Concentration camps

The War Relocation Authority (WRA) oversaw construction of ten concentration camps in sparsely populated and isolated areas. Between June and October 1942, Japanese Americans were transferred from the "assembly centers" to the larger camps. Housing approximately 120,000 people, the camps were designed to be self-contained communities, complete with hospitals, post offices, schools, warehouses, and residential areas. The WRA attempted to establish normalcy by setting up newspapers, a degree of self-government, sports leagues, and social events. But confinement, monotony, and harsh conditions exacerbated tensions between pro- and anti-camp administration residents and between the disempowered Issei and their U.S.-born Nisei children. At several centers, conflicts erupted into violence and at the Manzanar concentration camp the unrest resulted in fatal shootings. The WRA gradually granted work and school leave to those they considered "loyal." The last camp closed in March 1946.

World War II (66)
Concentration camps (592)

Related articles from the Densho Encyclopedia :
Concentration Camps, U.S.A. (book), Gila River, Heart Mountain, Jerome, Manzanar, Minidoka, Poston (Colorado River), Psychological effects of camp, Rohwer, Sites of incarceration, Topaz, Tule Lake

592 items
Group of women (ddr-csujad-11-198)
img Group of women (ddr-csujad-11-198)
A photograph of a group of women, including Tazu Kawamoto. It is probably taken in the Gila River incarceration camp, Arizona. From page 79 of: Tazu Kawamoto photo album (csudh_taz_0001). See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: taz_01_79_001
Group Poses Next to Cross (ddr-csujad-13-23)
img Group Poses Next to Cross (ddr-csujad-13-23)
A group of unidentified men pose together next to what appears to be a religious cross. The caption on front of photograph reads, "Tullelake." The men are most likely guards or soldiers stationed at the Tule Lake incarceration camp. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: tul_01_01_018
Man on the Lookout (ddr-csujad-13-12)
img Man on the Lookout (ddr-csujad-13-12)
A soldier sits in a rock formation with binoculars. Caption on back of photograph reads, "H.J.W. lying in cave of highest peak overlooking Camp Tulelake glancing [through] glasses pointed toward Jap camp." See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: tul_01_01_007
Men Posing Together (ddr-csujad-13-21)
img Men Posing Together (ddr-csujad-13-21)
A group of men, most likely soldiers, pose together. The caption on front of photograph reads, "On way to Tullelake Nov 43." See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: tul_01_01_016
Man in Winter (ddr-csujad-13-32)
img Man in Winter (ddr-csujad-13-32)
A man stands in front of a building holding some sort of cloth. The caption on front of photograph reads, "Cover the Doorway." The caption on back of photograph reads, "Pte Babbs 2/1/43." See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: tul_01_01_027
Cross (ddr-csujad-13-7)
img Cross (ddr-csujad-13-7)
A Christian cross is pictured on top of a hillside. The caption on back of photograph reads, "Cross erected by Christian Japs at highest peak in Nov 43 E camp in foreground." See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: tul_01_01_002
Men in Military Vehicle (ddr-csujad-13-4)
img Men in Military Vehicle (ddr-csujad-13-4)
Three men in military uniform are pictured in a military vehicle. The caption on back of photograph reads, "H.J.W. Manning 30 caliber gun on mounted car (armored) patrolling Jap streets during disturbance during Nov 43 at Tulelake Calif Capt. sitting in background." See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: tul_01_01_031
Soldier on Guard (ddr-csujad-13-18)
img Soldier on Guard (ddr-csujad-13-18)
A soldier stands with his back to the photographer. He is holding a gun and appears to be on guard. The caption on back of photograph reads, "Tulelake Calif. E.M.E.___ gun guarding Jap [disloyal] who threatened loyal family (his) ____ they left him." See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: ...
Large Crowd at Tule Lake Incarceration Camp (ddr-csujad-13-14)
img Large Crowd at Tule Lake Incarceration Camp (ddr-csujad-13-14)
A photograph of a crowd of people. The caption on front of photograph reads, "Jap Trouble Tullelake," which indicates the crowd is a result of some sort of disturbance or issue. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: tul_01_01_009
Group of People Gathered Together (ddr-csujad-13-11)
img Group of People Gathered Together (ddr-csujad-13-11)
A photograph of people gathered together in the Tule Lake incarceration camp. The caption on back of photograph reads, "All the Japs that quickly gathered as soon as family difficulty took place. They were quickly dispersed." See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: tul_01_01_006
Soldiers under the Trees (ddr-csujad-13-25)
img Soldiers under the Trees (ddr-csujad-13-25)
A group of soldiers in uniform pose together under the cover of trees. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: tul_01_01_020
Man in the Snow (ddr-csujad-13-30)
img Man in the Snow (ddr-csujad-13-30)
A man in military uniform is photographed in the now. It is unclear exactly which month this photograph was taken as the caption on front of photograph reads, "January 1943" and the caption on back of photograph reads, "Sgt. Mallman 2/1/43." See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: tul_01_01_025
