Education

Schools were quickly organized in the concentration camps, but they suffered from crude facilities and lack of teaching materials. Instruction was given for nursery through high school, and adult education was offered. Trained teachers were in short supply, however, and uncertified Japanese Americans with college degrees often filled in. The War Relocation Authority (WRA) deliberately emphasized Americanization in the education program. Some found it painfully ironic to watch incarcerated youth recite the Pledge of Allegiance.

World War II (66)
Concentration camps (618)
Education (949)

949 items
Embroidery class (ddr-densho-39-13)
img Embroidery class (ddr-densho-39-13)
Left to right: Mrs. Okita, Mrs. Torii, Mrs. Fukuda (teacher), Mrs. Matsuda, Mrs. Hamada, and Mrs. Iwashita.
Schoolchildren (ddr-densho-39-38)
img Schoolchildren (ddr-densho-39-38)
Original museum description: Photograph, black and white glossy of a scene in Minidoka, Idaho[,] internment camp showing school children marching or parading near the barracks. There are two women white teachers and another adult woman at the rear. Some of the children are carrying American flags, and the flagpole in the back is at half staff. …
High school students (ddr-densho-39-32)
img High school students (ddr-densho-39-32)
Original museum description: Photograph, black and white glossy, shows high school students at Minidoka internment camp at a table, four standing and three seated, probably at their high school from indications on the wall. (Info from original museum description)
Autograph book (ddr-densho-64-6)
doc Autograph book (ddr-densho-64-6)
Mako Nakagawa collected signatures from classmates and teachers when preparing to leave Crystal City internment camp, Texas.
Kindergarten class (ddr-densho-64-4)
img Kindergarten class (ddr-densho-64-4)
Mako Nakagawa is in the second row, third from left.
Students in front of school building (ddr-densho-91-7)
img Students in front of school building (ddr-densho-91-7)
Back row, fourth from left is Emiko, a Japanese American Nisei, who volunteered to teach English. All the other students are Japanese Peruvians. Art Shibayama is in the front row, fourth from left.
High school recess (ddr-densho-93-40)
img High school recess (ddr-densho-93-40)
Original Ansel Adams caption: High school recess period, Manzanar Relocation Center, California / photograph by Ansel Adams.
Education Week sign (ddr-densho-93-52)
img Education Week sign (ddr-densho-93-52)
Original Ansel Adams caption: Education week sign / photograph by Ansel Adams.
Fashion design class (ddr-densho-93-32)
img Fashion design class (ddr-densho-93-32)
Original Ansel Adams caption: Mrs. Ryie Yoshizawa, teacher, fashion designing class, Manzanar Relocation Center, California / photograph by Ansel Adams.
Schoolchildren (ddr-densho-93-46)
img Schoolchildren (ddr-densho-93-46)
Original Ansel Adams caption: School children, Manzanar Relocation Center, California / photograph by Ansel Adams.
Flag ceremony (ddr-densho-113-14)
img Flag ceremony (ddr-densho-113-14)
These children are watching a flag ceremony near the elementary school in Minidoka concentration camp.
Schoolchildren (ddr-densho-118-12)
img Schoolchildren (ddr-densho-118-12)
In this photograph, the school crossing guards are in the front row. Joe Yasutake is in the front row, eleventh from right, wearing a striped shirt.
Cosmetology school students (ddr-manz-10-50)
img Cosmetology school students (ddr-manz-10-50)
Back row (L to R): Hideko Ohashi, Mary Kakoi, Amy Miyamoto, Sadaye Akemoto, Kazuko Nagai, Hideko Minabe, Tomi Isago, Katie Inouye, Diane Tani, Masako Kurokawa. Middle row (L to R): Lillian Uyemura, Mary Hirabara, Duchess Takeuchi, Dorothy Yamamoto, Riyoko Nakamura, Masako Matsuo, Marian Morita. Front row (L to R): Sets Motoike, Harumi Hino, Aiko Yamashina, Denise …
Three people wearing graduation camp and gowns (ddr-manz-10-136)
img Three people wearing graduation camp and gowns (ddr-manz-10-136)
Original caption: "Min Imai, me, Harry Kikuta, Merritt Gardens, 1944."
Campus Pepper, Vol. I, No. 4 (May 7, 1943) (ddr-manz-9-10)
doc Campus Pepper, Vol. I, No. 4 (May 7, 1943) (ddr-manz-9-10)
Published bi-weekly by the journalism class of Manzanar High School.
Senior class wills (ddr-manz-9-11)
doc Senior class wills (ddr-manz-9-11)
"Wills" written by the Manzanar High School class of 1945.
API