Concentration camps

The War Relocation Authority (WRA) oversaw construction of ten concentration camps in sparsely populated and isolated areas. Between June and October 1942, Japanese Americans were transferred from the "assembly centers" to the larger camps. Housing approximately 120,000 people, the camps were designed to be self-contained communities, complete with hospitals, post offices, schools, warehouses, and residential areas. The WRA attempted to establish normalcy by setting up newspapers, a degree of self-government, sports leagues, and social events. But confinement, monotony, and harsh conditions exacerbated tensions between pro- and anti-camp administration residents and between the disempowered Issei and their U.S.-born Nisei children. At several centers, conflicts erupted into violence and at the Manzanar concentration camp the unrest resulted in fatal shootings. The WRA gradually granted work and school leave to those they considered "loyal." The last camp closed in March 1946.

Concentration camps (300)

Related articles from the Densho Encyclopedia :
Concentration Camps, U.S.A. (book), Gila River, Heart Mountain, Jerome, Manzanar, Minidoka, Poston (Colorado River), Psychological effects of camp, Rohwer, Sites of incarceration, Topaz, Tule Lake

300 items
Japanese American girl toddler sitting on the ground (ddr-densho-362-50)
img Japanese American girl toddler sitting on the ground (ddr-densho-362-50)
A girl toddler with pigtails sits on the ground with her legs in front and both hands on the ground. An open field is in the background.
Two men, two women, and a girl with stuffed bunny (ddr-densho-362-56)
img Two men, two women, and a girl with stuffed bunny (ddr-densho-362-56)
Two men, two women and a little girl holding a stuffed bunny gather together for a group shot. Camp cabins are in the background.
Japanese American woman and three children sit on barracks steps (ddr-densho-362-11)
img Japanese American woman and three children sit on barracks steps (ddr-densho-362-11)
One woman and three children (two boys and one girl) sit together on barracks steps. Tom Konishi is seated in the front of the group.
Three Japanese American girls group picture at railroad crossing (ddr-densho-362-41)
img Three Japanese American girls group picture at railroad crossing (ddr-densho-362-41)
Three girls pose near a railroad crossing. An open field and a mountain are in the background.
Outside the Barracks (ddr-densho-258-127)
img Outside the Barracks (ddr-densho-258-127)
Two men stand outside a barracks, one in a military uniform. Caption below: "[illegible] & Yukio Tanaka."
Group photograph at the Tule Lake 2nd Annual Conference (ddr-densho-300-7)
img Group photograph at the Tule Lake 2nd Annual Conference (ddr-densho-300-7)
Caption on reverse: "Tule Lake Second Annual Conference. Newell, California. April 3-4, 1943. Chairman - Kumeo [?] Yoshinori."
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 81, No. 2 (July 11, 1975) (ddr-pc-47-27)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 81, No. 2 (July 11, 1975) (ddr-pc-47-27)
Selected article titles: "JACL--Headquarters Dedication: Two-Year Wait Ends July 20" (pp. 1, 3), "Stricter Whaling Quotas Adopted by International Body" (pp. 1-2), "JACL--Special Board Meeting: JACL Initiates Audit of Gerontology Project" (pp. 1-2), and "An Acre at Topaz Fenced and Cleared" (p. 3).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 81, No. 9 (August 29, 1975) (ddr-pc-47-34)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 81, No. 9 (August 29, 1975) (ddr-pc-47-34)
Selected article titles: "JACL--National Travel Program: 11 Charter Flights to Japan Being Planned for 1976" (p. 1), "JACL Weak Points Viewed" (pp. 1, 4), "1975 Nisei Week Queen and Court" (p. 4), and "Poston: As It Looked in '69" (p. 5).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 83, No. 16 (October 15, 1976) (ddr-pc-48-41)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 83, No. 16 (October 15, 1976) (ddr-pc-48-41)
Selected article titles: "Canadian Nikkei Prepare for Issei Centennial Year" (pp. 1, 4), "Museum to Display Evacuation Camp Art and Crafts" (p. 1), "Editorial: Topaz: 1942-1946" (p. 2), and "National Constitution Japanese American Citizens League" (pp. 5-6).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 53, No. 17 (October 27, 1961) (ddr-pc-33-43)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 53, No. 17 (October 27, 1961) (ddr-pc-33-43)
