracks (ddr-manz-7-5)
Caption on reverse: "Martha Shoaf, Manzanar, outside classroom."
Teacher standing with students (ddr-manz-7-30)
img Teacher standing with students (ddr-manz-7-30)
Caption on reverse: "Eleanor Jones & Roy Tanaka."
Class photograph (ddr-manz-7-54)
img Class photograph (ddr-manz-7-54)
Caption on reverse: "Manzanar, Building C."