Concentration camps

The War Relocation Authority (WRA) oversaw construction of ten concentration camps in sparsely populated and isolated areas. Between June and October 1942, Japanese Americans were transferred from the "assembly centers" to the larger camps. Housing approximately 120,000 people, the camps were designed to be self-contained communities, complete with hospitals, post offices, schools, warehouses, and residential areas. The WRA attempted to establish normalcy by setting up newspapers, a degree of self-government, sports leagues, and social events. But confinement, monotony, and harsh conditions exacerbated tensions between pro- and anti-camp administration residents and between the disempowered Issei and their U.S.-born Nisei children. At several centers, conflicts erupted into violence and at the Manzanar concentration camp the unrest resulted in fatal shootings. The WRA gradually granted work and school leave to those they considered "loyal." The last camp closed in March 1946.

Concentration camps (553)

Related articles from the Densho Encyclopedia :
Concentration Camps, U.S.A. (book), Gila River, Heart Mountain, Jerome, Manzanar, Minidoka, Poston (Colorado River), Psychological effects of camp, Rohwer, Sites of incarceration, Topaz, Tule Lake

552 items
Three Japanese American girls group picture at railroad crossing (ddr-densho-362-41)
img Three Japanese American girls group picture at railroad crossing (ddr-densho-362-41)
Three girls pose near a railroad crossing. An open field and a mountain are in the background.
Postcard to Dr. Keizaburo
doc Postcard to Dr. Keizaburo "Kei" Koyama from Lois Sato (ddr-one-5-32)
Postcard addressed to Dr. Keizaburo Koyama at Camp Livingston from Lois Sato at Minidoka. Postmarked Sep 17, 1942. On the left side of the front of the postcard is a purple "Censored" stamp. On the back of the postcard is a handwritten message from Lois Sato. She writes about the weather at Minidoka and the eating ...
Postcard to Dr. Keizaburo
doc Postcard to Dr. Keizaburo "Kei" Koyama from Teru Koyama (ddr-one-5-65)
One cent postcard addressed to Dr. Keizaburo Koyama at Santa Fe Detention Station from his wife, Teru Koyama, at Minidoka. Postmarked Aug 16, 1943. To the left of the postmark “Aug-24-43” is written. "Examined" stamp in the lower left corner with "25-3" written on it. On the back dated Aug 15, 1943. Teru writes about the ...
Envelope and letter to Dr. Keizaburo
doc Envelope and letter to Dr. Keizaburo "Kei" Koyama from Teru Koyama and Eva Koyama (ddr-one-5-19)
Yellowed envelope addressed to Dr. Keizaburo Koyama in Camp Livingston from his wife, Teru Koyama, in the Portland Assembly Center. The envelope is postmarked Jul 13, 1942. In red pencil “7/16-42” is written just below the postmark. On the left side of the envelope is a purple "CENSORED" stamp with unknown initials below the stamp ...
Postcard to Dr. Keizaburo
doc Postcard to Dr. Keizaburo "Kei" Koyama from Teru Koyama (ddr-one-5-35)
Front of one cent postcard is addressed to Dr. Keizaburo Koyama at Camp Livingston from his wife, Teru Koyama, at Minidoka. Postmarked Oct. 1942 over a six cent airmail stamp. On the left side of the front of the postcard is a purple "Censored" stamp. The message on the back of the postcard is dated Sept ...
Postcard to Dr. Keizaburo
doc Postcard to Dr. Keizaburo "Kei" Koyama from Teru Koyama (ddr-one-5-29)
One cent postcard addressed to Dr. Keizaburo Koyama at Camp Livingston from his wife, Teru Koyama, at Minidoka. The return sender information has both a mailing and telegram address listed. Postmarked Sep. 15, 1942. Below the postmark “9/20/42” is written in red pencil. On the left side of the postcard is a purple "Censored ...
Christmas card and envelope to Dr. Keizaburo
doc Christmas card and envelope to Dr. Keizaburo "Kei" Koyama from Mr. and Mrs. S. Nii (ddr-one-5-46)
Envelope addressed to Mr. Kei Koyama at Camp Livingston, no return sender information. Postmarked Dec 22, 1942, in Hunt, Idaho. In red pencil “Dec 20, 1943” is written above a purple "EXAMINED" stamp. On the back of the envelope are two additional "Internment Camp" stamps; one is dated Dec 28, 1942; the second is dated Jan ...
The second Rohwer Reunion,
doc The second Rohwer Reunion, "Not Just a Memory" (ddr-csujad-1-51)
A booklet of the second Rohwer Reunion held at Marriott Hotel, Torrance, California, April 16-18, 1999. Personally identifiable information is removed from the image. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: ike_02_01_001
Memo from multiple incarcerees to the Co-ordinating Committee, February 1944 (ddr-csujad-2-89)
doc Memo from multiple incarcerees to the Co-ordinating Committee, February 1944 (ddr-csujad-2-89)
States that the incarcerees wish to see "normalcy re-established" and peace and cooperation preserved between the Administration and the "Colony" in the Tule Lake incarceration camp, pledging support for the Co-ordinating Committee's efforts to attain peace at the camp. A handwritten annotation next to one of the people's names provides his or her release ...
