Education

Schools were quickly organized in the concentration camps, but they suffered from crude facilities and lack of teaching materials. Instruction was given for nursery through high school, and adult education was offered. Trained teachers were in short supply, however, and uncertified Japanese Americans with college degrees often filled in. The War Relocation Authority (WRA) deliberately emphasized Americanization in the education program. Some found it painfully ironic to watch incarcerated youth recite the Pledge of Allegiance.

World War II (231)
Concentration camps (1434)
Education (1448)

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1448 items
Memo from Harry L. Black, Assistant Project Director, to Willard E. Schmidt, Chief of Police, re: disorders in Block #54, June 2, 1944 (ddr-csujad-2-83)
doc Memo from Harry L. Black, Assistant Project Director, to Willard E. Schmidt, Chief of Police, re: disorders in Block #54, June 2, 1944 (ddr-csujad-2-83)
Discusses imprisonment in the stockade of 12 incarcerees and tension concerning the Japanese Language Schools and the schools in the camps, detailing what it terms "terrorist tactics" on the part of the Japanese Language School's proponents and concluding that the Project Director is justified in using the stockade for disciplinary purposes. The document also includes the …
Personality cards (ddr-csujad-26-37)
doc Personality cards (ddr-csujad-26-37)
Journal entries written by high school students discussing their observations and perspectives on a variety of topics including classes, class discussions, grades, exams, homework and studying, school activities, graduation, social events, carnival fundraiser for yearbook, and complaints about school conditions. Each entry includes the full date and student name. The entries were part of a class …
Tule Lake monograph (ddr-csujad-26-1)
doc Tule Lake monograph (ddr-csujad-26-1)
Unpublished manuscript includes a collection of diary entries, letters, and essays written by school students incarcerated at the Tule Lake camp and collected through the Japanese American Evacuation and Resettlement Study (JERS). The writings include first-person descriptions of travel to the Tule Lake camp, adapting to camp, limitations of camp, day-to-day camp life, family life, community …
Structural report, institutional adjustments, V: educational institutions (ddr-csujad-26-20)
doc Structural report, institutional adjustments, V: educational institutions (ddr-csujad-26-20)
Essay observing education levels, types of students, and establishment of education programs at Tule Lake for English speaking students. Includes descriptions of programs for various age groups including nursery, primary, secondary, adult education, college and the Student Relocation Council. Report compiled as a portion of the Japanese American Evacuation and Resettlement Study (JERS). See this object …
Scatterbrain masterpieces: short stories, poetry, jokes, cartoons, carnival editions (ddr-csujad-26-45)
doc Scatterbrain masterpieces: short stories, poetry, jokes, cartoons, carnival editions (ddr-csujad-26-45)
Student created magazine consisting of several drawings, poems, and short stories including: "Spectacular flight" by Mary Furuta, "Nisei learns to smile again" by Teiko Hamaguchi, "Small but solid" by Sam Himoto, "Terrific teens" by Rose Hiraoka, "Too young" by Toshi Iwasaki, "Glamour ain't hay" by Helen Kanemasu, "Alone with brother" by Natalie Nakamura, "17 a boy" …
Chapter 12, 13, 14 personality cards (ddr-csujad-26-39)
doc Chapter 12, 13, 14 personality cards (ddr-csujad-26-39)
Journal entries written by high school students discussing their observations and perspectives on a variety of topics including graduation, the future, finishing high school rather than quitting to find work outside, types of work available, and course planning. Each entry includes the full date and student name. The entries were part of a class assignment and …
Personality cards (ddr-csujad-26-38)
doc Personality cards (ddr-csujad-26-38)
Journal entries written by high school students discussing their observations and perspectives on a variety of topics including classes, class discussions, assignments, grades, exams, homework and studying, interclass sports, graduation, dances, and a carnival fundraiser for yearbook. Each entry includes the full date and student name. The entries were part of a class assignment and collected …
Two boys writing (ddr-csujad-26-92)
img Two boys writing (ddr-csujad-26-92)
Two young Japanese American boys doing schoolwork write in notebooks. A chalkboard is blurred in the background. From photo album of Robert Billigmeier. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: mei_05_029
Nursery school (ddr-csujad-26-97)
img Nursery school (ddr-csujad-26-97)
Children and teacher raising hands in a nursery school classroom. Caption on back of photograph reads, "Nursery school." From photo album of Robert Billigmeier. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: mei_05_034
Personality cards (ddr-csujad-26-43)
doc Personality cards (ddr-csujad-26-43)
Journal entries written by high school students discussing their observations and perspectives on a variety of topics including family interactions, memories, homesickness, friendships, social interactions, school, self-reflection, juvenile delinquency, peer behaviors, death, religion, opinions, and worldviews. Each entry includes the full date and student name. The entries were part of a class assignment and collected for …
School children as flowers (ddr-csujad-26-133)
