Segregation and Tule Lake

In July 1943, Tule Lake concentration camp was designated as a segregation center for those the camp authorities considered "disloyal" as a result of their answers on the mandatory "loyalty questionnaire." In September 1943, "loyal" Japanese Americans from Tule Lake began departing for other camps and "disloyal" Japanese Americans from other camps started arriving at Tule Lake. The number of guards increased from a few hundred to 930 and an eight-foot high double fence was erected. The camp's capacity was 15,000 but the peak population reached 18,789 as 6,249 original "loyal" Japaense Americans chose to stay rather than be uprooted again.

World War II (215)
Resistance and dissidence (80)
Segregation and Tule Lake (249)

249 items
Letter from Raymond R. Best, Project Director, Tule Lake Project, to Lt. Frank S. Okusako, October 19, 1945 (ddr-csujad-55-232)
doc Letter from Raymond R. Best, Project Director, Tule Lake Project, to Lt. Frank S. Okusako, October 19, 1945 (ddr-csujad-55-232)
Correspondence from Raymond R. Best to Frank Okusako regarding the status of his family members at the Tule Lake incarceration camp including records of their conduct and renunciation of citizenship. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: sac_jaac_0234
Letter from Raymond R. Best, Project Director, Tule Lake Center, to Takaichi Tsukamoto, August 26, 1943 (ddr-csujad-55-1291)
doc Letter from Raymond R. Best, Project Director, Tule Lake Center, to Takaichi Tsukamoto, August 26, 1943 (ddr-csujad-55-1291)
Correspondence from Raymond R. Best to Takaichi Tsukamoto regarding segregation at Tule Lake. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: sac_jaac_1293
Letter from Joseph W. Stilwell, General, U.S. Army, to Lt. Frank S. Okusako, November 15, 1945 (ddr-csujad-55-236)
doc Letter from Joseph W. Stilwell, General, U.S. Army, to Lt. Frank S. Okusako, November 15, 1945 (ddr-csujad-55-236)
Correspondence from Joseph Stilwell to Frank Okusako regarding the case of Okusako's family. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: sac_jaac_0238
Memo from A.M. Tollefson, Colonel, CMP, Director, Prisoner of War Operations Division to CG US Army Forces, October 23, 1945 (ddr-csujad-55-231)
doc Memo from A.M. Tollefson, Colonel, CMP, Director, Prisoner of War Operations Division to CG US Army Forces, October 23, 1945 (ddr-csujad-55-231)
Memorandum of understanding from A. M. Tollefson to CG US Army Forces regarding relocation of enemy aliens to Hawaii. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: sac_jaac_0233
Segregation of persons of Japanese ancestry in relocation centers (ddr-csujad-55-367)
doc Segregation of persons of Japanese ancestry in relocation centers (ddr-csujad-55-367)
Pamphlet covering the War Relocation Authority's segregation program at Tule Lake incarceration camp. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: sac_jaac_0369
Complaint, War Relocation Authority vs. Ray Ishibashi (ddr-csujad-55-248)
doc Complaint, War Relocation Authority vs. Ray Ishibashi (ddr-csujad-55-248)
Complaint regarding Ray Ishibashi's refusal to register at Tule Lake incarceration camp. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: sac_jaac_0250
Memo from V.R. Miller, Colonel, Infantry, Commanding, to the Adjutant General, War Department, Washington 25, D.C., September 6, 1945 (ddr-csujad-55-230)
doc Memo from V.R. Miller, Colonel, Infantry, Commanding, to the Adjutant General, War Department, Washington 25, D.C., September 6, 1945 (ddr-csujad-55-230)
Memorandum of understanding from V. R. Miller regarding Frank Okusako's request for relocation of his family from the Tule Lake incarceration camp. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: sac_jaac_0232
Letter from Tom Clark, Attorney General, to General Mark W. Clark, December 10, 1945 (ddr-csujad-55-235)
doc Letter from Tom Clark, Attorney General, to General Mark W. Clark, December 10, 1945 (ddr-csujad-55-235)
Correspondence from Tom Clark to Mark Clark regarding the case of Frank Okusako's family. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: sac_jaac_0237
