Concentration camps

The War Relocation Authority (WRA) oversaw construction of ten concentration camps in sparsely populated and isolated areas. Between June and October 1942, Japanese Americans were transferred from the "assembly centers" to the larger camps. Housing approximately 120,000 people, the camps were designed to be self-contained communities, complete with hospitals, post offices, schools, warehouses, and residential areas. The WRA attempted to establish normalcy by setting up newspapers, a degree of self-government, sports leagues, and social events. But confinement, monotony, and harsh conditions exacerbated tensions between pro- and anti-camp administration residents and between the disempowered Issei and their U.S.-born Nisei children. At several centers, conflicts erupted into violence and at the Manzanar concentration camp the unrest resulted in fatal shootings. The WRA gradually granted work and school leave to those they considered "loyal." The last camp closed in March 1946.

Concentration camps (541)

Related articles from the Densho Encyclopedia :
Concentration Camps, U.S.A. (book), Gila River, Heart Mountain, Jerome, Manzanar, Minidoka, Poston (Colorado River), Psychological effects of camp, Rohwer, Sites of incarceration, Topaz, Tule Lake

540 items
Envelope and letter to Dr. Keizaburo
doc Envelope and letter to Dr. Keizaburo "Kei" Koyama from T. Sumi (ddr-one-5-73)
Envelope addressed to Dr. K. Koyama at the Santa Fe Detention Station from T. Sumi at Heart Mountain. Postmarked Nov 15, 1943. On the right edge is a staple to seal the opening. Inside is a letter written in Japanese. On the right side of the letter is an "EXAMINED" stamp. The letter has not been ...
Envelope and Birthday Card to Dr. Keizaburo
doc Envelope and Birthday Card to Dr. Keizaburo "Kei" Koyama (ddr-one-5-36)
Envelope addressed to Dr. Kei Koyama at Camp Livingston. Return sender name is not visible, but the Block number is the same as the Koyama Family; addressed as Minidoka WRA Center. Postmarked October 1, 1942. In red pencil “Oct 6 1942” is written below the postmark. On the left side of the envelope is a purple ...
Japanese American children (ddr-densho-26-184)
img Japanese American children (ddr-densho-26-184)
Photo taken at the Minidoka concentration camp. Written on back of photograph "taken on Joyce's birthday Aug. 5, 1945 40 Hunty, Idaho"
Lil Dan'l, one year in a relocation center (ddr-csujad-1-57)
doc Lil Dan'l, one year in a relocation center (ddr-csujad-1-57)
A booklet of a pictorial review of incarcerees' first year experience in the Rohwer incarceration camp, Arkansas. Lil Dan'l is a fictitious character in the "Poston outpost," a magazine published in the camp, symbolizing the incarcerees in the camp. This booklet was published to remember their experience in the Rohwer camp. See this object in ...
Inside view Japanese American Evacuee Center at Rohwer, Arkansas, 1941-1945 (ddr-csujad-1-203)
doc Inside view Japanese American Evacuee Center at Rohwer, Arkansas, 1941-1945 (ddr-csujad-1-203)
A booklet compiled by Colburn Cox Stuart, Superintendent of Schools at McGehee, Desha County, Arkansas, 1941-1945. The booklet describes the children and schools in Rohwer, Arkansas, 1941-1945. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: ike_04_05_001
Memo from Co-ordinating Committee to the Advisory Council, February 18, 1944 (ddr-csujad-2-93)
doc Memo from Co-ordinating Committee to the Advisory Council, February 18, 1944 (ddr-csujad-2-93)
Memo regarding peace movement headed by I. Uji of Block 53, Ward 6. Text provides Uji's full name (Iwao Uji) and also mentions June Sasaki and "Mrs. Matsuda" as other leaders of the peace movement; discusses their request for direct consultation with the Advisory Council. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American ...
Tule Lake panoramic landscape (ddr-csujad-3-9)
img Tule Lake panoramic landscape (ddr-csujad-3-9)
Photograph of Tule Lake camp showing expanse of camp including buildings, barracks, watch towers, and railways within the basin landscape. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: tos_01_001_010
Holiday greeting card (ddr-csujad-3-18)
img Holiday greeting card (ddr-csujad-3-18)
Christmas card featuring Santa Claus presenting a landscape photo of the Tule Lake incarceration camp from outside a barbed wire fence looking in on buildings in camp with a hill in the distance. Card reads "Season's greetings." See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: tos_01_001_019
General information, [Rohwer] (ddr-csujad-4-14)
doc General information, [Rohwer] (ddr-csujad-4-14)
Documents mailed by the Terada family from the Rohwer incarceration camp in McGehee, Arkansas, to Mr. A. W. Thomas on July 13, 1943. The documents include general information and regulations written by Ray D. Johnston, Project Director at the Rohwer incarceration camp. Also included is a schematic of the Rohwer camp, with marginalia. See this object ...
Letter from Emiko [Amy] Terada to Miss Laura Thomas, March 16, 1944 (ddr-csujad-4-19)
doc Letter from Emiko [Amy] Terada to Miss Laura Thomas, March 16, 1944 (ddr-csujad-4-19)
A letter from Emiko Amy Terada, an incarceree at the Rohwer incarceration camp, to Miss Laura Thomas in Lawndale, California. In the letter, she talks about school and wishes that she could go back to Lawndale school. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: nis_06_021
Relocation program: [a guidebook for the residents of relocation centers] (ddr-csujad-5-69)
doc Relocation program: [a guidebook for the residents of relocation centers] (ddr-csujad-5-69)
