Education

Schools were quickly organized in the concentration camps, but they suffered from crude facilities and lack of teaching materials. Instruction was given for nursery through high school, and adult education was offered. Trained teachers were in short supply, however, and uncertified Japanese Americans with college degrees often filled in. The War Relocation Authority (WRA) deliberately emphasized Americanization in the education program. Some found it painfully ironic to watch incarcerated youth recite the Pledge of Allegiance.

World War II (231)
Concentration camps (1434)
Education (1448)

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1448 items
Spanish Club (ddr-csujad-44-33)
img Spanish Club (ddr-csujad-44-33)
A large group photograph of Nisei high school students incarcerated at Tule Lake, California posing in front of a barrack. They are presumably the members of Spanish Club. Two rows of men are standing behind a row of women and men seated in chairs. A young man is kneeling on the ground on each side of …
Sophomore Club (ddr-csujad-44-32)
img Sophomore Club (ddr-csujad-44-32)
A photograph of Nisei men and women incarcerated at Tule Lake, California. Four Nisei (three men and one woman) and one Caucasian woman are seated in a row of chairs outside a barrack. Photo inscription on back: "Sp. Club." See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: csumb_ms15_0032
Nisei men and women standing outside the school offices building (ddr-csujad-44-52)
img Nisei men and women standing outside the school offices building (ddr-csujad-44-52)
A photograph of two Nisei men and two Nisei women incarcerated at Tule Lake, California. They are standing outside a building and looking at each other as if in conversation. They are standing near the wooden posts that are supporting the building's overhanging roof. The door to the building is behind them. Above them is a …
Nisei female students with a teacher in front of barrack (ddr-csujad-44-39)
img Nisei female students with a teacher in front of barrack (ddr-csujad-44-39)
A group photograph of Nisei female students posing outside in front of a barrack at Tule Lake, California, with their teacher. Three of them, including a Caucasian teacher, are seated in chairs with the rest of them standing in a row behind them. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: …
Nisei women reading outside barrack (ddr-csujad-44-46)
img Nisei women reading outside barrack (ddr-csujad-44-46)
A photograph of three women seated outside a barrack at Tule Lake, California. They are sitting in wooden chairs and looking down at thin booklets they are holding in their laps. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: csumb_ms15_0046
Soph (ddr-csujad-44-27)
img Soph (ddr-csujad-44-27)
A large group photograph of young Nisei men and women incarcerated at Tule Lake, California, with their teacher. They are high school sophomores. The group is posing in three rows outside a barrack. The people in the back two rows are standing. The front row is seated in chairs. Photo inscription on back: "Soph." Title taken …
Group of Nisei 8th graders with a teacher outside a barrack (ddr-csujad-44-29)
img Group of Nisei 8th graders with a teacher outside a barrack (ddr-csujad-44-29)
A large group photograph of boys and girls who are 8th graders incarcerated at Tule Lake, California, with their teacher. The group of children is posing in three rows outside a barrack. The girls and boys in the back two rows are standing. The girls in the front row are seated in chairs. Their Caucasian teacher …
Soph Club (ddr-csujad-44-25)
img Soph Club (ddr-csujad-44-25)
A group photograph of Nisei men and women incarcerated at Tule Lake, California. They are sophomores at high school with their teacher. The group of eleven people is posing in two rows outside a barrack. The men and women in the back row are standing. The women in the front row are seated in chairs. Photo …
Frosh (ddr-csujad-44-22)
img Frosh (ddr-csujad-44-22)
A large group photograph of young Nisei men and women incarcerated at Tule Lake, California, with a teacher. They are high school frosh students. The group is posing in three rows outside a barrack. The people in the back two rows are standing. The front row is seated in chairs. Photo inscription on back: "Frosh." Title …
Nisei women working at desk in front of barrack (ddr-csujad-44-45)
img Nisei women working at desk in front of barrack (ddr-csujad-44-45)
A photograph of four Nisei women incarcerated at Tule Lake, California. They are all seated at one large desk in front of a barrack and looking down at books and papers on the desk in front of them. Two of them are writing with pens. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization …
Photograph at Heart Mountain (ddr-csujad-45-95)
img Photograph at Heart Mountain (ddr-csujad-45-95)
A facsimile of a photograph depicting life at Heart Mountain. In this photo two young children walk outside the barracks in the winter time. The annotation is transcribed from the back of the original photo which reads, "(Back) This is what some of the camp looks like. Row after row of tar-papered barracks. Burt West took …
Class photographs at Heart Mountain (ddr-csujad-45-96)
img Class photographs at Heart Mountain (ddr-csujad-45-96)
A facsimile of three group portraits of students and teachers at Heart Mountain. A transcribed annotation from the back of the top class portrait reads, "(Back) Grade 4 Heart Mountain in Background." A transcribed annotation from the back of the middle class portrait reads, "(Back) W.R.A. Ht. Mountain 1942-1943 Grade 4." A transcribed annotation from the …
Heart Mountain Relocation Project Fourth Community Council, 39th session (June 12, 1945) (ddr-csujad-45-33)