Segregation of evacuees (ddr-csujad-55-333)
doc Segregation of evacuees (ddr-csujad-55-333)
Report on the segregation of incarcerated individuals at Tule Lake incarceration camp. Includes a description of the segregated population at Tule Lake. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: sac_jaac_0335
Advance release (Office of War Information), OWI-2712 (November 1, 1943) (ddr-csujad-55-1908)
doc Advance release (Office of War Information), OWI-2712 (November 1, 1943) (ddr-csujad-55-1908)
Press release regarding the purpose and process of segregation at Tule Lake, movement of segregants between WRA Centers, security at Tule Lake, unrest among incarcerees, strike and violence, interventions by the administration, and international press. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: sac_jaac_1911
Letter from Ivan Williams, Officer in Charge, United States Department of Justice to Sadae Hirota, March 1, 1946 (ddr-csujad-55-1899)
doc Letter from Ivan Williams, Officer in Charge, United States Department of Justice to Sadae Hirota, March 1, 1946 (ddr-csujad-55-1899)
Correspondence from Ivan Williams to Sadaye [Sadae] Hirota regarding her release from Tule Lake Segregation Center. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: sac_jaac_1902
Semi-annual report, January 1 to June 30, 1944 (ddr-csujad-55-1654)
doc Semi-annual report, January 1 to June 30, 1944 (ddr-csujad-55-1654)
Report covering the "relocation program," leave clearance, nisei and the armed forces, closing of Jerome incarceration camp, Tule Lake incident, segregation movements to Tule Lake, Spanish Consular visits, community government, business enterprises, welfare, education, community activities, legal, evacuee property, health and sanitation, fire protection, internal security, military police, agriculture, industries, motor transport and maintenance, construction and …
Memo from Frank S. Okusako, 1st Lt, Infantry, Company H, 442d Infantry to Commanding General, Western Defense Command, Presidio of San Francisco, California (Thru Channels), August 30, 1945 (ddr-csujad-55-229)
doc Memo from Frank S. Okusako, 1st Lt, Infantry, Company H, 442d Infantry to Commanding General, Western Defense Command, Presidio of San Francisco, California (Thru Channels), August 30, 1945 (ddr-csujad-55-229)
Memorandum of understanding from Frank S. Okusako to Commanding General, Western Defense Command regarding relocation of Okusako's family from the Tule Lake incarceration camp. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: sac_jaac_0231
Letter from Mrs. Sakazaki to Raymond Best, Director of Tule Lake Camp (ddr-csujad-2-12)
doc Letter from Mrs. Sakazaki to Raymond Best, Director of Tule Lake Camp (ddr-csujad-2-12)
Letter from Mrs. Sakazaki to Raymond Best, Director of Tule Lake Camp, requesting for the release of her husband, Tokuraro Sakazaki ,from the army stockades at Tule Lake Camp. Includes her letter in Japanese and notes about her interpreter and situation. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: sjs_sch_0012
Letter from residents to Ramond Best, Director of Tule Lake Camp, February 18, 1944 (ddr-csujad-2-10)
doc Letter from residents to Ramond Best, Director of Tule Lake Camp, February 18, 1944 (ddr-csujad-2-10)
Letter from residents requesting the release of two incarerees: Wataru Obara, and Hiroichi Shimamura, detained in the army stockades at Tule Lake Camp. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: sjs_sch_0010
[Minutes of the regular meeting of the advisory council and the Co-ordinating Committee of the Tule Lake Center, February 25, 1944] (ddr-csujad-2-28)
doc [Minutes of the regular meeting of the advisory council and the Co-ordinating Committee of the Tule Lake Center, February 25, 1944] (ddr-csujad-2-28)
Meeting minutes of incarceree-led Tule Lake Camp government. Includes discussion of release of prisoners from army stockades, especially who to target for releasing, and lack of employment. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: sjs_sch_0028
Letter from Takiko Kozuma to Raymond Best, Director of Tule Lake Camp, February 17, 1944 (ddr-csujad-2-11)
