Education

Schools were quickly organized in the concentration camps, but they suffered from crude facilities and lack of teaching materials. Instruction was given for nursery through high school, and adult education was offered. Trained teachers were in short supply, however, and uncertified Japanese Americans with college degrees often filled in. The War Relocation Authority (WRA) deliberately emphasized Americanization in the education program. Some found it painfully ironic to watch incarcerated youth recite the Pledge of Allegiance.

World War II (66)
Concentration camps (618)
Education (946)

946 items
Desert Sentinel, Volume I, No. 4, November 30, 1942 (ddr-csujad-17-5)
doc Desert Sentinel, Volume I, No. 4, November 30, 1942 (ddr-csujad-17-5)
School newspaper published at the Gila River incarceration camp. Features and topics include a new superintendent and the choice of "Desert Sentinel" as the name for the school paper; news of campus, sports, and social and holiday events, including the opening of the Butte High School library; items about classes, students and teachers, including a student …
College summer service in a relocation center (ddr-csujad-18-5)
doc College summer service in a relocation center (ddr-csujad-18-5)
Call for college students to meet a "desperate need" by serving as group work leaders supporting community activities, arts and recreation, church vacation Bible schools, and boys and girls clubs in either the Gila River or Manzanar Incarceration Camp; flier states that such service would provide the students with the opportunity to "serve significantly in these …
Invitation to freedom - A proposal for a program of liberal adult education (ddr-csujad-18-1)
doc Invitation to freedom - A proposal for a program of liberal adult education (ddr-csujad-18-1)
Detailed proposal for an "adult education system for the Japanese relocation project at Poston, Arizona"; the author credits the American Friends Service Committee for financial support for research and a trial of the plan. Sections of the report include "Background at Poston"; "Foreground of the Problem"; "The Great Books"; "The Seminar"; "The Schedule and Organization"; "The …
Student Relocation (ddr-csujad-19-72)
doc Student Relocation (ddr-csujad-19-72)
This article by Robert W. O'Brien discusses about the relocation of thousands of students in colleges throughout the United States to resume their studies, "a year after the mass evacuation of the West Coast Japanese American people into inland camps." See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: WRA_02-23_02
Manzanar From Inside Out (ddr-csujad-19-2)
doc Manzanar From Inside Out (ddr-csujad-19-2)
Text of address by Roy Nash, Director of the Manzanar War Relocation Project, given to the Commonwealth Club of California, San Francisco, on July 31, 1942 for the purpose of "interpret[ing] the actuality of a War Relocation Center housing 10,000 evacuees" in view of perceptions of mistreatment of incarcerees in California. Sections of the speech include …
Tule Lake monograph (ddr-csujad-26-1)
doc Tule Lake monograph (ddr-csujad-26-1)
Unpublished manuscript includes a collection of diary entries, letters, and essays written by school students incarcerated at the Tule Lake camp and collected through the Japanese American Evacuation and Resettlement Study (JERS). The writings include first-person descriptions of travel to the Tule Lake camp, adapting to camp, limitations of camp, day-to-day camp life, family life, community …
Personality cards (ddr-csujad-26-37)
doc Personality cards (ddr-csujad-26-37)
Journal entries written by high school students discussing their observations and perspectives on a variety of topics including classes, class discussions, grades, exams, homework and studying, school activities, graduation, social events, carnival fundraiser for yearbook, and complaints about school conditions. Each entry includes the full date and student name. The entries were part of a class …
Scatterbrain masterpieces: short stories, poetry, jokes, cartoons, carnival editions (ddr-csujad-26-45)
doc Scatterbrain masterpieces: short stories, poetry, jokes, cartoons, carnival editions (ddr-csujad-26-45)
