Concentration camps

The War Relocation Authority (WRA) oversaw construction of ten concentration camps in sparsely populated and isolated areas. Between June and October 1942, Japanese Americans were transferred from the "assembly centers" to the larger camps. Housing approximately 120,000 people, the camps were designed to be self-contained communities, complete with hospitals, post offices, schools, warehouses, and residential areas. The WRA attempted to establish normalcy by setting up newspapers, a degree of self-government, sports leagues, and social events. But confinement, monotony, and harsh conditions exacerbated tensions between pro- and anti-camp administration residents and between the disempowered Issei and their U.S.-born Nisei children. At several centers, conflicts erupted into violence and at the Manzanar concentration camp the unrest resulted in fatal shootings. The WRA gradually granted work and school leave to those they considered "loyal." The last camp closed in March 1946.

World War II (53)
Concentration camps (550)

Related articles from the Densho Encyclopedia :
Concentration Camps, U.S.A. (book), Gila River, Heart Mountain, Jerome, Manzanar, Minidoka, Poston (Colorado River), Psychological effects of camp, Rohwer, Sites of incarceration, Topaz, Tule Lake

550 items
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 82, No. 3 (January 23, 1976) (ddr-pc-48-3)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 82, No. 3 (January 23, 1976) (ddr-pc-48-3)
Selected article titles: "Japan-U.S. Friendship Commission at Full Strength; Fund Set at $30 Million" (p. 1), "S. I. Hayakawa Column on Use of 'Concentration Camp' Saddening" (p. 1), and "Seattle's Reparation Proposal Put on Tape" (pp. 4-5).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 83, No. 16 (October 15, 1976) (ddr-pc-48-41)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 83, No. 16 (October 15, 1976) (ddr-pc-48-41)
Selected article titles: "Canadian Nikkei Prepare for Issei Centennial Year" (pp. 1, 4), "Museum to Display Evacuation Camp Art and Crafts" (p. 1), "Editorial: Topaz: 1942-1946" (p. 2), and "National Constitution Japanese American Citizens League" (pp. 5-6).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 105, No. 18 (November 27, 1987) (ddr-pc-59-43)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 105, No. 18 (November 27, 1987) (ddr-pc-59-43)
Selected article titles: "Intermountain JACL Supports Minidoka Project" (pp. 1, 8), "LEC Update: S.1009 and the White House" (pp. 1, 5, 8), "Redress Also Finds Support of French" (p. 5), and "An Accumulated Sadness of 45 Years Lies Buried" (pp. 6-7).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 104, No. 23 (June 12, 1987) (ddr-pc-59-23)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 104, No. 23 (June 12, 1987) (ddr-pc-59-23)
Selected article titles: "Teachers Get Lesson about WW2 Camps" (p. 1), "President de la Madrid Credits Japanese Nikkei with Strengthening Japan-Mexico Relationship" (pp. 1, 11), "Lies and Half-Truths" (p. 4), and "Turkish Group Opposes Bill to Fund Films" (p. 10).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 107, No. 2 (July 22-29, 1988) (ddr-pc-60-27)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 107, No. 2 (July 22-29, 1988) (ddr-pc-60-27)
Selected article titles: "Masaoka Warns Resolution Endangers Redress Program" (pp. 1, 10), "Candlelit Lantern Floats, Buddhist-Christian Services to Remember Hibakusha of Hiroshima-Nagasaki" (p. 3), "National JACL Constitution / Bylaws" (pp. 7-10), and "Former Renunciant Charges WW2 Scientist with Defamation" (p. 13).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 123, No. 9 (November 1-14, 1996) (ddr-pc-68-21)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 123, No. 9 (November 1-14, 1996) (ddr-pc-68-21)
Selected article titles: "Flap: Dallas Editor Disputes Nikkei Sense of 'Concentration Camps'" (pp. 1, 10), "Centennial: Biggest Group of Nikkei Gather for Celebration" (pp. 6, 9), "From the Frying Pan: Is the Nisei Generation Out of Touch?" (p. 8), and "Redress Is No Substitute for Lost Homelands" (pp. 9, 12).
Envelope and letter to Dr. Keizaburo
doc Envelope and letter to Dr. Keizaburo "Kei" Koyama from Teru Koyama (ddr-one-5-40)
Slightly yellowed envelope addressed to Dr. Keizaburo Koyama in Camp Livingston from his wife, Teru Koyama, at Minidoka. Postmarked October 19, 1942. Along the top 10-23-1942 is written in red pencil. On the left side of the envelope is a purple "Censored" stamp. Inside the envelope is a letter dated October 17, 1942. Teru writes about ...