doc Letter from Takiko Kozuma to Raymond Best, Director of Tule Lake Camp, February 17, 1944 (ddr-csujad-2-11)
Letter from Takiko Kozuma to Raymond Best, Director of Tule Lake Camp, requesting the release of her husband, Masaichi Kozuma, from the army stockades at Tule Lake Camp. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: sjs_sch_0011
Letter from incarcerees to Frank Hagan regarding employment, November 12, 1943 (ddr-csujad-2-15)
doc Letter from incarcerees to Frank Hagan regarding employment, November 12, 1943 (ddr-csujad-2-15)
Letter from incarerees requesting Tule Lake administration cut off employment from couples to make employment accessible for large families who have more expenses. Somewhat dire and threatening tone to letter. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: sjs_sch_0015
[Call troops in new outbreak], newspaper article on Tule Lake protests, November 5, 1943 (ddr-csujad-2-37)
doc [Call troops in new outbreak], newspaper article on Tule Lake protests, November 5, 1943 (ddr-csujad-2-37)
Newspaper article about protests at Tule Lake Camp in November, 1943 which led to martial law being in place for three months. Describes thousands of incarcerees protesting and the US army sent in for assistance. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: sjs_sch_0037
[Minutes of the regular joint meeting of the advisory council and the Co-ordinating committee of the Tule Lake Center, March 3, 1944] (ddr-csujad-2-30)
doc [Minutes of the regular joint meeting of the advisory council and the Co-ordinating committee of the Tule Lake Center, March 3, 1944] (ddr-csujad-2-30)
Meeting minutes between incarceree-led Tule Lake Camp government and the Advisory Council. Includes discussion on prisoner release from army stockades, the creation of a Young Men's Association and the transfer of incarcerees from Poston Camp. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: sjs_sch_0030
[Informal meeting of the divisional responsible men and the project director and Colonel Austin, January 17,1944] (ddr-csujad-2-17)
doc [Informal meeting of the divisional responsible men and the project director and Colonel Austin, January 17,1944] (ddr-csujad-2-17)
Minutes of informal meeting between Tule Lake Camp Director Raymond Best and Military Police Commander Colonel Verne Austin and incarceree-led Tule Lake Camp Government. Describes theft incidents from the Army's search of barracks by the soldiers and release of detained prisoners from the army stockades. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization …
Letter from S. Yoshiyama to Raymond Best, Director of Tule Lake Camp, February 22, 1944 (ddr-csujad-2-3)
doc Letter from S. Yoshiyama to Raymond Best, Director of Tule Lake Camp, February 22, 1944 (ddr-csujad-2-3)
Letter from S. Yoshiyama requesting to meet with his fiance, Hisako Hideya, while detained by the army. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: sjs_sch_0003
Two newspaper articles on Tule Lake Camp protests (ddr-csujad-2-42)
doc Two newspaper articles on Tule Lake Camp protests (ddr-csujad-2-42)
Two newspaper articles on protests and riots at Tule Lake camp November, 1943 which led to martial law being in place for three months. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: sjs_sch_0042
Tule Lake Center Diary, March 1944 (ddr-csujad-2-25)
doc Tule Lake Center Diary, March 1944 (ddr-csujad-2-25)
Daily diary for March, possibly written by Co-ordinating committee Secretary Byron Akitsuki at Tule Lake Camp. Describes unrest in Block 21, memos and messages sent, and committee member meetings. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: sjs_sch_0025
[WRA deny Japanese in riot], newspaper article on Tule Lake protests, November 3, 1943 (ddr-csujad-2-38)
doc [WRA deny Japanese in riot], newspaper article on Tule Lake protests, November 3, 1943 (ddr-csujad-2-38)
Newspaper article about protests at Tule Lake Camp in November, 1943 which led to martial law being in place for three months. Describes violence among incarcerees. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: sjs_sch_0038
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