Student created magazine consisting of several drawings, poems, and short stories including: "Spectacular flight" by Mary Furuta, "Nisei learns to smile again" by Teiko Hamaguchi, "Small but solid" by Sam Himoto, "Terrific teens" by Rose Hiraoka, "Too young" by Toshi Iwasaki, "Glamour ain't hay" by Helen Kanemasu, "Alone with brother" by Natalie Nakamura, "17 a boy" …
Chapter 12, 13, 14 personality cards (ddr-csujad-26-39)
doc Chapter 12, 13, 14 personality cards (ddr-csujad-26-39)
Journal entries written by high school students discussing their observations and perspectives on a variety of topics including graduation, the future, finishing high school rather than quitting to find work outside, types of work available, and course planning. Each entry includes the full date and student name. The entries were part of a class assignment and …
Two boys writing (ddr-csujad-26-92)
img Two boys writing (ddr-csujad-26-92)
Two young Japanese American boys doing schoolwork write in notebooks. A chalkboard is blurred in the background. From photo album of Robert Billigmeier. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: mei_05_029
Personality cards (ddr-csujad-26-43)
doc Personality cards (ddr-csujad-26-43)
Journal entries written by high school students discussing their observations and perspectives on a variety of topics including family interactions, memories, homesickness, friendships, social interactions, school, self-reflection, juvenile delinquency, peer behaviors, death, religion, opinions, and worldviews. Each entry includes the full date and student name. The entries were part of a class assignment and collected for …
An Oral History with Seiko Ishida (ddr-csujad-29-11)
av An Oral History with Seiko Ishida (ddr-csujad-29-11)
Retired Kibei teacher recounts samurai parents' background and their immigration to Seattle, Washington; socioeconomic composition of Seattle's Japanese community; earlier teacher training; prewar stays in Japan as a child and as a tutor in a missionary family; experiences as a teacher in the wartime resettlement in New York; and postwar return to Los Angeles. This oral …
Elementary school princesses (ddr-densho-20-3)
img Elementary school princesses (ddr-densho-20-3)
Elementary school princesses. Left to right: Unidentified, unidentified, Miyuki Hasegawa, Julie Hikida, Marianne Okawa, Haruko Nishimura, Kazuko Noji, Frank Sato, unidentified, Harumi Iwakiri.
Japanese American school class photograph (ddr-densho-26-93)
img Japanese American school class photograph (ddr-densho-26-93)
Minidoka school class photograph. Written on back "Mrs. Yanagiharu 7 cents April 1945"
Kindergarten school certificate (ddr-densho-34-132)
doc Kindergarten school certificate (ddr-densho-34-132)
As the opportunity arose for families to leave camp, the WRA issued certificates for the most recently completed grade to send to students' future schools. This certificate belonging to Frank Kitamoto was issued by the Stafford School at Minidoka concentration camp
Report card (ddr-densho-34-140)
doc Report card (ddr-densho-34-140)
The project school at the Minidoka concentration camp issued this report card to Frank Kitamoto for the school year 1944-45. He was in kindergarten.
Annual summary report from nursery school (ddr-densho-34-135)
doc Annual summary report from nursery school (ddr-densho-34-135)
The nursery school at Minidoka concentration camp issued annual summary reports for its students. This report is for Y. (Frank) Kitamoto.
Nursery school children singing
img Nursery school children singing "Twinkle, Twinkle, Little Star" (ddr-densho-37-166)
Original WRA caption: Nursery school children singing "Twinkle, Twinkle, Little Star."
Fourth-grade classroom (ddr-densho-37-470)
img Fourth-grade classroom (ddr-densho-37-470)
Original WRA caption: Rohwer Relocation Center, McGehee, Arkansas. Fourth Grade School in Barracks 3-4-B.
Nursery school (ddr-densho-37-560)
img Nursery school (ddr-densho-37-560)
Original WRA caption: Topaz, Utah. Central Utah Relocation Center. Nursery school.
Children playing on a seesaw (ddr-densho-37-603)
img Children playing on a seesaw (ddr-densho-37-603)
Original WRA caption: Gila River Relocation Center, Rivers, Arizona. Kindergarten and Nursery children having a grand time on the see-saw.
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