Selected article titles: "Canada Leader Defends Wartime Nisei Evacuation" (p. 1), "National Park Status for Rohwer Asked" (p. 1), "Washington Newsletter: Freedom in Employment" (p. 1), and "Issei Story Project: Who, What, Why, How?" (p. 4).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 52, No. 21 (May 26, 1961) (ddr-pc-33-21)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 52, No. 21 (May 26, 1961) (ddr-pc-33-21)
Selected article titles: "Washington Newsletter: Shame of Our Nation" (p. 1), "Rowher WRA Cemetery May Become Nat'l Shrine Maintained by Nat'l Park Service" (p. 1), "Prejudice and Hawaiian Dialect" (p. 2), and "Nisei Psychologist Granted $62,000 to Study Rise of Japanese American Delinquency" (p. 3).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 78, No. 19 (May 17, 1974) (ddr-pc-46-19)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 78, No. 19 (May 17, 1974) (ddr-pc-46-19)
Selected article titles: "Changed to 'JAN': USAF Drops 'JAP'" (p. 1), "Japan-U.S. Friendship Act Under Study" (pp. 1-2), "Tule Lake Designated Historical Landmark" (pp. 1, 6), and "A Grandfather's Hope for Children of Intermarriage" (pp. 2, 5).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 81, No. 14 (October 3, 1975) (ddr-pc-47-39)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 81, No. 14 (October 3, 1975) (ddr-pc-47-39)
Selected article titles: "Nisei Farm Problems Aired" (p. 1), "Nikkei Back at Poston for Look" (pp. 1-2), "Manzanar Plaque Found Defaced" (p. 1), and "From the Frying Pan: John Dean on Redress" (p. 2).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 107, No. 2 (July 22-29, 1988) (ddr-pc-60-27)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 107, No. 2 (July 22-29, 1988) (ddr-pc-60-27)
Selected article titles: "Masaoka Warns Resolution Endangers Redress Program" (pp. 1, 10), "Candlelit Lantern Floats, Buddhist-Christian Services to Remember Hibakusha of Hiroshima-Nagasaki" (p. 3), "National JACL Constitution / Bylaws" (pp. 7-10), and "Former Renunciant Charges WW2 Scientist with Defamation" (p. 13).
Letter (with envelope) to Molly Wilson from Sandie Saito (July 17, 1943) (ddr-janm-1-16)
doc Letter (with envelope) to Molly Wilson from Sandie Saito (July 17, 1943) (ddr-janm-1-16)
Handwritten letter to Molly Wilson from Sandie Saito (July 17, 1943). Envelope (addressed "The 'Flea' ") is postmarked July 19, 1943 from the Granada (Amache) Incarceration Camp in Amache, Colorado.
Letter (with envelope) to Mollie Wilson from Lillian (Nobie) Igasaki (July 9, 1943) (ddr-janm-1-49)
doc Letter (with envelope) to Mollie Wilson from Lillian (Nobie) Igasaki (July 9, 1943) (ddr-janm-1-49)
Handwritten letter to Mollie Wilson from Lillian (Nobie) Igasaki (July 9, 1943). Envelope is postmarked July 10, 1943 from the Manzanar Incarceration Camp in Manzanar, California.
Letter to Molly Wilson from Tomoko Ikeda (June 10, 1942) (ddr-janm-1-1)
doc Letter to Molly Wilson from Tomoko Ikeda (June 10, 1942) (ddr-janm-1-1)
Handwritten letter written by Tomoko Ikeda to Molly Wilson, June 10, 1942. Letter was written from an assembly center or a relocation center, and mentions adjusting to food in center and missing school.
Letter (with envelope) to Molly Wilson from Chiyeko Akahoshi (October 25, 1943) (ddr-janm-1-107)
doc Letter (with envelope) to Molly Wilson from Chiyeko Akahoshi (October 25, 1943) (ddr-janm-1-107)
Handwritten letter to Molly Wilson from Chiyeko Akahoshi (October 25, 1943). Envelope is postmarked October 26, 1943 from the Manzanar Incarceration Camp in Manzanar, California.
Letter (with envelope) to Mollie Wilson from Lillian (Nobie) Igasaki (March 31, 1944) (ddr-janm-1-51)
doc Letter (with envelope) to Mollie Wilson from Lillian (Nobie) Igasaki (March 31, 1944) (ddr-janm-1-51)
Handwritten letter to Molly Wilson from Lillian (Nobie) Igasaki (March 31, 1944). Envelope is postmarked April 1, 1944 from the Manzanar Incarceration Camp in Manzanar, California.
Letter (with envelope) to Molly Wilson from Chiyeko Akahoshi (December 25, 1944) (ddr-janm-1-115)
doc Letter (with envelope) to Molly Wilson from Chiyeko Akahoshi (December 25, 1944) (ddr-janm-1-115)
Handwritten letter to Mollie Wilson from Chiyeko Akahoshi (December 25, 1944). Envelope is postmarked December 26, 1944 from the Manzanar Incarceration Camp in Manzanar, California.
Letter (with envelope) to Molly Wilson from Chiyeko Akahoshi (January 19, 1945) (ddr-janm-1-116)
doc Letter (with envelope) to Molly Wilson from Chiyeko Akahoshi (January 19, 1945) (ddr-janm-1-116)
Handwritten letter to Mollie Wilson from Chiyeko Akahoshi (January 19, 1945). Envelope is postmarked January 20, 1945 from the Manzanar Incarceration Camp in Manzanar, California.
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