Report on Alien Internee Camps (ddr-csujad-18-7)
doc Report on Alien Internee Camps (ddr-csujad-18-7)
This report by Howard W. Elkinton describes three alien internment camps at Seagoville, Kenedy and Crystal City and describes living conditions of the internees. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: RSG_01-06_03
Administrative instruction, no. 22, July 20, 1942 (ddr-csujad-18-8)
doc Administrative instruction, no. 22, July 20, 1942 (ddr-csujad-18-8)
This document discusses about the temporary procedures fro issuance of permits to individuals or single families to leave relocation centers for employment. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: RSG_01-01_05
Poston Camp hearing bares shameful facts (ddr-csujad-19-61)
doc Poston Camp hearing bares shameful facts (ddr-csujad-19-61)
An article from "Los Angeles examiner" published on June 20, 1943. It describes the training of a tactical unit, mob rule and open rebellion in the Poston incarceration camp in Arizona. It also discusses the reasons for these shameful activities to be the lack of central authority to assume responsibility and the confusion among the administration. ...
'What about Hugh Kiino' (ddr-csujad-19-82)
doc 'What about Hugh Kiino' (ddr-csujad-19-82)
This article from a magazine "Harper's," vol. 187, no. 1121 (October 1943), by S. Burton Heath is about a Japanese American citizen called Hugh Kiino. It addresses how Kiino, his wife, and seven thousand other Japanese Americans were forced by the United States army to leave their homes, desert their businesses and enter incarceration camps. See ...
Trouble among Japanese Americans (ddr-csujad-19-38)
doc Trouble among Japanese Americans (ddr-csujad-19-38)
This is an article from the magazine "The New Republic," vol. 108, no. 5, number 1470, by Isamu Noguchi describing the trouble and unrest among Japanese Americans in the war relocation centers following the entry of the United States in the second world war due to the attack on Pearl Harbor. See this object in the ...
Jap relocation probe begins, June 28, 1943 (ddr-csujad-19-60)
doc Jap relocation probe begins, June 28, 1943 (ddr-csujad-19-60)
The document describes the investigation of conditions in the incarceration camps in the West. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: WRA_02-14_01
Masonite (ddr-csujad-23-8)
img Masonite (ddr-csujad-23-8)
Oil Painting no. 1 of 2 "Masonite" by Geichiro Kare Kuramatsu. Geichiro (Ernest) Kare Kuramatsu was born in Japan in 1885 to a Russian mother and Japanese father. The family moved to Canada, and Ernest saw combat while serving with the Canadian Army in France during World War I. He completed this oil painting in 1943 ...
Clipping titled Exposed: America's World War II concentration camps (ddr-csujad-24-124)
doc Clipping titled Exposed: America's World War II concentration camps (ddr-csujad-24-124)
An article published in Mount Holyoke Alumnae quarterly, Fall 1997. A profile of Michi Wegyln that details her writing of the book "Years of Infamy" as well as her efforts to try to get redress for Japanese American railroad workers who were fired during World War II. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese ...
Michi Weglyn was noted activist who wrote redress 'bible' (ddr-csujad-24-132)
doc Michi Weglyn was noted activist who wrote redress 'bible' (ddr-csujad-24-132)
An obituary of Michi Weglyn written by Takeshi Nakayama and published in the Japanese American newspaper "Rafu Shimpo" on April 27, 1999. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: chi_09_017
Certificate of Commendation to William Minoru Hohri (ddr-csujad-24-47)
doc Certificate of Commendation to William Minoru Hohri (ddr-csujad-24-47)
William Minoru Hohri was honored by the Manzanar Committee for his leadership of the class action lawsuit Hohri v. U.S., a civil suit filed against the U.S. government demanding compensation for Japanese Americans incarcerated during World War II. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: chi_02_006
Years of infamy: the untold story of America's concentration camps (ddr-csujad-24-125)
doc Years of infamy: the untold story of America's concentration camps (ddr-csujad-24-125)
A listing for Michi Weglyn's book "Years of Infamy" from 1998 on Amazon.com. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: chi_09_010
Letter from James Landis, Publisher and Editor-in-Chief, William Morrow and Company to Harry Honda, Pacific Citizen, December 18, 1990 (ddr-csujad-24-114)
doc Letter from James Landis, Publisher and Editor-in-Chief, William Morrow and Company to Harry Honda, Pacific Citizen, December 18, 1990 (ddr-csujad-24-114)
A letter from James Landis to Harry Honda informing him that "Pacific Citizen," a publication of the Japanese American Citizens League (JACL), incorrectly described Michi Weglyn's book "Years of Infamy" as out of print. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: chi_08_016
Letter from William Hohri to Amerasia Journal, August 13, 1977 (ddr-csujad-24-84)
doc Letter from William Hohri to Amerasia Journal, August 13, 1977 (ddr-csujad-24-84)
A letter from William Hohri to the editor of Amerasia Journal criticizing an unfavorable review of Michi Weglyn's book "Years of Infamy." See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: chi_07_001
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