Letter from Usami Terada to Mr. and Mrs. A.W. Thomas, October 3, 1943 (ddr-csujad-4-18)
doc Letter from Usami Terada to Mr. and Mrs. A.W. Thomas, October 3, 1943 (ddr-csujad-4-18)
A letter from Usami Terada, an incarceree at the Rohwer incarceration camp, to Mr. and Mrs. A.W. Thomas in Lawndale, California. The letter discusses the Japanese American incarcerees returning to California and the West Coast. He describes the returning people as "half bred or wife of Caucasian" and a female attending Pasadena Junior College. He ...
Memo from Co-ordinating Committee to Mr. W. [Willard E.] Schmidt, Chief of Administrative Police, April 7, 1944 (ddr-csujad-2-74)
doc Memo from Co-ordinating Committee to Mr. W. [Willard E.] Schmidt, Chief of Administrative Police, April 7, 1944 (ddr-csujad-2-74)
Memo regarding resignation. Stating that the Center has returned to a state of "normalcy" including the return of approximately 2,000 ex-employees to work, it declares the dissolution of the Co-ordinating Committee, in order to make way for the election by all incarcerees ("the entire colonists' vote") of a new responsible body. The memo is signed ...
Tule Lake fire damage (ddr-csujad-3-12)
img Tule Lake fire damage (ddr-csujad-3-12)
Photograph of burnt buildings demolished by fire at Tule Lake. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: tos_01_001_013
Toshio Oku photo album (ddr-csujad-3-22)
img Toshio Oku photo album (ddr-csujad-3-22)
Photo album is a collection of landscape and panoramic photos of Tule Lake incarceration camp, holiday greeting cards, photos of a fire, graduation portrait of Toshio Oku, group photo of the Electrical Department, and inside the print shop of the Newell Star. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: tos_01_001_023
Holiday greeting card (ddr-csujad-3-19)
img Holiday greeting card (ddr-csujad-3-19)
Christmas card featuring Santa Claus presenting an aerial photo of the Tule Lake incarceration camp showing buildings, a train, and the surrounding landscape. Card reads "Season's greetings." See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: tos_01_001_020
Tule Lake rooftops (ddr-csujad-3-4)
img Tule Lake rooftops (ddr-csujad-3-4)
Photograph looking across rooftops of buildings at Tule Lake towards hills in the distance. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: tos_01_001_004
Holiday greeting card (ddr-csujad-3-16)
img Holiday greeting card (ddr-csujad-3-16)
Christmas card of Santa Claus presenting a photo of the Tule Lake incarceration camp featuring a barbed wire fence, what appears to be a section of a guard tower, and a distant hillside. Card reads "Season's greetings." See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: tos_01_001_017
Holiday greeting card (ddr-csujad-3-14)
img Holiday greeting card (ddr-csujad-3-14)
Christmas greeting card featuring Santa Claus presenting a photo of the Tule Lake incarceration camp buildings and landscape from what appears to be a guard tower. Card reads "Season's greetings." See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: tos_01_001_015
Letter from Masao Okine to [Hatsuno] Hotty Okine, April 24, 1945 (ddr-csujad-5-76)
doc Letter from Masao Okine to [Hatsuno] Hotty Okine, April 24, 1945 (ddr-csujad-5-76)
A letter from Masao Okine in Fort Meade, Maryland, to his sister, Hatsuno Hotty Okine in the Rohwer incarceration camp, Arkansas. He encloses a dependency allotment form 620 in the letter and instructs Hatsuno to fill it out and talk to the Red Cross for assistance. He also asks her to send him a letter and ...
Fude Tanioka interview (ddr-csujad-6-32)
doc Fude Tanioka interview (ddr-csujad-6-32)
Oral history interview with Fude Tanioka. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: SCRC_TANIOKA_FUDE
George Okada interview (ddr-csujad-6-28)
doc George Okada interview (ddr-csujad-6-28)
Oral history interview with George Okada. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: SCRC_OKADA_GEORGE
Izumi Taniguchi interview (ddr-csujad-6-31)
doc Izumi Taniguchi interview (ddr-csujad-6-31)
Oral history interview with Izumi Taniguchi. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: SCRC_TANIGUCHI_IZUMI
CO-OP canteen moving out sale (ddr-csujad-7-19)
doc CO-OP canteen moving out sale (ddr-csujad-7-19)
Advertisement for sale at the camp commissary at Amache. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: HMLSC_Co-op Canteen Moving Out Sale
Mrs. Toshi Uchiyama (ddr-csujad-8-79)
doc Mrs. Toshi Uchiyama (ddr-csujad-8-79)
Oral history interview with Mrs. Toshi Uchiyama. Information on the oral history project is found in: csuf_stp_0012A; Glossary in: csuf_stp_0014. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: FCPL Uchiyama, Mrs Toshi
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