Concentration camps

The War Relocation Authority (WRA) oversaw construction of ten concentration camps in sparsely populated and isolated areas. Between June and October 1942, Japanese Americans were transferred from the "assembly centers" to the larger camps. Housing approximately 120,000 people, the camps were designed to be self-contained communities, complete with hospitals, post offices, schools, warehouses, and residential areas. The WRA attempted to establish normalcy by setting up newspapers, a degree of self-government, sports leagues, and social events. But confinement, monotony, and harsh conditions exacerbated tensions between pro- and anti-camp administration residents and between the disempowered Issei and their U.S.-born Nisei children. At several centers, conflicts erupted into violence and at the Manzanar concentration camp the unrest resulted in fatal shootings. The WRA gradually granted work and school leave to those they considered "loyal." The last camp closed in March 1946.

Concentration camps (302)

Related articles from the Densho Encyclopedia :
Concentration Camps, U.S.A. (book), Gila River, Heart Mountain, Jerome, Manzanar, Minidoka, Poston (Colorado River), Psychological effects of camp, Rohwer, Sites of incarceration, Topaz, Tule Lake

302 items
Manzanar Co-op (ddr-densho-361-14)
img Manzanar Co-op (ddr-densho-361-14)
"Statement of Patronage & Disposition of Refunds" for Nobuko Sakai.
Japanese American children and school teachers (ddr-densho-362-52)
img Japanese American children and school teachers (ddr-densho-362-52)
Group picture of 27 school children and 10 female teachers. Marie Coon is in the first row, 3rd child from the left.
Large group of men and women take a group photo in front of a camp building (ddr-densho-362-53)
img Large group of men and women take a group photo in front of a camp building (ddr-densho-362-53)
Large group of men, women, and children gathered together for a group photo in front of a camp building. A Japanese caption appears on the front of the photograph.
Painting (ddr-densho-371-1)
img Painting (ddr-densho-371-1)
A painting by Dick Sata of a concentration camp, most likely the Gila River camp.
Young Japanese American woman playing the piano (ddr-densho-362-26)
img Young Japanese American woman playing the piano (ddr-densho-362-26)
Picture of a young woman playing the piano with an inscription on the front and back of the picture. Inscription on the front of photo reads "Dearest Mich-chan, Sincerely, Mitsue Ushio". Inscription on the back of the photo reads June 9, 1945.
Young Japanese American woman in coat and skirt (ddr-densho-362-25)
img Young Japanese American woman in coat and skirt (ddr-densho-362-25)
Picture of a young woman standing in front of a window of a building wearing a coat and skirt.
Japanese American young man (ddr-densho-362-28)
img Japanese American young man (ddr-densho-362-28)
A young man dressed in a jacket, shirt, and jeans poses for the camera in front of barracks. A handwritten note on the front reads, " To Mr. and Mrs. Konishi" Signed by Jun Chan on 4/6/1942.
Group photo of two men, one woman, and a young girl in an open field (ddr-densho-362-36)
img Group photo of two men, one woman, and a young girl in an open field (ddr-densho-362-36)
Two men, one woman, and a young girl stand in a row for a group photo in an open field.
Group of Japanese American men, women, and children with coats and blankets (ddr-densho-362-32)
img Group of Japanese American men, women, and children with coats and blankets (ddr-densho-362-32)
Large group of men, women, and children dressed in coats and blankets, gather for a group picture in an open field.
Envelope and letter to Dr. Keizaburo
doc Envelope and letter to Dr. Keizaburo "Kei" Koyama from Teru Koyama (ddr-one-5-47)
Envelope addressed to Dr. Keizaburo Koyama at Camp Livingston from his wife, Teru Koyama, in Minidoka. Postmarked Mar 8, 1943. In red pencil “Mar 19,1943” is written next to the postmark. In the upper right corner “Internee of War/Free Mail” is written in black ink. Along the left edge of the envelope is clear ...
Envelope and letter to Dr. Keizaburo
doc Envelope and letter to Dr. Keizaburo "Kei" Koyama from William Koyama (ddr-one-5-39)
Envelope addressed to Dr. Keizaburo Koyama at Camp Livingston from his son William Koyama at Minidoka. Postmarked Oct 7, 1942. In red pencil “Oct. 10, 1942” is written below the postmark. On the front of the envelope is a purple stamp that reads “Censored/Camp Livingston/Interment Camp.” Inside is a letter, dated October 5, 1942 ...
Envelope and letter to Dr. Keizaburo
doc Envelope and letter to Dr. Keizaburo "Kei" Koyama from Teru Koyama (ddr-one-5-45)
