Concentration camps

The War Relocation Authority (WRA) oversaw construction of ten concentration camps in sparsely populated and isolated areas. Between June and October 1942, Japanese Americans were transferred from the "assembly centers" to the larger camps. Housing approximately 120,000 people, the camps were designed to be self-contained communities, complete with hospitals, post offices, schools, warehouses, and residential areas. The WRA attempted to establish normalcy by setting up newspapers, a degree of self-government, sports leagues, and social events. But confinement, monotony, and harsh conditions exacerbated tensions between pro- and anti-camp administration residents and between the disempowered Issei and their U.S.-born Nisei children. At several centers, conflicts erupted into violence and at the Manzanar concentration camp the unrest resulted in fatal shootings. The WRA gradually granted work and school leave to those they considered "loyal." The last camp closed in March 1946.

World War II (231)
Concentration camps (1454)

Related articles from the Densho Encyclopedia :
Concentration Camps, U.S.A. (book), Gila River, Heart Mountain, Jerome, Manzanar, Minidoka, Poston (Colorado River), Psychological effects of camp, Rohwer, Sites of incarceration, Topaz, Tule Lake

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1454 items
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 53, No. 16 (October 20, 1961) (ddr-pc-33-42)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 53, No. 16 (October 20, 1961) (ddr-pc-33-42)
Selected article titles: "Rowher Cemetery Dedicated as Arkansas Historical Site Sunday" (pp. 1-2), "Nisei-Negro Pair Go on Mission for White House" (p. 1), "U.S. Civil Rights Report Indicates Negro in California Hit Hardest in Housing Bias" (p. 2), and "Nisei Family Included in Move from N.Y. to Chico to Avoid Threat from Atomic Bombs" (p. 2).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 105, No. 18 (November 27, 1987) (ddr-pc-59-43)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 105, No. 18 (November 27, 1987) (ddr-pc-59-43)
Selected article titles: "Intermountain JACL Supports Minidoka Project" (pp. 1, 8), "LEC Update: S.1009 and the White House" (pp. 1, 5, 8), "Redress Also Finds Support of French" (p. 5), and "An Accumulated Sadness of 45 Years Lies Buried" (pp. 6-7).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 104, No. 23 (June 12, 1987) (ddr-pc-59-23)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 104, No. 23 (June 12, 1987) (ddr-pc-59-23)
Selected article titles: "Teachers Get Lesson about WW2 Camps" (p. 1), "President de la Madrid Credits Japanese Nikkei with Strengthening Japan-Mexico Relationship" (pp. 1, 11), "Lies and Half-Truths" (p. 4), and "Turkish Group Opposes Bill to Fund Films" (p. 10).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 107, No. 2 (July 22-29, 1988) (ddr-pc-60-27)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 107, No. 2 (July 22-29, 1988) (ddr-pc-60-27)
Selected article titles: "Masaoka Warns Resolution Endangers Redress Program" (pp. 1, 10), "Candlelit Lantern Floats, Buddhist-Christian Services to Remember Hibakusha of Hiroshima-Nagasaki" (p. 3), "National JACL Constitution / Bylaws" (pp. 7-10), and "Former Renunciant Charges WW2 Scientist with Defamation" (p. 13).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 82, No. 7 (February 20, 1976) (ddr-pc-48-7)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 82, No. 7 (February 20, 1976) (ddr-pc-48-7)
Selected article titles: "To the Point: Ushio's Record" (p. 1), "Nat'l Faces 100-G Deficit" (p. 1), "Ye Editor's Desk: An Uncompromising Hayakawa" (p. 1), and "Concent. Camps" (p. 2).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 82, No. 1 (January 2-9, 1976) (ddr-pc-48-1)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 82, No. 1 (January 2-9, 1976) (ddr-pc-48-1)
Selected article titles: "Ushio Appeals for White House Concern" (pp. 1, 3), "Topaz WRA Center Historical Plaques Set in Delta City Park" (p. 1), and "Pacific Citizen Calendar for the Bicentennial" (pp. 5-6).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 83, No. 16 (October 15, 1976) (ddr-pc-48-41)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 83, No. 16 (October 15, 1976) (ddr-pc-48-41)
