Concentration camps

The War Relocation Authority (WRA) oversaw construction of ten concentration camps in sparsely populated and isolated areas. Between June and October 1942, Japanese Americans were transferred from the "assembly centers" to the larger camps. Housing approximately 120,000 people, the camps were designed to be self-contained communities, complete with hospitals, post offices, schools, warehouses, and residential areas. The WRA attempted to establish normalcy by setting up newspapers, a degree of self-government, sports leagues, and social events. But confinement, monotony, and harsh conditions exacerbated tensions between pro- and anti-camp administration residents and between the disempowered Issei and their U.S.-born Nisei children. At several centers, conflicts erupted into violence and at the Manzanar concentration camp the unrest resulted in fatal shootings. The WRA gradually granted work and school leave to those they considered "loyal." The last camp closed in March 1946.

World War II (215)
Concentration camps (1199)

Related articles from the Densho Encyclopedia :
Concentration Camps, U.S.A. (book), Gila River, Heart Mountain, Jerome, Manzanar, Minidoka, Poston (Colorado River), Psychological effects of camp, Rohwer, Sites of incarceration, Topaz, Tule Lake

1199 items
Year at Gila: anniversary booklet (ddr-csujad-42-179)
doc Year at Gila: anniversary booklet (ddr-csujad-42-179)
A booklet to commemorate the first anniversary of the Gila River incarceration camp after the first incarcerees' arrival from the Turlock Assembly Center on July 20. 1942. It gives an overview of the Gira River incarceration camp, describing the population, housing, community enterprises, administration, community government, crops, post office, education, Red Cross, religion, publication, hospital, public …
Gila River incarceration camp (ddr-csujad-42-219)
img Gila River incarceration camp (ddr-csujad-42-219)
A photograph of the Gila River incarceration camp. It is taken from the center of the camp, facing south. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: tak_02_06_001
Civil Liberties Act of 1988, voluntary information form (ddr-csujad-42-142)
doc Civil Liberties Act of 1988, voluntary information form (ddr-csujad-42-142)
A copy of the Civil Liberties Act of 1988, voluntary information form to locate persons of Japanese ancestry who were forced to evacuate and were incarcerated during the war. The form is completed by Fumio Fred Takano. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: tak_01_76_002
Letter from the White House (ddr-csujad-42-155)
doc Letter from the White House (ddr-csujad-42-155)
An official apology letter signed by President George H. W. Bush which accompanied the redress payment check. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: tak_01_77_013
Letter from Robert K. Bratt, Administrator for Redress, Office of Redress Administration, Civil Rights Division, U.S. Department of Justice to the spouse of a deceased eligible individual, April 7, 1990 (ddr-csujad-42-148)
doc Letter from Robert K. Bratt, Administrator for Redress, Office of Redress Administration, Civil Rights Division, U.S. Department of Justice to the spouse of a deceased eligible individual, April 7, 1990 (ddr-csujad-42-148)
A copy of a letter from Robert K. Bratt, Administrator for Redress, Office of Redress Administration, Civil Rights Division, United States Department of Justice, addressing the spouse of a deceased Japanese American who was forced to evacuate and incarcerated during the war. It informs of the the Civil Liberties Act of 1988 and instructs to submit …
Letter from Robert K. Bratt, Administrator for Redress, Office of Redress Administration, Civil Rights Division, U.S. Department of Justice to recipient, November 6, 1990 (ddr-csujad-42-152)
doc Letter from Robert K. Bratt, Administrator for Redress, Office of Redress Administration, Civil Rights Division, U.S. Department of Justice to recipient, November 6, 1990 (ddr-csujad-42-152)
A copy of a letter from Robert K. Bratt, Administrator for Redress, Office of Redress Administration, Civil Rights Division, United States Department of Justice, addressing a recipient, who is presumably Yoneko or Mariko Takano. It notifies that the recipient's eligibility for a redress payment has been finalized and a check will be sent to the recipient …