Letter to Dr. Keizaburo
doc Letter to Dr. Keizaburo "Kei" Koyama from Eva Koyama (ddr-one-5-38)
Letter dated Oct 5, 1942, to Keizaburo "Kei" Koyama from his daughter, Eva Koyama. In the letter Eva writes about life at Minidoka: Shin came to visit, school is starting soon, Mr. Mita's funeral, lunch, and Girl Scouts. Eva sends her regards to Dr. Tanaka and Mr. Ikeya.
Letter to Dr. Keizaburo
doc Letter to Dr. Keizaburo "Kei" Koyama from Lois (ddr-one-5-48)
Seven page letter to Kei Koyama from Lois at Minidoka dated March 8, 1943. The pages are thin and have water damage. The letter talks about religion (Buddhism and Christianity), the different between Nisei and Kibei, and many other topics about daily life at Minidoka.
Envelope and letter to Dr. Keizaburo
doc Envelope and letter to Dr. Keizaburo "Kei" Koyama from Yoshi Sato (ddr-one-5-42)
Envelope addressed to Mr. Keizaburo Koyama at Camp Livingston from Yoshio Sato at Minidoka. Postmarked November 11, 1942. In red pencil “Dec 15, 42” is written. Along the right edge of the envelope is a white sticker, on the back side of the envelope it reads "U.S.A. 269." Inside the envelope is a letter dated Nov. ...
Envelope and letters to Dr. Keizaburo
doc Envelope and letters to Dr. Keizaburo "Kei" Koyama from Teru Koyama and Miriam Koyama (ddr-one-5-37)
Envelope addressed to Dr. Keizaburo Koyama at Camp Livingston from his wife, Teru Koyama, and daughter, Miriam Kiyo Koyama. Postmarked October 6, 1942. To the left of the postmark “Oct 11, 1942,” is written in red pencil. On the left side of the envelope is a purple "Censored" stamp from Camp Livingston. Inside the envelope are ...
Envelope and letter to Dr. Keizaburo
doc Envelope and letter to Dr. Keizaburo "Kei" Koyama from Teru Koyama (ddr-one-5-57)
Envelope addressed to Dr. Keizaburo Koyama at Santa Fe Dentention Station from his wife, Teru Koyama. Postmarked Jun 17, 1943. In red pencil “6/23/43” is written above the address. Inside is a letter about a recent trip to Idaho Falls for shopping. Teru bought some fabric to make some new dresses and she bought new glasses ...
Envelope and letter to Dr. Keizaburo
doc Envelope and letter to Dr. Keizaburo "Kei" Koyama from Teru Koyama (ddr-one-5-47)
Envelope addressed to Dr. Keizaburo Koyama at Camp Livingston from his wife, Teru Koyama, in Minidoka. Postmarked Mar 8, 1943. In red pencil “Mar 19,1943” is written next to the postmark. In the upper right corner “Internee of War/Free Mail” is written in black ink. Along the left edge of the envelope is clear tape that ...
Envelope and letter to Dr. Keizaburo
doc Envelope and letter to Dr. Keizaburo "Kei" Koyama from William Koyama (ddr-one-5-39)
Envelope addressed to Dr. Keizaburo Koyama at Camp Livingston from his son William Koyama at Minidoka. Postmarked Oct 7, 1942. In red pencil “Oct. 10, 1942” is written below the postmark. On the front of the envelope is a purple stamp that reads “Censored/Camp Livingston/Interment Camp.” Inside is a letter, dated October 5, 1942. William writes ...
Envelope and letter to Dr. Keizaburo
doc Envelope and letter to Dr. Keizaburo "Kei" Koyama from Teru Koyama and Eva Koyama (ddr-one-5-19)
Yellowed envelope addressed to Dr. Keizaburo Koyama in Camp Livingston from his wife, Teru Koyama, in the Portland Assembly Center. The envelope is postmarked Jul 13, 1942. In red pencil “7/16-42” is written just below the postmark. On the left side of the envelope is a purple "CENSORED" stamp with unknown initials below the stamp in ...
Envelope and letter to Dr. Keizaburo
doc Envelope and letter to Dr. Keizaburo "Kei" Koyama from Teru Koyama (ddr-one-5-45)
Envelope addressed to Dr. Keizaburo Koyama at Camp Livingston from his wife, Teru Koyama, at Minidoka. Postmarked Dec 8, 1942. There is clear tape along the whole left edge. Japanese is written on the left side of the envelope. On the back of the envelope is a purple "RECEIVED" stamp with the date Jan 24, 1943. ...
