Education

Schools were quickly organized in the concentration camps, but they suffered from crude facilities and lack of teaching materials. Instruction was given for nursery through high school, and adult education was offered. Trained teachers were in short supply, however, and uncertified Japanese Americans with college degrees often filled in. The War Relocation Authority (WRA) deliberately emphasized Americanization in the education program. Some found it painfully ironic to watch incarcerated youth recite the Pledge of Allegiance.

World War II (215)
Concentration camps (1197)
Education (1423)

1423 items
High school recess (ddr-densho-93-40)
img High school recess (ddr-densho-93-40)
Original Ansel Adams caption: High school recess period, Manzanar Relocation Center, California / photograph by Ansel Adams.
Education Week sign (ddr-densho-93-52)
img Education Week sign (ddr-densho-93-52)
Original Ansel Adams caption: Education week sign / photograph by Ansel Adams.
Fashion design class (ddr-densho-93-32)
img Fashion design class (ddr-densho-93-32)
Original Ansel Adams caption: Mrs. Ryie Yoshizawa, teacher, fashion designing class, Manzanar Relocation Center, California / photograph by Ansel Adams.
Schoolchildren (ddr-densho-93-46)
img Schoolchildren (ddr-densho-93-46)
Original Ansel Adams caption: School children, Manzanar Relocation Center, California / photograph by Ansel Adams.
Flag ceremony (ddr-densho-113-14)
img Flag ceremony (ddr-densho-113-14)
These children are watching a flag ceremony near the elementary school in Minidoka concentration camp.
Schoolchildren (ddr-densho-118-12)
img Schoolchildren (ddr-densho-118-12)
In this photograph, the school crossing guards are in the front row. Joe Yasutake is in the front row, eleventh from right, wearing a striped shirt.
Cosmetology school students (ddr-manz-10-50)
img Cosmetology school students (ddr-manz-10-50)
Back row (L to R): Hideko Ohashi, Mary Kakoi, Amy Miyamoto, Sadaye Akemoto, Kazuko Nagai, Hideko Minabe, Tomi Isago, Katie Inouye, Diane Tani, Masako Kurokawa. Middle row (L to R): Lillian Uyemura, Mary Hirabara, Duchess Takeuchi, Dorothy Yamamoto, Riyoko Nakamura, Masako Matsuo, Marian Morita. Front row (L to R): Sets Motoike, Harumi Hino, Aiko Yamashina, Denise …
Three people wearing graduation camp and gowns (ddr-manz-10-136)
img Three people wearing graduation camp and gowns (ddr-manz-10-136)
Original caption: "Min Imai, me, Harry Kikuta, Merritt Gardens, 1944."
Campus Pepper, Vol. I, No. 4 (May 7, 1943) (ddr-manz-9-10)
doc Campus Pepper, Vol. I, No. 4 (May 7, 1943) (ddr-manz-9-10)
Published bi-weekly by the journalism class of Manzanar High School.
Senior class wills (ddr-manz-9-11)
doc Senior class wills (ddr-manz-9-11)
"Wills" written by the Manzanar High School class of 1945.
The Making of America (ddr-manz-9-13)
doc The Making of America (ddr-manz-9-13)
Program from a Manzanar Elementary school performance.
Quid Nunc, Vol. I, No. I (March 10, 1944) (ddr-manz-8-19)
doc Quid Nunc, Vol. I, No. I (March 10, 1944) (ddr-manz-8-19)
Published monthly by the Latin class of Manzanar High School.
Quid Nunc, Vol. I, No. III (May 1944) (ddr-manz-8-20)
doc Quid Nunc, Vol. I, No. III (May 1944) (ddr-manz-8-20)
Published monthly by the Latin class of Manzanar High School.
Our World (1944) (ddr-manz-8-26)
doc Our World (1944) (ddr-manz-8-26)
The 1944 yearbook for Manzanar High School. Signed by students of Mary Jean Kramer.
API