Letter from Robert K. Bratt, Administrator for Redress, Office of Redress Administration, Civil Rights Division, U.S. Department of Justice (ddr-csujad-42-154)
doc Letter from Robert K. Bratt, Administrator for Redress, Office of Redress Administration, Civil Rights Division, U.S. Department of Justice (ddr-csujad-42-154)
A copy of a letter from Robert K. Bratt, Administrator for Redress, Office of Redress Administration, Civil Rights Division, United States Department of Justice, addressing a recipient who is a spouse of a deceased eligible for the redress payment. The recipient is presumably Yoneko Takano. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization …
Letter from Philip R. Ward Sr., Judicial, Fiscal, and Social Branch Civil Archives Division, National Archives and Records Administration to Mariko Hirashima, May 31, 1988 (ddr-csujad-42-145)
doc Letter from Philip R. Ward Sr., Judicial, Fiscal, and Social Branch Civil Archives Division, National Archives and Records Administration to Mariko Hirashima, May 31, 1988 (ddr-csujad-42-145)
A letter issued by Judicial, Fiscal, and Social Branch Civil Archives Division, National Archives and Records Administration to verify Mariko Morllie Hirashima's incarceration and release dates during the war. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: tak_01_77_003
Gila River incarceration camp (ddr-csujad-42-220)
img Gila River incarceration camp (ddr-csujad-42-220)
A photograph of the Gila River incarceration camp. It is taken from the center of the camp, facing south. The caption reads: [= Gila River incarceration camp]. Title from caption. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: tak_02_06_002
Heart Mountain incarceration camp (ddr-csujad-42-228)
img Heart Mountain incarceration camp (ddr-csujad-42-228)
A photograph of the Heart Mountain incarceration camp. The handwritten note on the back side reads: Heart Mountain. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: tak_02_06_010
Gila River Japanese Parents' Association meeting (ddr-csujad-42-224)
img Gila River Japanese Parents' Association meeting (ddr-csujad-42-224)
Photographed are attendees at the Gila River Japanese Parents' Association meeting. The handwritten note on the back side reads: Gila River Japanese Parents' Association meeting. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: tak_02_06_006
Butte community (ddr-csujad-42-184)
img Butte community (ddr-csujad-42-184)
A copy of an illustrated map of the Gila River incarceration camp. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: tak_01_90_001
Letter from Yoneko Takano to Joseph B. Howerton, Assistant Chief for Reference, Industrial and Social Branch, Civil Archives Division, National Archives and Records Service, General Services Administration, May 3, 1988 (ddr-csujad-42-144)
doc Letter from Yoneko Takano to Joseph B. Howerton, Assistant Chief for Reference, Industrial and Social Branch, Civil Archives Division, National Archives and Records Service, General Services Administration, May 3, 1988 (ddr-csujad-42-144)
A copy of a letter from Yoneko Takano to Joseph B. Howerton, Assistant Chief for Reference, Industrial and Social Branch, Civil Archives Division, National Archives and Records Service, General Services Administration. It requests verification of Yoneko's incarceration and release dates. It appears that Yoneko fills out the template letter (csudh_tak_0143), adding her address at the time …
Declaration of eligibility by the spouse of a deceased eligible person identified by the Office of Redress Administration (ddr-csujad-42-149)
doc Declaration of eligibility by the spouse of a deceased eligible person identified by the Office of Redress Administration (ddr-csujad-42-149)
Attachment page 1 and the reverse side completed by Yoneko Takano. The forms were presumably attached to the letter sent from Robert K. Bratt, Administrator for Redress, Office of Redress Administration, Civil Rights Division, United States Department of Justice, which is found in item: csudh_tak_0148. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization …
Photograph of Manzanar staff housing (ddr-csujad-47-341)
img Photograph of Manzanar staff housing (ddr-csujad-47-341)
Photograph of staff housing at Manzanar incarceration camp. Pete Merrit can be seen entering the second apartment from the right. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: ecm_merritt_0500
Photograph of Manzanar with mountains in the background (ddr-csujad-47-339)