Postcard to Dr. Keizaburo
doc Postcard to Dr. Keizaburo "Kei" Koyama from Teru Koyama (ddr-one-5-35)
Front of one cent postcard is addressed to Dr. Keizaburo Koyama at Camp Livingston from his wife, Teru Koyama, at Minidoka. Postmarked Oct. 1942 over a six cent airmail stamp. On the left side of the front of the postcard is a purple "Censored" stamp. The message on the back of the postcard is dated Sept. ...
Envelope and letter to Dr. Keizaburo
doc Envelope and letter to Dr. Keizaburo "Kei" Koyama from Teru Koyama (ddr-one-5-72)
Envelope addressed to Dr. Keizaburo Koyama at the Santa Fe Detention Station from his wife, Teru Koyama, at Minidoka. Postmarked Oct 4, 1943. In the upper right corner “Internee of War/Free Mail” is written in place of a stamp. The numbers “10-8-43” are written along the top of the envelope in red pencil. Inside is a ...
Envelope and letter to Dr. Keizaburo
doc Envelope and letter to Dr. Keizaburo "Kei" Koyama from Miriam Kiyo Koyama (ddr-one-5-52)
Envelope addressed to Dr. Keizaburo Koyama at Camp Livingston from his daughter, Miriam Kiyo Koyama, at Minidoka. In place of postage “Internee of War/Free Mail” is written in the upper right hand corner. Postmarked Apr. 18, 1943. In the upper center of the envelope “4/30-43” is written in red pencil. Along the left edge of the ...
Envelope and letters to Dr. Keizaburo
doc Envelope and letters to Dr. Keizaburo "Kei" Koyama from Miriam Kiyo Koyama and William Koyama (ddr-one-5-28)
Envelope addressed to Dr. Keizaburo Koyama at Camp Livingston from his children, William Koyama and Miriam Kiyo Koyama, at Minidoka. Postmarked Sep 11, 1942. To the left of the postmark “Sept 14, 42” is written in red pencil. On the left side of the envelope is a purple "Censored" stamp. Inside the envelope are two letters, ...
Letter to Dr. Keizaburo
doc Letter to Dr. Keizaburo "Kei" Koyama from Teru Koyama (ddr-one-5-69)
Letter to Keizaburo "Kei" Koyama from his wife, Teru Koyama, dated Sept. 1, 1943. In the upper left corner is an "EXAMINED" stamp. The letter is brown and has a water stain along the right side. In the letter Teru updates Kei on their friends' situations in Minidoka: several had children leave for jobs outside or ...
Postcard to Dr. Keizaburo
doc Postcard to Dr. Keizaburo "Kei" Koyama from Teru Koyama (ddr-one-5-29)
One cent postcard addressed to Dr. Keizaburo Koyama at Camp Livingston from his wife, Teru Koyama, at Minidoka. The return sender information has both a mailing and telegram address listed. Postmarked Sep. 15, 1942. Below the postmark “9/20/42” is written in red pencil. On the left side of the postcard is a purple "Censored" stamp. The ...
Envelope and letter to Dr. Keizaburo
doc Envelope and letter to Dr. Keizaburo "Kei" Koyama from William Koyama (ddr-one-5-64)
Envelope addressed to Dr. Keizaburo Koyama in Santa Fe Detention Center from his son, William Koyama, at Minidoka. Envelope is postmarked August 3, 1943. In red pencil "8/10-43" is written above the receiver's information. The letter from William Koyama is yellowed and water-damaged. At the bottom of the letter is an "EXAMINED" stamp with unknown initals. ...
Postcard to Dr. Keizaburo
doc Postcard to Dr. Keizaburo "Kei" Koyama from Teru Koyama (ddr-one-5-24)
Yellowed postcard address to Dr. Keizaburo "Kei" Koyama at Camp Livingston from his wife Teru Koyama at the Portland Assembly Center. The postcard is postmarked August 31, 1942. On the left side of the postcard is a purple stamp that reads “Censored/Camp Livingston/Internment Camp/HARMON M. TURNER.” On the back side of the postcard, which is dated ...
Envelope and letter to Dr. Keizaburo
doc Envelope and letter to Dr. Keizaburo "Kei" Koyama from T. Sumi (ddr-one-5-73)
Envelope addressed to Dr. K. Koyama at the Santa Fe Detention Station from T. Sumi at Heart Mountain. Postmarked Nov 15, 1943. On the right edge is a staple to seal the opening. Inside is a letter written in Japanese. On the right side of the letter is an "EXAMINED" stamp. The letter has not been ...
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