Selected article titles: "Canadian Nikkei Prepare for Issei Centennial Year" (pp. 1, 4), "Museum to Display Evacuation Camp Art and Crafts" (p. 1), "Editorial: Topaz: 1942-1946" (p. 2), and "National Constitution Japanese American Citizens League" (pp. 5-6).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 82, No. 3 (January 23, 1976) (ddr-pc-48-3)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 82, No. 3 (January 23, 1976) (ddr-pc-48-3)
Selected article titles: "Japan-U.S. Friendship Commission at Full Strength; Fund Set at $30 Million" (p. 1), "S. I. Hayakawa Column on Use of 'Concentration Camp' Saddening" (p. 1), and "Seattle's Reparation Proposal Put on Tape" (pp. 4-5).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 78, No. 7 (February 22, 1974) (ddr-pc-46-7)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 78, No. 7 (February 22, 1974) (ddr-pc-46-7)
Selected article titles: "Priorities: JACL Since 1972" (p. 1), "JACL-National Board: Impeachment Issue Swirls" (p. 1), and "Manzanar Site as Part of State Parks Plan Seen" (p. 3).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 78, No. 19 (May 17, 1974) (ddr-pc-46-19)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 78, No. 19 (May 17, 1974) (ddr-pc-46-19)
Selected article titles: "Changed to 'JAN': USAF Drops 'JAP'" (p. 1), "Japan-U.S. Friendship Act Under Study" (pp. 1-2), "Tule Lake Designated Historical Landmark" (pp. 1, 6), and "A Grandfather's Hope for Children of Intermarriage" (pp. 2, 5).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 81, No. 15 (October 10, 1975) (ddr-pc-47-40)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 81, No. 15 (October 10, 1975) (ddr-pc-47-40)
Selected article titles: "MDC Reparations Survey" (pp. 1, 3), "Sen. Inouye Explains Final Lesson to Be Learned from Watergate Trauma" (p. 1), "Editorials: A Battered Manzanar Plaque" (p. 2), and "Ye Editor's Desk: Other Thoughts on the Visit" (p. 2).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 81, No. 14 (October 3, 1975) (ddr-pc-47-39)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 81, No. 14 (October 3, 1975) (ddr-pc-47-39)
Selected article titles: "Nisei Farm Problems Aired" (p. 1), "Nikkei Back at Poston for Look" (pp. 1-2), "Manzanar Plaque Found Defaced" (p. 1), and "From the Frying Pan: John Dean on Redress" (p. 2).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 81, No. 22 (November 28, 1975) (ddr-pc-47-47)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 81, No. 22 (November 28, 1975) (ddr-pc-47-47)
Selected article titles: "PSWDC Grows Despite Problems" (p. 1), "From JACL Nat'l Headquarters Communication: Tule Lake Plaque Text Questioned" (p. 1), "Sequel Planned for 1949 Book on Wartime Student Relocation" (p. 1), and "Minority One: Years of Infamy" (p. 2).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 81, No. 2 (July 11, 1975) (ddr-pc-47-27)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 81, No. 2 (July 11, 1975) (ddr-pc-47-27)
Selected article titles: "JACL--Headquarters Dedication: Two-Year Wait Ends July 20" (pp. 1, 3), "Stricter Whaling Quotas Adopted by International Body" (pp. 1-2), "JACL--Special Board Meeting: JACL Initiates Audit of Gerontology Project" (pp. 1-2), and "An Acre at Topaz Fenced and Cleared" (p. 3).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 81, No. 10 (September 5, 1975) (ddr-pc-47-35)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 81, No. 10 (September 5, 1975) (ddr-pc-47-35)
Selected article titles: "Rice Bill Seeks Lower Prices" (p. 1), "Gila River Camp High School Grads Hold 30-Year Reunion, Eye 1980 Meet" (p. 1), "Potshots: Hard Working Chapters" (p. 2), and "Plain Speaking: Reparations Campaign" (p. 3).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 81, No. 9 (August 29, 1975) (ddr-pc-47-34)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 81, No. 9 (August 29, 1975) (ddr-pc-47-34)
Selected article titles: "JACL--National Travel Program: 11 Charter Flights to Japan Being Planned for 1976" (p. 1), "JACL Weak Points Viewed" (pp. 1, 4), "1975 Nisei Week Queen and Court" (p. 4), and "Poston: As It Looked in '69" (p. 5).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 123, No. 9 (November 1-14, 1996) (ddr-pc-68-21)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 123, No. 9 (November 1-14, 1996) (ddr-pc-68-21)
Selected article titles: "Flap: Dallas Editor Disputes Nikkei Sense of 'Concentration Camps'" (pp. 1, 10), "Centennial: Biggest Group of Nikkei Gather for Celebration" (pp. 6, 9), "From the Frying Pan: Is the Nisei Generation Out of Touch?" (p. 8), and "Redress Is No Substitute for Lost Homelands" (pp. 9, 12).
