Concentration camps

The War Relocation Authority (WRA) oversaw construction of ten concentration camps in sparsely populated and isolated areas. Between June and October 1942, Japanese Americans were transferred from the "assembly centers" to the larger camps. Housing approximately 120,000 people, the camps were designed to be self-contained communities, complete with hospitals, post offices, schools, warehouses, and residential areas. The WRA attempted to establish normalcy by setting up newspapers, a degree of self-government, sports leagues, and social events. But confinement, monotony, and harsh conditions exacerbated tensions between pro- and anti-camp administration residents and between the disempowered Issei and their U.S.-born Nisei children. At several centers, conflicts erupted into violence and at the Manzanar concentration camp the unrest resulted in fatal shootings. The WRA gradually granted work and school leave to those they considered "loyal." The last camp closed in March 1946.

Concentration camps (299)

Related articles from the Densho Encyclopedia :
Concentration Camps, U.S.A. (book), Gila River, Heart Mountain, Jerome, Manzanar, Minidoka, Poston (Colorado River), Psychological effects of camp, Rohwer, Sites of incarceration, Topaz, Tule Lake

299 items
Letter (with envelope) to Molly Wilson from Chiyeko Akahoshi (August 14, 1943) (ddr-janm-1-106)
doc Letter (with envelope) to Molly Wilson from Chiyeko Akahoshi (August 14, 1943) (ddr-janm-1-106)
Handwritten letter to Molly Wilson from Chiyeko Akahoshi (August 14, 1943). Envelope is postmarked August 17, 1943 from the Manzanar Incarceration Camp in Manzanar, California.
Letter (with envelope) to Mollie Wilson from Miyeko Imamura (August 31, 1943) (ddr-janm-1-17)
doc Letter (with envelope) to Mollie Wilson from Miyeko Imamura (August 31, 1943) (ddr-janm-1-17)
Handwritten letter to Mollie Wilson from Miyeko Imamura (August 31, 1943). Envelope is postmarked September 11, 1943 from the Heart Mountain Incarceration Camp in Cody, Wyoming.
Letter (with envelope) to Molly Wilson from Yuri Shimokochi (c. 1943) (ddr-janm-1-58)
doc Letter (with envelope) to Molly Wilson from Yuri Shimokochi (c. 1943) (ddr-janm-1-58)
Handwritten letter to Molly Wilson from Yuri Shimokochi (c. 1943) from the Heart Mountain Incarceration Camp in Cody, Wyoming.
Letter (with envelope) to Molly Wilson from Sadae (Lillian) Nishioka (June 8, 1942) (ddr-janm-1-94)
doc Letter (with envelope) to Molly Wilson from Sadae (Lillian) Nishioka (June 8, 1942) (ddr-janm-1-94)
Handwritten letter to Molly Wilson from Sadae (Lillian) Nishioka (June 8, 1942). Envelope is postmarked June 11, 1942 and addressed from Lillian Nishioka from the Poston (Colorado River) Incarceration Camp in Parker, Arizona.
Letter (with envelope) to Molly Wilson from Chiyeko Akahoshi (December 25, 1944) (ddr-janm-1-115)
doc Letter (with envelope) to Molly Wilson from Chiyeko Akahoshi (December 25, 1944) (ddr-janm-1-115)
Handwritten letter to Mollie Wilson from Chiyeko Akahoshi (December 25, 1944). Envelope is postmarked December 26, 1944 from the Manzanar Incarceration Camp in Manzanar, California.
Valentine's Day card (with envelope) to Molly Wilson from Sandie Saito (February 1943) (ddr-janm-1-14)
doc Valentine's Day card (with envelope) to Molly Wilson from Sandie Saito (February 1943) (ddr-janm-1-14)
Valentine's Day card to Molly Wilson from Sandie Saito (February 1943). White/blue card with illustration in blue/red of two singing blue birds with a treble musical scale and red heart in the background. "A valentine message for you" is on the top center on front of card. Envelope is postmarked February 1943 from ...
Letter to Mollie Wilson from Sadae (Lillian) Nishioka (c. 1942) (ddr-janm-1-95)
doc Letter to Mollie Wilson from Sadae (Lillian) Nishioka (c. 1942) (ddr-janm-1-95)
Handwritten letter to Mollie Wilson from Sadae (Lillian) Nishioka (c. 1942) from the Poston (Colorado River) Incarceration Camp in Parker, Arizona.
