Concentration camps

The War Relocation Authority (WRA) oversaw construction of ten concentration camps in sparsely populated and isolated areas. Between June and October 1942, Japanese Americans were transferred from the "assembly centers" to the larger camps. Housing approximately 120,000 people, the camps were designed to be self-contained communities, complete with hospitals, post offices, schools, warehouses, and residential areas. The WRA attempted to establish normalcy by setting up newspapers, a degree of self-government, sports leagues, and social events. But confinement, monotony, and harsh conditions exacerbated tensions between pro- and anti-camp administration residents and between the disempowered Issei and their U.S.-born Nisei children. At several centers, conflicts erupted into violence and at the Manzanar concentration camp the unrest resulted in fatal shootings. The WRA gradually granted work and school leave to those they considered "loyal." The last camp closed in March 1946.

World War II (66)
Concentration camps (574)

Related articles from the Densho Encyclopedia :
Concentration Camps, U.S.A. (book), Gila River, Heart Mountain, Jerome, Manzanar, Minidoka, Poston (Colorado River), Psychological effects of camp, Rohwer, Sites of incarceration, Topaz, Tule Lake

574 items
Letter to Michi Weglyn from unknown author (ddr-csujad-24-48)
doc Letter to Michi Weglyn from unknown author (ddr-csujad-24-48)
A letter to Michi Weglyn possibly from Aiko Herzig-Yoshinaga about the effect of Weglyn's book "Years of Infamy" on Jack Herzig, and Herzig's conversations with General Bendetsen about the Manzanar Pilgrimage. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: chi_02_007
Letter from [Frank] Chin to Paul [Tsuneishi], December 23, 1997 (ddr-csujad-24-178)
doc Letter from [Frank] Chin to Paul [Tsuneishi], December 23, 1997 (ddr-csujad-24-178)
A letter to Paul [Tsuneishi] from [Frank] Chin about planning the speakers and the media outreach for "Michi Day," the event to celebrate author Michi Weglyn and her book "Years of Infamy." See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: chi_74_01_011
Remembering Michi Weglyn (ddr-csujad-24-131)
doc Remembering Michi Weglyn (ddr-csujad-24-131)
An obituary of Michi Weglyn written by her lifelong friend Sachi W. Seko and published in Japanese American newspaper "Rafu Shimpo" on April 27, 1999. The article is an emotional tribute to Weglyn and a vivid description of the end of her life. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: ...
Michi Weglyn: 'Japanese American's conscience' (ddr-csujad-24-128)
doc Michi Weglyn: 'Japanese American's conscience' (ddr-csujad-24-128)
An obituary for Michi Weglyn published in "Rafu Shimpo" on Thursday, April 29, 1999. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: chi_09_013
Michi Weglyn, as I recall (ddr-csujad-24-134)
doc Michi Weglyn, as I recall (ddr-csujad-24-134)
An obituary of Michi Weglyn written by William Hohri. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: chi_09_019
Chapter 6 and 7 personality cards (ddr-csujad-26-34)
doc Chapter 6 and 7 personality cards (ddr-csujad-26-34)
Journal entries written by high school students discussing their observations and perspectives on a variety of topics including living in barracks, block noise, lack of privacy, mess hall dining, nosy neighbors, jobs, leisure time, sports, movies, church attendance, the Young Buddhist Association (YBA), family dynamics, social changes, dating, and rumors. Each entry includes the full date ...
Tule Lake monograph (ddr-csujad-26-1)
doc Tule Lake monograph (ddr-csujad-26-1)
Unpublished manuscript includes a collection of diary entries, letters, and essays written by school students incarcerated at the Tule Lake camp and collected through the Japanese American Evacuation and Resettlement Study (JERS). The writings include first-person descriptions of travel to the Tule Lake camp, adapting to camp, limitations of camp, day-to-day camp life, family life, community ...
Cooperatively owned canteen (ddr-csujad-26-130)
img Cooperatively owned canteen (ddr-csujad-26-130)
Photo of people working and shopping inside a canteen. Goods are seen divided by type. Verso reads "cooperatively owned canteen." From photo album of Robert Billigmeier. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: mei_05_100
Wedding of Oliver Noji [and Kiyo Aiura] (ddr-csujad-26-118)
img Wedding of Oliver Noji [and Kiyo Aiura] (ddr-csujad-26-118)
Oliver Noji marries Kiyo Aiura at Tule Lake. Caption on back of photo reads, " Wedding of Oliver Noji (architecture). The bride is radiant, Oliver looks anxious, as well he might - look whose shoes he has to fill." From photo album of Robert Billigmeier. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization ...
Landscape with barracks building (ddr-csujad-26-121)
img Landscape with barracks building (ddr-csujad-26-121)
Photo of the desert landscape with a portion of a barracks building. Leftover wood crates are stacked next to the building while the camp border fence can be sen in the distance. From photo album of Robert Billigmeier. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: mei_05_090
People gathering around a vehicle covered in baggage (ddr-csujad-26-91)
img People gathering around a vehicle covered in baggage (ddr-csujad-26-91)
Group of people, including men with bicycles, gather around a vehicle with baggage tied to the roof. From photo album of Robert Billigmeier. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: mei_05_028