Memo from multiple incarcerees to the Co-ordinating Committee, February 1944 (ddr-csujad-2-89)
doc Memo from multiple incarcerees to the Co-ordinating Committee, February 1944 (ddr-csujad-2-89)
States that the incarcerees wish to see "normalcy re-established" and peace and cooperation preserved between the Administration and the "Colony" in the Tule Lake incarceration camp, pledging support for the Co-ordinating Committee's efforts to attain peace at the camp. A handwritten annotation next to one of the people's names provides his or her release date. Names …
Memo from Co-ordinating Committee to the Advisory Council, February 18, 1944 (ddr-csujad-2-93)
doc Memo from Co-ordinating Committee to the Advisory Council, February 18, 1944 (ddr-csujad-2-93)
Memo regarding peace movement headed by I. Uji of Block 53, Ward 6. Text provides Uji's full name (Iwao Uji) and also mentions June Sasaki and "Mrs. Matsuda" as other leaders of the peace movement; discusses their request for direct consultation with the Advisory Council. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization …
Report on Heart Mountain to Tule Lake transfer Sam Horino, leader of movement to challenge Selective Service for incarcerated Japanese Americans (ddr-csujad-2-45)
doc Report on Heart Mountain to Tule Lake transfer Sam Horino, leader of movement to challenge Selective Service for incarcerated Japanese Americans (ddr-csujad-2-45)
Informational report to Willard Schmidt about Sam Horino, an incarceree transferred from Heart Mountain Camp to Tule Lake Camp. Horino was accused of protesting the Selective Service program for incarcerated Japanese Americans and creating bulletins he posted throughout Heart Mountain Camp. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: sjs_sch_0045
Memo from Co-ordinating Committee to Mr. W. [Willard E.] Schmidt, Chief of Administrative Police, April 7, 1944 (ddr-csujad-2-74)
doc Memo from Co-ordinating Committee to Mr. W. [Willard E.] Schmidt, Chief of Administrative Police, April 7, 1944 (ddr-csujad-2-74)
Memo regarding resignation. Stating that the Center has returned to a state of "normalcy" including the return of approximately 2,000 ex-employees to work, it declares the dissolution of the Co-ordinating Committee, in order to make way for the election by all incarcerees ("the entire colonists' vote") of a new responsible body. The memo is signed by …
Report of the informal meeting of the stockade internees and the Co-ordinating Committee of the Tule Lake Center (ddr-csujad-2-68)
doc Report of the informal meeting of the stockade internees and the Co-ordinating Committee of the Tule Lake Center (ddr-csujad-2-68)
Report provides minutes of meeting requested by stockade incarcerees, listing the incarcerees, Co-ordinating Committee members, and others in attendance and presenting paraphrased text, identifying speakers by name. Topics addressed include incarcerees' difficulties in talking honestly, especially when they are spoken with in groups rather than individually; incarcerees' understanding of conditions in the camp outside of the …
Report of the informal meeting of the stockade internees and the Co-ordinating Committee of the Tule Lake Center (ddr-csujad-2-102)
doc Report of the informal meeting of the stockade internees and the Co-ordinating Committee of the Tule Lake Center (ddr-csujad-2-102)
Provides minutes of meeting requested by stockade incarcerees, listing the incarcerees, Co-ordinating Committee members, and others in attendance and presenting paraphrased text, identifying speakers by name. Topics addressed include incarcerees' difficulties in talking honestly; their understanding of conditions in the camp outside of the stockade; the work of the Co-ordinating Committee and of the Negotiating Committee; …
Letter from George Yoshioka to Rev. [Wendell L.] Miller, [September 11, 1942] (ddr-csujad-20-6)
doc Letter from George Yoshioka to Rev. [Wendell L.] Miller, [September 11, 1942] (ddr-csujad-20-6)
Personal letter written from Santa Anita Assembly Center. Yoshioka discusses the start of "movement to Relocation Centers," naming Parker Dam; Wyoming; Granada, Colorado; Arkansas; and Gila, Arizona, along with locations from which people are being removed, including San Diego, Los Angeles, Hollywood, Long Beach, and other Southern California locations. He also mentions that his family has …
Letter from Jane Harino to Rev. Wendell [L.] Miller, circa 1942 (ddr-csujad-20-7)
doc Letter from Jane Harino to Rev. Wendell [L.] Miller, circa 1942 (ddr-csujad-20-7)
Personal letter states that she is going to Jerome, Arkansas rather than to Granada, a change that pleases her because "there's a certain someone in Jerome - We're both so very happy"; also mentions passes for Miller [and Mrs. Miller?] as well as for the Reverend and Mrs. Clay, and asks that Miller help her by …
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