Concentration camps

The War Relocation Authority (WRA) oversaw construction of ten concentration camps in sparsely populated and isolated areas. Between June and October 1942, Japanese Americans were transferred from the "assembly centers" to the larger camps. Housing approximately 120,000 people, the camps were designed to be self-contained communities, complete with hospitals, post offices, schools, warehouses, and residential areas. The WRA attempted to establish normalcy by setting up newspapers, a degree of self-government, sports leagues, and social events. But confinement, monotony, and harsh conditions exacerbated tensions between pro- and anti-camp administration residents and between the disempowered Issei and their U.S.-born Nisei children. At several centers, conflicts erupted into violence and at the Manzanar concentration camp the unrest resulted in fatal shootings. The WRA gradually granted work and school leave to those they considered "loyal." The last camp closed in March 1946.

Concentration camps (299)

Related articles from the Densho Encyclopedia :
Concentration Camps, U.S.A. (book), Gila River, Heart Mountain, Jerome, Manzanar, Minidoka, Poston (Colorado River), Psychological effects of camp, Rohwer, Sites of incarceration, Topaz, Tule Lake

299 items
Two men, two women, and a girl with stuffed bunny (ddr-densho-362-56)
img Two men, two women, and a girl with stuffed bunny (ddr-densho-362-56)
Two men, two women and a little girl holding a stuffed bunny gather together for a group shot. Camp cabins are in the background.
Japanese American woman and three children sit on barracks steps (ddr-densho-362-11)
img Japanese American woman and three children sit on barracks steps (ddr-densho-362-11)
One woman and three children (two boys and one girl) sit together on barracks steps. Tom Konishi is seated in the front of the group.
Three Japanese American girls group picture at railroad crossing (ddr-densho-362-41)
img Three Japanese American girls group picture at railroad crossing (ddr-densho-362-41)
Three girls pose near a railroad crossing. An open field and a mountain are in the background.
Envelope and letters to Dr. Keizaburo
doc Envelope and letters to Dr. Keizaburo "Kei" Koyama from Teru Koyama and Miriam Koyama (ddr-one-5-37)
Envelope addressed to Dr. Keizaburo Koyama at Camp Livingston from his wife, Teru Koyama, and daughter, Miriam Kiyo Koyama. Postmarked October 6, 1942. To the left of the postmark “Oct 11, 1942,” is written in red pencil. On the left side of the envelope is a purple "Censored" stamp from Camp Livingston. Inside the envelope are ...
Envelope and letter to Dr. Keizaburo
doc Envelope and letter to Dr. Keizaburo "Kei" Koyama from Miriam Kiyo Koyama (ddr-one-5-52)
Envelope addressed to Dr. Keizaburo Koyama at Camp Livingston from his daughter, Miriam Kiyo Koyama, at Minidoka. In place of postage “Internee of War/Free Mail” is written in the upper right hand corner. Postmarked Apr. 18, 1943. In the upper center of the envelope “4/30-43” is written in red pencil. Along the left edge ...
Envelope and letters to Dr. Keizaburo
doc Envelope and letters to Dr. Keizaburo "Kei" Koyama from Miriam Kiyo Koyama and William Koyama (ddr-one-5-28)
Envelope addressed to Dr. Keizaburo Koyama at Camp Livingston from his children, William Koyama and Miriam Kiyo Koyama, at Minidoka. Postmarked Sep 11, 1942. To the left of the postmark “Sept 14, 42” is written in red pencil. On the left side of the envelope is a purple "Censored" stamp. Inside the envelope are two letters ...
Letter to Dr. Keizaburo
doc Letter to Dr. Keizaburo "Kei" Koyama from Lois (ddr-one-5-48)
Seven page letter to Kei Koyama from Lois at Minidoka dated March 8, 1943. The pages are thin and have water damage. The letter talks about religion (Buddhism and Christianity), the different between Nisei and Kibei, and many other topics about daily life at Minidoka.
Letter to Dr. Keizaburo
doc Letter to Dr. Keizaburo "Kei" Koyama from Eva Koyama (ddr-one-5-38)
Letter dated Oct 5, 1942, to Keizaburo "Kei" Koyama from his daughter, Eva Koyama. In the letter Eva writes about life at Minidoka: Shin came to visit, school is starting soon, Mr. Mita's funeral, lunch, and Girl Scouts. Eva sends her regards to Dr. Tanaka and Mr. Ikeya.
Envelope and letter to Dr. Dr. Keizaburo
doc Envelope and letter to Dr. Dr. Keizaburo "Kei" Koyama from Teru Koyama (ddr-one-5-71)
Envelope addressed to Dr. Keizaburo Koyama at Santa Fe Detention Station from his wife, Teru Koyama, at Minidoka. Postmarked Sep 13, 1943. In place of postage, “Internee of War/Free Mail” is written in the upper right corner. Along the top “9/20-43” is written in red pencil. Inside the envelope is a letter dated Sept ...
Letter to Dr. Keizaburo
doc Letter to Dr. Keizaburo "Kei" Koyama from Teru Koyama (ddr-one-5-69)
