Education

Schools were quickly organized in the concentration camps, but they suffered from crude facilities and lack of teaching materials. Instruction was given for nursery through high school, and adult education was offered. Trained teachers were in short supply, however, and uncertified Japanese Americans with college degrees often filled in. The War Relocation Authority (WRA) deliberately emphasized Americanization in the education program. Some found it painfully ironic to watch incarcerated youth recite the Pledge of Allegiance.

World War II (216)
Concentration camps (1345)
Education (1428)

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1428 items
Embroidery class (ddr-densho-39-13)
img Embroidery class (ddr-densho-39-13)
Left to right: Mrs. Okita, Mrs. Torii, Mrs. Fukuda (teacher), Mrs. Matsuda, Mrs. Hamada, and Mrs. Iwashita.
High school students (ddr-densho-39-32)
img High school students (ddr-densho-39-32)
Original museum description: Photograph, black and white glossy, shows high school students at Minidoka internment camp at a table, four standing and three seated, probably at their high school from indications on the wall. (Info from original museum description)
Schoolchildren (ddr-densho-39-38)
img Schoolchildren (ddr-densho-39-38)
Original museum description: Photograph, black and white glossy of a scene in Minidoka, Idaho[,] internment camp showing school children marching or parading near the barracks. There are two women white teachers and another adult woman at the rear. Some of the children are carrying American flags, and the flagpole in the back is at half staff. …
Flag ceremony (ddr-densho-113-14)
img Flag ceremony (ddr-densho-113-14)
These children are watching a flag ceremony near the elementary school in Minidoka concentration camp.
Schoolchildren (ddr-densho-118-12)
img Schoolchildren (ddr-densho-118-12)
In this photograph, the school crossing guards are in the front row. Joe Yasutake is in the front row, eleventh from right, wearing a striped shirt.
Students in front of school building (ddr-densho-91-7)
img Students in front of school building (ddr-densho-91-7)
Back row, fourth from left is Emiko, a Japanese American Nisei, who volunteered to teach English. All the other students are Japanese Peruvians. Art Shibayama is in the front row, fourth from left.
High school recess (ddr-densho-93-40)
img High school recess (ddr-densho-93-40)
Original Ansel Adams caption: High school recess period, Manzanar Relocation Center, California / photograph by Ansel Adams.
Education Week sign (ddr-densho-93-52)
img Education Week sign (ddr-densho-93-52)
Original Ansel Adams caption: Education week sign / photograph by Ansel Adams.
Fashion design class (ddr-densho-93-32)
img Fashion design class (ddr-densho-93-32)
Original Ansel Adams caption: Mrs. Ryie Yoshizawa, teacher, fashion designing class, Manzanar Relocation Center, California / photograph by Ansel Adams.
Schoolchildren (ddr-densho-93-46)
img Schoolchildren (ddr-densho-93-46)
Original Ansel Adams caption: School children, Manzanar Relocation Center, California / photograph by Ansel Adams.
doc "Relocation Center" composition (ddr-densho-334-1)
May Okano Sakuma's composition reflecting on her time at Minidoka concentration camp.
Yukio Sewing Class Exhibition at Heart Mountain (ddr-densho-339-30)
img Yukio Sewing Class Exhibition at Heart Mountain (ddr-densho-339-30)
Caption on front: "Yukio Sewing Class Exhibition / Heart Mountain Wyoming, Nov. 24-25-26-1944."
Easter card from camp school (ddr-densho-321-94)
img Easter card from camp school (ddr-densho-321-94)
Group picture, captioned: "A very happy easter, From Lillie Wettengel."
Memo regarding ending public assistance grants to ministers (ddr-densho-356-918)
doc Memo regarding ending public assistance grants to ministers (ddr-densho-356-918)
Memo from John J. O. Moore to caseworkers to inform them of the reason to end public assistance grants to ministers, and scrutinize visit requests and grants for unemployment due to enrollment in Japanese Language School.
Letter to Yuri Domoto from Tomi Domoto (ddr-densho-356-300)
doc Letter to Yuri Domoto from Tomi Domoto (ddr-densho-356-300)
Letter to Yuriko Domoto Tsukada from her cousin Tomi Domoto in which discusses the first month at Jerome and general news about mutual friends. Item tied together with all objects between ddr-densho-356-277 and ddr-densho-356-320.
Amache Elementary School Handbook (ddr-densho-356-813)
doc Amache Elementary School Handbook (ddr-densho-356-813)
Amache Elementary School Handbook that lists faculty members, school curriculum and layout.
Nursery School list (ddr-densho-356-871)
doc Nursery School list (ddr-densho-356-871)
List of nursery school aged children, their address and head of household. Paper clipped together with ddr-densho-356-870 through 872.
Toy Loan Library (ddr-densho-342-4)
doc Toy Loan Library (ddr-densho-342-4)
Booklet describing the Manzanar Toy Loan Project organized by Ruth Beckwith, Senior Elementary Teacher.
A Barrack Becomes a Home (ddr-densho-342-5)
doc A Barrack Becomes a Home (ddr-densho-342-5)
Cooperative project in Homemaking by the students of the Home Economics and Woodshop Departments of the Manzanar Secondary School. Booklet prepared by Beatrice H. White, Home Economics Supervisor, Manzanar Secondary Schools. Some pages missing.
Education Section Summary (ddr-densho-342-8)
doc Education Section Summary (ddr-densho-342-8)
Report to Manzanar Project Director Ralph Merritt and his general staff meeting.
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