img Photograph of Manzanar with mountains in the background (ddr-csujad-47-339)
Photograph of Manzanar incarceration camp taken from a guard tower looking toward the Sierra Nevada mountains. The staff housing and administrative buildings visible along with several cars. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: ecm_merritt_0498
Photograph of Mount Williamson with brush in the foreground (ddr-csujad-47-84)
img Photograph of Mount Williamson with brush in the foreground (ddr-csujad-47-84)
Photograph of Mount Williamson with brush in the foreground. The sky is filled with clouds. It appears the photograph was taken close to ground-level. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: ecm_merritt_0132
Photograph of Manzanar with mountains in the background (ddr-csujad-47-337)
img Photograph of Manzanar with mountains in the background (ddr-csujad-47-337)
Photograph of Manzanar incarceration camp taken from a guard tower looking toward the snow-covered Inyo mountains. Several blocks of the camp are visible with a utility pole in the lower right corner. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: ecm_merritt_0496
Photograph of distant mountains and sky taken through a wagon wheel in Death Valley (ddr-csujad-47-111)
img Photograph of distant mountains and sky taken through a wagon wheel in Death Valley (ddr-csujad-47-111)
Photograph of distant mountains and sky taken through a wagon wheel in Death Valley National Park. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: ecm_merritt_0196
Photograph of an orchard during winter with snow-covered Sierra Nevada in the background (ddr-csujad-47-82)
img Photograph of an orchard during winter with snow-covered Sierra Nevada in the background (ddr-csujad-47-82)
Photograph of an orchard during winter with snow-covered Sierra Nevada in the background. Several bare trees are in the foreground on cleared land. A line of utility poles crosses through the center of the photograph. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: ecm_merritt_0130
Photograph of the apple orchard at Manzanar (ddr-csujad-47-155)
img Photograph of the apple orchard at Manzanar (ddr-csujad-47-155)
Photograph of the apple orchard at Manzanar incarceration camp. The foreground is cleared desert, with the background of the snow-covered Sierra Nevada. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: ecm_merritt_0271
Photograph of an orchard during winter with snow-covered Mount Williamson in the background (ddr-csujad-47-83)
img Photograph of an orchard during winter with snow-covered Mount Williamson in the background (ddr-csujad-47-83)
Photograph of an orchard during winter with snow-covered Mount Williamson in the background. Bare trees are in the foreground on cleared land with a number of tire tracks present. A line of utility poles crosses through the center of the photograph. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: ecm_merritt_0131
End of the trail, impounded cars (ddr-csujad-47-19)
img End of the trail, impounded cars (ddr-csujad-47-19)
Photograph of the impounded cars lined up outside of Manzanar with Mount Williamson in the background, a line of buildings can be seen on the right side of the photograph stretching into the distance. Caption reads: End of the trail, impounded cars. Title from caption, which was taken from the original photo album. See this object …
Photograph looking across the desert toward the snow-covered Sierra Nevada (ddr-csujad-47-154)
img Photograph looking across the desert toward the snow-covered Sierra Nevada (ddr-csujad-47-154)
Photograph looking across the desert toward the snow-covered Sierra Nevada. The barbed wire fence surrounding Manzanar is visible along with a line of utility poles. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: ecm_merritt_0270
Photograph of a group of men tilling a Manzanar farm with the Alabama Hills in the background (ddr-csujad-47-56)
img Photograph of a group of men tilling a Manzanar farm with the Alabama Hills in the background (ddr-csujad-47-56)
Photograph of a group of incarcerees pulling a harrow through a field near the Manzanar incarceration camp. Seven men are pulling the harrow, one is guiding it, and the other is supervising. A row of buildings from Manzanar can be seen in the background, behind which are the Alabama Hills. See this object in the California …
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