Letter to Keizaburo "Kei" Koyama from his wife, Teru Koyama, dated Sept. 1, 1943. In the upper left corner is an "EXAMINED" stamp. The letter is brown and has a water stain along the right side. In the letter Teru updates Kei on their friends' situations in Minidoka: several had children leave for jobs outside or ...
Postcard to Dr. Keizaburo
doc Postcard to Dr. Keizaburo "Kei" Koyama from Teru Koyama (ddr-one-5-56)
One cent postcard addressed to Dr. Keizaburo Koyama at Santa Fe Detention Station from his wife, Teru Koyama, at Minidoka. Postmarked Jun 15, 1943. To the left of the postmark “6/21/43” is written in red pencil. In the lower left corner is an upside down "Examined" stamp. The back of the postcard is dated ...
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 69, No. 13 (September 26,1969) (ddr-pc-41-39)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 69, No. 13 (September 26,1969) (ddr-pc-41-39)
Select article titles: "Future of Japanese Ethnic churches in L.A. studied" (p. 1); "Seattle Issei Complain Lack of Police Action(p.1); "40,000 witness Japan week's civic parade" (p. 3); "Concentration Camp" (p. 4).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 81, No. 22 (November 28, 1975) (ddr-pc-47-47)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 81, No. 22 (November 28, 1975) (ddr-pc-47-47)
Selected article titles: "PSWDC Grows Despite Problems" (p. 1), "From JACL Nat'l Headquarters Communication: Tule Lake Plaque Text Questioned" (p. 1), "Sequel Planned for 1949 Book on Wartime Student Relocation" (p. 1), and "Minority One: Years of Infamy" (p. 2).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 81, No. 10 (September 5, 1975) (ddr-pc-47-35)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 81, No. 10 (September 5, 1975) (ddr-pc-47-35)
Selected article titles: "Rice Bill Seeks Lower Prices" (p. 1), "Gila River Camp High School Grads Hold 30-Year Reunion, Eye 1980 Meet" (p. 1), "Potshots: Hard Working Chapters" (p. 2), and "Plain Speaking: Reparations Campaign" (p. 3).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 81, No. 15 (October 10, 1975) (ddr-pc-47-40)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 81, No. 15 (October 10, 1975) (ddr-pc-47-40)
Selected article titles: "MDC Reparations Survey" (pp. 1, 3), "Sen. Inouye Explains Final Lesson to Be Learned from Watergate Trauma" (p. 1), "Editorials: A Battered Manzanar Plaque" (p. 2), and "Ye Editor's Desk: Other Thoughts on the Visit" (p. 2).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 105, No. 18 (November 27, 1987) (ddr-pc-59-43)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 105, No. 18 (November 27, 1987) (ddr-pc-59-43)
Selected article titles: "Intermountain JACL Supports Minidoka Project" (pp. 1, 8), "LEC Update: S.1009 and the White House" (pp. 1, 5, 8), "Redress Also Finds Support of French" (p. 5), and "An Accumulated Sadness of 45 Years Lies Buried" (pp. 6-7).
Letter (with envelope) to Molly Wilson from Mary Murakami (July 27, 1942) (ddr-janm-1-31)
doc Letter (with envelope) to Molly Wilson from Mary Murakami (July 27, 1942) (ddr-janm-1-31)
Handwritten letter to Molly Wilson from Mary Murakami (July 27, 1942). Envelope is postmarked July 27, 1942 from the Poston (Colorado River) Incarceration Camp in Parker, Arizona.
Photograph of Violet Saito (ddr-janm-1-128)
img Photograph of Violet Saito (ddr-janm-1-128)
Black and white image of Violet Saito. She has curly hair and is wearing a dress with bow ties on it and flowers pinned to it. She is standing outside in front of a house. Written on the photograph is: "Dearest Mollie. Love, Violet '43" and written on the back is: "June 24, 1943. Graduation day."
Letter (with envelope) to Molly Wilson from Sandie Saito (November 15, 1942) (ddr-janm-1-13)
doc Letter (with envelope) to Molly Wilson from Sandie Saito (November 15, 1942) (ddr-janm-1-13)
Handwritten letter to Molly Wilson from Sandie Saito (November 15, 1942). Envelope is postmarked November 18, 1942 from the Granada (Amache) Incarceration Camp in Amache, Colorado.
Postcard to Molly Wilson from Sandie Saito (September 28, 1942) (ddr-janm-1-11)
doc Postcard to Molly Wilson from Sandie Saito (September 28, 1942) (ddr-janm-1-11)
Postcard to Molly Wilson from Sandie Saito (September 28, 1942). It is postmarked October 1, 1942 from the Granada (Amache) Incarceration Camp in Amache, Colorado.
Graduation announcement (with envelope) to Molly Wilson from Chiyeko Akahoshi (June 13, 1944) (ddr-janm-1-112)
doc Graduation announcement (with envelope) to Molly Wilson from Chiyeko Akahoshi (June 13, 1944) (ddr-janm-1-112)
Manzanar High School graduation announcement from to Molly Wilson from Chiyeko Akahoshi (June 13, 1944). White card with illustration in bronze of the profile view of two graduates. Envelope is postmarked June 13, 1944 from the Manzanar Incarceration Camp in Manzanar, California.
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