doc Heart Mountain Relocation Project Fourth Community Council, 39th session (June 12, 1945) (ddr-csujad-45-33)
The council minutes feature planning of a general meeting to discuss problems concerning the school problem within the camp. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: HMRC_01-01_062
Heart Mountain Relocation Project Fourth Community Council, 41st session (June 19, 1945) (ddr-csujad-45-36)
doc Heart Mountain Relocation Project Fourth Community Council, 41st session (June 19, 1945) (ddr-csujad-45-36)
The council minutes feature the decision on how to handle the school problem during summer vacation. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: HMRC_01-01_065
Heart Mountain Relocation Project Fourth Community Council, special session (June 11, 1945) (ddr-csujad-45-32)
doc Heart Mountain Relocation Project Fourth Community Council, special session (June 11, 1945) (ddr-csujad-45-32)
The council minutes feature the discussion on how to handle schooling problems for children remaining in the camp when the fall term begins. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: HMRC_01-01_061
Heart Mountain Relocation Project Fourth Community Council, 25th session (April 24, 1945) (ddr-csujad-45-27)
doc Heart Mountain Relocation Project Fourth Community Council, 25th session (April 24, 1945) (ddr-csujad-45-27)
The council minutes feature the motion to recommend at the All Center Conference that the camp's schools stay open while the camp is still open. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: HMRC_01-01_056
Photographs of Heart Mountain students grades 4 and 6 (ddr-csujad-45-94)
img Photographs of Heart Mountain students grades 4 and 6 (ddr-csujad-45-94)
A facsimile of three photographs of school children at Heart Mountain. An annotation for the top photograph of a classroom reads, "Grade 4 Ht. Mountain." A middle photo is another view of a classroom taken from the rear of the room. An annotation transcribed from the back of the bottom photo of six male children reads, …
Photograph of Elaine Clary Stanley at Manzanar (ddr-csujad-47-177)
img Photograph of Elaine Clary Stanley at Manzanar (ddr-csujad-47-177)
Photograph of Elaine Clary Stanley, a teacher at Manzanar, wearing a polka-dot dress at Manzanar incarceration camp. She is standing in front of one of the staff quarters with a fire extinguisher behind her left shoulder. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: ecm_merritt_0303
Photograph of Martha Shoaf in front of staff housing at Manzanar (ddr-csujad-47-178)
img Photograph of Martha Shoaf in front of staff housing at Manzanar (ddr-csujad-47-178)
Photograph of Martha Shoaf in front of staff housing at Manzanar incarceration camp. She is standing on front step next to a door. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: ecm_merritt_0304
Photograph of children at Manzanar standing next to a fence and in front of a barracks (ddr-csujad-47-81)
img Photograph of children at Manzanar standing next to a fence and in front of a barracks (ddr-csujad-47-81)
Photograph of approximately 20 children standing near a wooden fence in front of a barracks at Manzanar incarceration camp. The photograph is very grainy. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: ecm_merritt_0128
Photograph of Martha Shoaf in front of staff housing at Manzanar (ddr-csujad-47-173)
img Photograph of Martha Shoaf in front of staff housing at Manzanar (ddr-csujad-47-173)
Photograph of Martha Shoaf in front of staff housing at Manzanar incarceration camp. She is standing on the lawn next to a sapling. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: ecm_merritt_0299
Photograph of a group of women in front of staff housing (ddr-csujad-47-172)
img Photograph of a group of women in front of staff housing (ddr-csujad-47-172)
Photograph of the residents of the newly-constructed bachelorette dorms standing in the snow in front of staff housing at Manzanar incarceration camp. From left to right: Nona Winchester (secretary), Edith Cox (teacher), ____, Lena Harrison (teacher), Susan Shoaf (secretary), Martha Shoaf (teacher), Ione Bermaye (teacher), and Gretchen Ingalls (teacher). The snow-covered Inyo Mountains can be seen …
Photograph of Lucille Bouche in front of the Department of Education (ddr-csujad-47-168)
img Photograph of Lucille Bouche in front of the Department of Education (ddr-csujad-47-168)
Photograph of Lucille Smith Bouche and another standing in front of the Department of Education office at Manzanar incarceration camp. The sign next to the door reads, "Apt. 3." A chain and a lock is hanging on the door and there are wooden steps with a doormat in front. See this object in the California State …
Photograph of Clyde Simpson standing in front of barracks (ddr-csujad-47-169)
img Photograph of Clyde Simpson standing in front of barracks (ddr-csujad-47-169)
Photograph of Clyde Simpson holding a piece of paper in front of a barracks at Manzanar incarceration camp. A woman can be seen walking in the background, and a man is standing in the doorway. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: ecm_merritt_0295
Log of books checked out by students in period IV, taught by Harry Bentley Wells at Manzanar High School (ddr-csujad-48-123)
doc Log of books checked out by students in period IV, taught by Harry Bentley Wells at Manzanar High School (ddr-csujad-48-123)
Log of books checked out by thirty-six students in Period 4, taught by Harry Bentley Wells at Manzanar High School. One name has been crossed out. Transcription is found in item: ecm_wells_9932. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: ecm_wells_0932
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