img School children as flowers (ddr-csujad-26-133)
Large group of young children dressed in costume with flower petal headdresses in what appears to be a classroom. The children appear to be in a performance. From photo album of Robert Billigmeier. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: mei_05_103
High school English (ddr-csujad-26-85)
img High school English (ddr-csujad-26-85)
A crowded classroom filled with students taking notes. Caption on back of photograph reads, "High school English." From photo album of Robert Billigmeier. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: mei_05_022
Three small boys (ddr-csujad-26-137)
img Three small boys (ddr-csujad-26-137)
Photo of three small Japanese American boys who appear to be performing in a classroom. From photo album of Robert Billigmeier. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: mei_05_107
Evacuation and resettlement study, structural report, section II: the first six months at Tule Lake: social changes and a chronology of events (ddr-csujad-26-4)
doc Evacuation and resettlement study, structural report, section II: the first six months at Tule Lake: social changes and a chronology of events (ddr-csujad-26-4)
Report chronicling the first six months Tule Lake camp including the establishment of community activities, employment, schools, and barracks infrastructure. Describes challenges of adjusting to life in camp often using direct quotations from incarcerees to express struggles amid social and cultural groups as well as conflicts and strikes. Several events are also described including a description …
Chapter 11 personality cards (ddr-csujad-26-36)
doc Chapter 11 personality cards (ddr-csujad-26-36)
Journal entries written by high school students discussing their observations and perspectives on a variety of topic including a fundraising carnival, yearbooks, class subjects and discussions, sports, homework, books, and teachers. Each entry includes the full date and student name. The entries were collected as part of a class assignment and used for the Japanese American …
Toshio Oku photo album (ddr-csujad-3-22)
img Toshio Oku photo album (ddr-csujad-3-22)
Photo album is a collection of landscape and panoramic photos of Tule Lake incarceration camp, holiday greeting cards, photos of a fire, graduation portrait of Toshio Oku, group photo of the Electrical Department, and inside the print shop of the Newell Star. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: tos_01_001_023
Toshio Oku graduation photo (ddr-csujad-3-8)
img Toshio Oku graduation photo (ddr-csujad-3-8)
Portrait of Toshio Oku in what appears to be high school graduation cap and gown taken at Tule Lake. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: tos_01_001_008
Flag raising at Minidoka incarceration camp (ddr-csujad-32-26)
img Flag raising at Minidoka incarceration camp (ddr-csujad-32-26)
Group photograph of children watching a flag being raised at the Minidoka incarceration camp. Photo featured on page 12 of the Minidoka Incarceration Camp Photograph Album (csudh_ben_001). See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: ben_01_001_013_044
Group of women at Minidoka incarceration camp (ddr-csujad-32-11)
img Group of women at Minidoka incarceration camp (ddr-csujad-32-11)
Group photograph of women standing in front of Miss Queen's grade three classroom at the Minidoka incarceration camp. Photo featured on page 6 of the Minidoka Incarceration Camp Photograph Album (csudh_ben_001). See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: ben_01_001_007_020
Children in classroom (ddr-csujad-32-27)
img Children in classroom (ddr-csujad-32-27)
Photograph of children sitting at desks most likely in a classroom at the Minidoka incarceration camp. Photo featured on page 13 of the Minidoka Incarceration Camp Photograph Album (csudh_ben_001). See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: ben_01_001_014_045
Minidoka incarceration camp photograph album (ddr-csujad-32-1)
img Minidoka incarceration camp photograph album (ddr-csujad-32-1)
The photograph album contains 69 photographs from mostly the Minidoka incarceration camp. It may have been compiled by Lona Haug, vice-principal of the Blk 10 school at the Minidoka incarceration camp in 1943. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: ben_01_001
Children in classroom (ddr-csujad-32-24)
img Children in classroom (ddr-csujad-32-24)
Group photograph of children and two adults most likely in a classroom at the Minidoka incarceration camp. Photo featured on page 9 of the Minidoka Incarceration Camp Photograph Album (csudh_ben_001). See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: ben_01_001_010_035
Whutsit, vol. 1, no. 1 (May 20, 1943) (ddr-csujad-35-2)
doc Whutsit, vol. 1, no. 1 (May 20, 1943) (ddr-csujad-35-2)
An issue of a newspaper, "Whutsit" published by Poston I Junior High School. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: kuw_01_02_001
Poston High School auditorium (ddr-csujad-35-9)
img Poston High School auditorium (ddr-csujad-35-9)
A photograph of the auditorium of the Poston High School in the Poston camp. The hand written note on the back side reads: Poston High School, Arizona, built 1944. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: kuw_01_09_001
Kampus krier, vol. 3, no. 26 (May 4, 1945) (ddr-csujad-35-12)
doc Kampus krier, vol. 3, no. 26 (May 4, 1945) (ddr-csujad-35-12)
An issue of a newspaper, "Kampus krier" published by Poston I High School in Arizona. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: kuw_01_12_001
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