Japanese translation of "Relocation program: a guidebook for the residents of relocation centers." It describes the policies and procedures of the War Relocation Authority Relocation Program. Includes policies and procedures on leave and return to a camp, placement, travel and subsistence, food, lodging, health service, employment and compensation, clothing allowances, community government, education, internal security, consumer ...
Father's Day card from Masao Okine to Mr. S. Okine, June 9, 1945 (ddr-csujad-5-81)
doc Father's Day card from Masao Okine to Mr. S. Okine, June 9, 1945 (ddr-csujad-5-81)
A Father's Day card from Masao Okine to his father, Seiichi Okine. Masao writes from Fort Meade, Minnesota, where he attends the U.S. military Japanese language School to Seiichi Okine who is incarcerated in the Rohwer camp, Arkansas. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: oki_01_20_001
Structural report, chapter I: an introduction to Tule Lake (ddr-csujad-26-3)
doc Structural report, chapter I: an introduction to Tule Lake (ddr-csujad-26-3)
Portion of a report compiled as part of the Japanese American Evacuation and Resettlement Study (JERS) describing the landscape, climate, barracks, facilities, schedule, and daily life routines of incarcerees at the Tule Lake incarceration camp. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: mei_01_34_001
Three men and chickens (ddr-csujad-26-132)
img Three men and chickens (ddr-csujad-26-132)
Photo of three Japanese American men in front of a chicken coop with chickens. From photo album of Robert Billigmeier. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: mei_05_102
Young Japanese couple (ddr-csujad-26-119)
img Young Japanese couple (ddr-csujad-26-119)
Photo of a young Japanese American couple seated on a bench in front of barracks buildings. From photo album of Robert Billigmeier. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: mei_05_088
Tule Lake perimeter landscape (ddr-csujad-3-7)
img Tule Lake perimeter landscape (ddr-csujad-3-7)
Panoramic photograph of a part of the perimeter of Tule Lake with buildings, telephone poles, fencing and watch towers lining up in the distance. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: tos_01_001_007
Scrapbook of Eddie Muraoka (ddr-csujad-15-4)
doc Scrapbook of Eddie Muraoka (ddr-csujad-15-4)
Fourth of four scrapbooks of clippings about Japanese American incarceration during World War II. Compiled by Eddie Muraoka. Other three scrapbooks are fond in items: csun_ems_001, csun_ems_002, and csun_ems_003. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: EMS_04
Letter from George Yoshioka to Rev. [Wendell L.] Miller, [September 11, 1942] (ddr-csujad-20-6)
doc Letter from George Yoshioka to Rev. [Wendell L.] Miller, [September 11, 1942] (ddr-csujad-20-6)
Personal letter written from Santa Anita Assembly Center. Yoshioka discusses the start of "movement to Relocation Centers," naming Parker Dam; Wyoming; Granada, Colorado; Arkansas; and Gila, Arizona, along with locations from which people are being removed, including San Diego, Los Angeles, Hollywood, Long Beach, and other Southern California locations. He also mentions that his family has ...
Men Posing Together (ddr-csujad-13-21)
img Men Posing Together (ddr-csujad-13-21)
A group of men, most likely soldiers, pose together. The caption on front of photograph reads, "On way to Tullelake Nov 43." See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: tul_01_01_016
Man in the Snow (ddr-csujad-13-30)
img Man in the Snow (ddr-csujad-13-30)
A man in military uniform is photographed in the now. It is unclear exactly which month this photograph was taken as the caption on front of photograph reads, "January 1943" and the caption on back of photograph reads, "Sgt. Mallman 2/1/43." See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site ...
Soldiers under the Trees (ddr-csujad-13-25)
img Soldiers under the Trees (ddr-csujad-13-25)
A group of soldiers in uniform pose together under the cover of trees. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: tul_01_01_020
Distant View of a Group of People and Building (ddr-csujad-13-17)
img Distant View of a Group of People and Building (ddr-csujad-13-17)
This photograph depicts a group of people standing together with a building structure in the background at the Tule Lake incarceration camp. According to the caption on back of photograph, which reads, "Disloyal Japs who were [cuffed] up when they first refused to answer inquires of [army] questioning. Leaving [them back] to stockade under guard," this ...
Woman Walking Away (ddr-csujad-13-1)
img Woman Walking Away (ddr-csujad-13-1)
A woman is photographed walking away from the photographer towards a building. The caption on the back of photograph reads, "Jap girl fleeing when about to snap picture. Took [some] anyway. Other girl got out of sight in time." See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: tul_01_01_028
Lillie McCabe (ddr-csujad-29-19)
img Lillie McCabe (ddr-csujad-29-19)
Photo of Lillie McCabe. Oral history audio and transcript are found in csufccop_jaoh_0030, csufccop_jaoh_0031, and csufccop_jaoh_0032. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: 1949_P03
An Oral History with Norman Y. Mineta (ddr-csujad-29-55)
vh An Oral History with Norman Y. Mineta (ddr-csujad-29-55)
Japanese American congressman, representing the Thirteenth Congressional District of California, born and raised in San Jose, California, discusses his early life, graduation from the University of California, Berkeley, and receiving a commission and serving in the armed forces from 1953-1956. Recalls the removal, "relocation," and incarceration of Japanese Americans during World War II at the Heart ...
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