Envelope addressed to Dr. Keizaburo Koyama at Camp Livingston from his wife, Teru Koyama, at Minidoka. Postmarked Dec 8, 1942. There is clear tape along the whole left edge. Japanese is written on the left side of the envelope. On the back of the envelope is a purple "RECEIVED" stamp with the date Jan 24, 1943 ...
Envelope and letter to Dr. Keizaburo
doc Envelope and letter to Dr. Keizaburo "Kei" Koyama from T. Sumi (ddr-one-5-74)
Envelope addressed to Dr. K. Koyama at the Santa Fe Detention Station from T. Sumi at Heart Mountain. It is postmarked on Dec 6, 1943. A tear is visible on the right side of the envelope below the stamp. Inside the envelope is a letter in Japanese dated December 4th. In the lower left corner is ...
Envelope and letter to Dr. Keizaburo
doc Envelope and letter to Dr. Keizaburo "Kei" Koyama from Teru Koyama (ddr-one-5-53)
Yellowed envelope addressed to Dr. Keizaburo Koyama in Camp Livingston from his wife, Teru Koyama, in Minidoka. Envelope is postmarked Apr 23, 1943, with “Internee of War/Free Mail” handwritten in the upper right corner. Written in red pencil is "5/4/43." Along the left edge of the envelope is clear tape with the number ...
Envelope and letter to Dr. Keizaburo
doc Envelope and letter to Dr. Keizaburo "Kei" Koyama from William Koyama (ddr-one-5-64)
Envelope addressed to Dr. Keizaburo Koyama in Santa Fe Detention Center from his son, William Koyama, at Minidoka. Envelope is postmarked August 3, 1943. In red pencil "8/10-43" is written above the receiver's information. The letter from William Koyama is yellowed and water-damaged. At the bottom of the letter is an "EXAMINED" stamp with ...
Envelope and letter to Dr. Keizaburo
doc Envelope and letter to Dr. Keizaburo "Kei" Koyama from Teru Koyama (ddr-one-5-14)
White air mail envelope with a red, white and blue border. The envelope is addressed to Dr. Keizaburo Koyama at Fort Sill from his wife, Teru Koyama, at the Portland Assembly Center. Postmarked May 25, 1942. On the left side of the envelope, written in pencil, is “Censored 5/31/42” with initials below. Inside the ...
Envelope and letter to Dr. Keizaburo
doc Envelope and letter to Dr. Keizaburo "Kei" Koyama from Teru Koyama (ddr-one-5-58)
Envelope addressed to Dr. Keizaburo Koyama at Santa Fe Dentention Station from his wife, Teru Koyama, at Minidoka. Postmarked Jun 22, 1943. In the upper center “6/28-43” is written in red pencil. Inside the envelope was a letter, in the center of the header is an "Examined" stamp. In the letter Teru writes about being ...
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 69, No. 13 (September 26,1969) (ddr-pc-41-39)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 69, No. 13 (September 26,1969) (ddr-pc-41-39)
Select article titles: "Future of Japanese Ethnic churches in L.A. studied" (p. 1); "Seattle Issei Complain Lack of Police Action(p.1); "40,000 witness Japan week's civic parade" (p. 3); "Concentration Camp" (p. 4).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 81, No. 22 (November 28, 1975) (ddr-pc-47-47)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 81, No. 22 (November 28, 1975) (ddr-pc-47-47)
Selected article titles: "PSWDC Grows Despite Problems" (p. 1), "From JACL Nat'l Headquarters Communication: Tule Lake Plaque Text Questioned" (p. 1), "Sequel Planned for 1949 Book on Wartime Student Relocation" (p. 1), and "Minority One: Years of Infamy" (p. 2).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 81, No. 10 (September 5, 1975) (ddr-pc-47-35)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 81, No. 10 (September 5, 1975) (ddr-pc-47-35)
Selected article titles: "Rice Bill Seeks Lower Prices" (p. 1), "Gila River Camp High School Grads Hold 30-Year Reunion, Eye 1980 Meet" (p. 1), "Potshots: Hard Working Chapters" (p. 2), and "Plain Speaking: Reparations Campaign" (p. 3).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 81, No. 15 (October 10, 1975) (ddr-pc-47-40)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 81, No. 15 (October 10, 1975) (ddr-pc-47-40)
Selected article titles: "MDC Reparations Survey" (pp. 1, 3), "Sen. Inouye Explains Final Lesson to Be Learned from Watergate Trauma" (p. 1), "Editorials: A Battered Manzanar Plaque" (p. 2), and "Ye Editor's Desk: Other Thoughts on the Visit" (p. 2).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 105, No. 18 (November 27, 1987) (ddr-pc-59-43)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 105, No. 18 (November 27, 1987) (ddr-pc-59-43)
Selected article titles: "Intermountain JACL Supports Minidoka Project" (pp. 1, 8), "LEC Update: S.1009 and the White House" (pp. 1, 5, 8), "Redress Also Finds Support of French" (p. 5), and "An Accumulated Sadness of 45 Years Lies Buried" (pp. 6-7).
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