Letter (with envelope) to Molly Wilson from Sandie Saito (July 17, 1943) (ddr-janm-1-16)
doc Letter (with envelope) to Molly Wilson from Sandie Saito (July 17, 1943) (ddr-janm-1-16)
Handwritten letter to Molly Wilson from Sandie Saito (July 17, 1943). Envelope (addressed "The 'Flea' ") is postmarked July 19, 1943 from the Granada (Amache) Incarceration Camp in Amache, Colorado.
Envelope and letter to Dr. Keizaburo
doc Envelope and letter to Dr. Keizaburo "Kei" Koyama from Teru Koyama (ddr-one-5-14)
White air mail envelope with a red, white and blue border. The envelope is addressed to Dr. Keizaburo Koyama at Fort Sill from his wife, Teru Koyama, at the Portland Assembly Center. Postmarked May 25, 1942. On the left side of the envelope, written in pencil, is “Censored 5/31/42” with initials below. Inside the ...
Envelope and letter to Dr. Keizaburo
doc Envelope and letter to Dr. Keizaburo "Kei" Koyama from Teru Koyama (ddr-one-5-58)
Envelope addressed to Dr. Keizaburo Koyama at Santa Fe Dentention Station from his wife, Teru Koyama, at Minidoka. Postmarked Jun 22, 1943. In the upper center “6/28-43” is written in red pencil. Inside the envelope was a letter, in the center of the header is an "Examined" stamp. In the letter Teru writes about being ...
Envelope and letter to Dr. Keizaburo
doc Envelope and letter to Dr. Keizaburo "Kei" Koyama from T. Sumi (ddr-one-5-74)
Envelope addressed to Dr. K. Koyama at the Santa Fe Detention Station from T. Sumi at Heart Mountain. It is postmarked on Dec 6, 1943. A tear is visible on the right side of the envelope below the stamp. Inside the envelope is a letter in Japanese dated December 4th. In the lower left corner is ...
Envelope and letter to Dr. Keizaburo
doc Envelope and letter to Dr. Keizaburo "Kei" Koyama from Teru Koyama (ddr-one-5-53)
Yellowed envelope addressed to Dr. Keizaburo Koyama in Camp Livingston from his wife, Teru Koyama, in Minidoka. Envelope is postmarked Apr 23, 1943, with “Internee of War/Free Mail” handwritten in the upper right corner. Written in red pencil is "5/4/43." Along the left edge of the envelope is clear tape with the number ...
Envelope and letter to Dr. Keizaburo
doc Envelope and letter to Dr. Keizaburo "Kei" Koyama from William Koyama (ddr-one-5-64)
Envelope addressed to Dr. Keizaburo Koyama in Santa Fe Detention Center from his son, William Koyama, at Minidoka. Envelope is postmarked August 3, 1943. In red pencil "8/10-43" is written above the receiver's information. The letter from William Koyama is yellowed and water-damaged. At the bottom of the letter is an "EXAMINED" stamp with ...
Envelope and letter to Dr. Keizaburo
doc Envelope and letter to Dr. Keizaburo "Kei" Koyama from Teru Koyama (ddr-one-5-47)
Envelope addressed to Dr. Keizaburo Koyama at Camp Livingston from his wife, Teru Koyama, in Minidoka. Postmarked Mar 8, 1943. In red pencil “Mar 19,1943” is written next to the postmark. In the upper right corner “Internee of War/Free Mail” is written in black ink. Along the left edge of the envelope is clear ...
Envelope and letter to Dr. Keizaburo
doc Envelope and letter to Dr. Keizaburo "Kei" Koyama from William Koyama (ddr-one-5-39)
Envelope addressed to Dr. Keizaburo Koyama at Camp Livingston from his son William Koyama at Minidoka. Postmarked Oct 7, 1942. In red pencil “Oct. 10, 1942” is written below the postmark. On the front of the envelope is a purple stamp that reads “Censored/Camp Livingston/Interment Camp.” Inside is a letter, dated October 5, 1942 ...
Envelope and letter to Dr. Keizaburo
doc Envelope and letter to Dr. Keizaburo "Kei" Koyama from Teru Koyama (ddr-one-5-45)
Envelope addressed to Dr. Keizaburo Koyama at Camp Livingston from his wife, Teru Koyama, at Minidoka. Postmarked Dec 8, 1942. There is clear tape along the whole left edge. Japanese is written on the left side of the envelope. On the back of the envelope is a purple "RECEIVED" stamp with the date Jan 24, 1943 ...