Japanese couple (ddr-csujad-26-124)
img Japanese couple (ddr-csujad-26-124)
Photo of a Japanese American couple wearing crucifix pins pose outdoors. A crowd is in the background. From photo album of Robert Billigmeier. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: mei_05_093
Young women (ddr-csujad-26-123)
img Young women (ddr-csujad-26-123)
A group of young Japanese American women poses with a Caucasian woman in front of a barracks building. From photo album of Robert Billigmeier. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: mei_05_092
Group photo in front of barracks (ddr-csujad-26-136)
img Group photo in front of barracks (ddr-csujad-26-136)
Three Japanese American women and one man pose together in front of a barracks building. An automobile and additional barracks can be seen in the background. From photo album of Robert Billigmeier. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: mei_05_106
On Castle Rock above the camp--facing Mt. Shasta (ddr-csujad-26-70)
img On Castle Rock above the camp--facing Mt. Shasta (ddr-csujad-26-70)
Photo of three Japanese Americans and four Caucasian people, including Robert Billigmeier, posing with snowballs and a dog. Caption on back of photograph reads, "On Castle Rock above the camp - facing Mt. Shasta." From photo album of Robert Billigmeier. Related photo in sequence ucsb_mei_0122. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization ...
Large group photo (ddr-csujad-26-125)
img Large group photo (ddr-csujad-26-125)
Photo of a large group of Japanese Americans and Caucasian men and women pose in front of a barracks building with a baby and a dog. From photo album of Robert Billigmeier. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: mei_05_094
View from Castle Rock facing east (ddr-csujad-26-129)
img View from Castle Rock facing east (ddr-csujad-26-129)
Landscape photo featuring the Tule Lake incarceration camp and the roads around it as seen in the snow from a nearby hill top. Verso reads, "view from Castle Rock facing east." From photo album of Robert Billigmeier. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: mei_05_099
Large group photo (ddr-csujad-26-143)
img Large group photo (ddr-csujad-26-143)
Photo of a large group of Japanese Americans and Caucasian men and women pose in front of a barracks building with a baby and a dog. From photo album of Robert Billigmeier. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: mei_05_116
Structural report, chapter I: an introduction to Tule Lake (ddr-csujad-26-3)
doc Structural report, chapter I: an introduction to Tule Lake (ddr-csujad-26-3)
Portion of a report compiled as part of the Japanese American Evacuation and Resettlement Study (JERS) describing the landscape, climate, barracks, facilities, schedule, and daily life routines of incarcerees at the Tule Lake incarceration camp. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: mei_01_34_001
Father Dai (Daisuke Kitagawa) Episcopal minister and his flock (ddr-csujad-26-98)
img Father Dai (Daisuke Kitagawa) Episcopal minister and his flock (ddr-csujad-26-98)
Group photo of parishioners in front of building. Caption on back of photograph reads, "Father Dai (Daisuke Kitagawa) Episcopal minister and his flock." From photo album of Robert Billigmeier. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: mei_05_035
Young women (ddr-csujad-26-142)
img Young women (ddr-csujad-26-142)
Four young Japanese American women pose with a Caucasian woman in front of an automobile. Barracks building is in the background. From photo album of Robert Billigmeier. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: mei_05_112
Three men and chickens (ddr-csujad-26-132)
img Three men and chickens (ddr-csujad-26-132)
Photo of three Japanese American men in front of a chicken coop with chickens. From photo album of Robert Billigmeier. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: mei_05_102
An Oral History with Ikuko Amatatsu Watanabe (ddr-csujad-29-12)
av An Oral History with Ikuko Amatatsu Watanabe (ddr-csujad-29-12)
Nisei district manager of an educational corporation discusses samurai ancestry; childhood on Bainbridge Island, Washington, and makeup of Bainbridge Japanese community; incarceration at the Manzanar camp, California, including circumstances as to why Bainbridge Islanders were transferred to the Minidoka camp in Idaho; wartime resettlement to Chicago; and postwar years in California, with particular attention to discriminatory ...
An Oral History with Reverend Seytsu Takahashi (ddr-csujad-29-58)
vh An Oral History with Reverend Seytsu Takahashi (ddr-csujad-29-58)
Issei Buddhist bishop and superintendent of Kayasan Temple in Little Tokyo since 1931 recounts his wartime experiences and internment at Fort Missoula, Montana; Livingstone, Louisiana; and Crystal City, Texas. Transcribed in both Japanese and English. This oral history was conducted for the Japanese American Oral History Project, Oral History Program, CSU Fullerton. Transcript is found in ...
An Oral History with Woodrow Odanaka (ddr-csujad-29-14)
av An Oral History with Woodrow Odanaka (ddr-csujad-29-14)
Impressions of a Nisei concerning pre-World War II family produce business in Los Angeles, California; removal to Santa Anita Assembly Center in California, and the Granada incarceration camp in Colorado; wartime college experiences in Minnesota; and Army military intelligence duties in the Philippines and occupied Japan. This oral history was conducted for the Japanese American Oral ...
API