Education

Schools were quickly organized in the concentration camps, but they suffered from crude facilities and lack of teaching materials. Instruction was given for nursery through high school, and adult education was offered. Trained teachers were in short supply, however, and uncertified Japanese Americans with college degrees often filled in. The War Relocation Authority (WRA) deliberately emphasized Americanization in the education program. Some found it painfully ironic to watch incarcerated youth recite the Pledge of Allegiance.

World War II (215)
Concentration camps (1197)
Education (1423)

1423 items
Chapter 12, 13, 14 personality cards (ddr-csujad-26-39)
doc Chapter 12, 13, 14 personality cards (ddr-csujad-26-39)
Journal entries written by high school students discussing their observations and perspectives on a variety of topics including graduation, the future, finishing high school rather than quitting to find work outside, types of work available, and course planning. Each entry includes the full date and student name. The entries were part of a class assignment and …
Two boys writing (ddr-csujad-26-92)
img Two boys writing (ddr-csujad-26-92)
Two young Japanese American boys doing schoolwork write in notebooks. A chalkboard is blurred in the background. From photo album of Robert Billigmeier. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: mei_05_029
Personality cards (ddr-csujad-26-43)
doc Personality cards (ddr-csujad-26-43)
Journal entries written by high school students discussing their observations and perspectives on a variety of topics including family interactions, memories, homesickness, friendships, social interactions, school, self-reflection, juvenile delinquency, peer behaviors, death, religion, opinions, and worldviews. Each entry includes the full date and student name. The entries were part of a class assignment and collected for …
Elementary school princesses (ddr-densho-20-3)
img Elementary school princesses (ddr-densho-20-3)
Elementary school princesses. Left to right: Unidentified, unidentified, Miyuki Hasegawa, Julie Hikida, Marianne Okawa, Haruko Nishimura, Kazuko Noji, Frank Sato, unidentified, Harumi Iwakiri.
Japanese American school class photograph (ddr-densho-26-93)
img Japanese American school class photograph (ddr-densho-26-93)
Minidoka school class photograph. Written on back "Mrs. Yanagiharu 7 cents April 1945"
Kindergarten school certificate (ddr-densho-34-132)
doc Kindergarten school certificate (ddr-densho-34-132)
As the opportunity arose for families to leave camp, the WRA issued certificates for the most recently completed grade to send to students' future schools. This certificate belonging to Frank Kitamoto was issued by the Stafford School at Minidoka concentration camp
Report card (ddr-densho-34-140)
doc Report card (ddr-densho-34-140)
The project school at the Minidoka concentration camp issued this report card to Frank Kitamoto for the school year 1944-45. He was in kindergarten.
Annual summary report from nursery school (ddr-densho-34-135)
doc Annual summary report from nursery school (ddr-densho-34-135)
The nursery school at Minidoka concentration camp issued annual summary reports for its students. This report is for Y. (Frank) Kitamoto.
Hunt High School students (ddr-densho-39-8)
img Hunt High School students (ddr-densho-39-8)
Original museum description: Photograph, black and white glossy of students at Hunt High School in Minidoka internment camp. Eight students- -four boys and four girls--are standing outside the school gymnasium books in hand. One of the female students is Rose (Suzuki) Obata in front right; another is Reiko Miura in front left, Tosh Mano is on …
Japanese American welding (ddr-densho-39-7)
img Japanese American welding (ddr-densho-39-7)
Original museum description: Photograph, black and white glossy taken at Minidoka internment camp. Shows man welding in a shop. Information attached to the back says it is an adult education class in welding. (Info from original museum description)
Embroidery class (ddr-densho-39-13)
img Embroidery class (ddr-densho-39-13)
Left to right: Mrs. Okita, Mrs. Torii, Mrs. Fukuda (teacher), Mrs. Matsuda, Mrs. Hamada, and Mrs. Iwashita.
Schoolchildren (ddr-densho-39-38)
img Schoolchildren (ddr-densho-39-38)
Original museum description: Photograph, black and white glossy of a scene in Minidoka, Idaho[,] internment camp showing school children marching or parading near the barracks. There are two women white teachers and another adult woman at the rear. Some of the children are carrying American flags, and the flagpole in the back is at half staff. …
High school students (ddr-densho-39-32)
img High school students (ddr-densho-39-32)
Original museum description: Photograph, black and white glossy, shows high school students at Minidoka internment camp at a table, four standing and three seated, probably at their high school from indications on the wall. (Info from original museum description)
Autograph book (ddr-densho-64-6)
doc Autograph book (ddr-densho-64-6)
Mako Nakagawa collected signatures from classmates and teachers when preparing to leave Crystal City internment camp, Texas.
Kindergarten class (ddr-densho-64-4)
img Kindergarten class (ddr-densho-64-4)
Mako Nakagawa is in the second row, third from left.
Students in front of school building (ddr-densho-91-7)
img Students in front of school building (ddr-densho-91-7)
Back row, fourth from left is Emiko, a Japanese American Nisei, who volunteered to teach English. All the other students are Japanese Peruvians. Art Shibayama is in the front row, fourth from left.
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