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 52, No. 21 (May 26, 1961) (ddr-pc-33-21)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 52, No. 21 (May 26, 1961) (ddr-pc-33-21)
Selected article titles: "Washington Newsletter: Shame of Our Nation" (p. 1), "Rowher WRA Cemetery May Become Nat'l Shrine Maintained by Nat'l Park Service" (p. 1), "Prejudice and Hawaiian Dialect" (p. 2), and "Nisei Psychologist Granted $62,000 to Study Rise of Japanese American Delinquency" (p. 3).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 78, No. 19 (May 17, 1974) (ddr-pc-46-19)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 78, No. 19 (May 17, 1974) (ddr-pc-46-19)
Selected article titles: "Changed to 'JAN': USAF Drops 'JAP'" (p. 1), "Japan-U.S. Friendship Act Under Study" (pp. 1-2), "Tule Lake Designated Historical Landmark" (pp. 1, 6), and "A Grandfather's Hope for Children of Intermarriage" (pp. 2, 5).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 83, No. 16 (October 15, 1976) (ddr-pc-48-41)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 83, No. 16 (October 15, 1976) (ddr-pc-48-41)
Selected article titles: "Canadian Nikkei Prepare for Issei Centennial Year" (pp. 1, 4), "Museum to Display Evacuation Camp Art and Crafts" (p. 1), "Editorial: Topaz: 1942-1946" (p. 2), and "National Constitution Japanese American Citizens League" (pp. 5-6).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 107, No. 2 (July 22-29, 1988) (ddr-pc-60-27)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 107, No. 2 (July 22-29, 1988) (ddr-pc-60-27)
Selected article titles: "Masaoka Warns Resolution Endangers Redress Program" (pp. 1, 10), "Candlelit Lantern Floats, Buddhist-Christian Services to Remember Hibakusha of Hiroshima-Nagasaki" (p. 3), "National JACL Constitution / Bylaws" (pp. 7-10), and "Former Renunciant Charges WW2 Scientist with Defamation" (p. 13).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 53, No. 17 (October 27, 1961) (ddr-pc-33-43)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 53, No. 17 (October 27, 1961) (ddr-pc-33-43)
Selected article titles: "Canada Leader Defends Wartime Nisei Evacuation" (p. 1), "National Park Status for Rohwer Asked" (p. 1), "Washington Newsletter: Freedom in Employment" (p. 1), and "Issei Story Project: Who, What, Why, How?" (p. 4).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 81, No. 2 (July 11, 1975) (ddr-pc-47-27)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 81, No. 2 (July 11, 1975) (ddr-pc-47-27)
Selected article titles: "JACL--Headquarters Dedication: Two-Year Wait Ends July 20" (pp. 1, 3), "Stricter Whaling Quotas Adopted by International Body" (pp. 1-2), "JACL--Special Board Meeting: JACL Initiates Audit of Gerontology Project" (pp. 1-2), and "An Acre at Topaz Fenced and Cleared" (p. 3).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 81, No. 14 (October 3, 1975) (ddr-pc-47-39)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 81, No. 14 (October 3, 1975) (ddr-pc-47-39)
Selected article titles: "Nisei Farm Problems Aired" (p. 1), "Nikkei Back at Poston for Look" (pp. 1-2), "Manzanar Plaque Found Defaced" (p. 1), and "From the Frying Pan: John Dean on Redress" (p. 2).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 81, No. 9 (August 29, 1975) (ddr-pc-47-34)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 81, No. 9 (August 29, 1975) (ddr-pc-47-34)
Selected article titles: "JACL--National Travel Program: 11 Charter Flights to Japan Being Planned for 1976" (p. 1), "JACL Weak Points Viewed" (pp. 1, 4), "1975 Nisei Week Queen and Court" (p. 4), and "Poston: As It Looked in '69" (p. 5).
Group photograph at the Tule Lake 2nd Annual Conference (ddr-densho-300-7)
img Group photograph at the Tule Lake 2nd Annual Conference (ddr-densho-300-7)
Caption on reverse: "Tule Lake Second Annual Conference. Newell, California. April 3-4, 1943. Chairman - Kumeo [?] Yoshinori."
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