Concentration camps

The War Relocation Authority (WRA) oversaw construction of ten concentration camps in sparsely populated and isolated areas. Between June and October 1942, Japanese Americans were transferred from the "assembly centers" to the larger camps. Housing approximately 120,000 people, the camps were designed to be self-contained communities, complete with hospitals, post offices, schools, warehouses, and residential areas. The WRA attempted to establish normalcy by setting up newspapers, a degree of self-government, sports leagues, and social events. But confinement, monotony, and harsh conditions exacerbated tensions between pro- and anti-camp administration residents and between the disempowered Issei and their U.S.-born Nisei children. At several centers, conflicts erupted into violence and at the Manzanar concentration camp the unrest resulted in fatal shootings. The WRA gradually granted work and school leave to those they considered "loyal." The last camp closed in March 1946.

World War II (215)
Concentration camps (1199)

Related articles from the Densho Encyclopedia :
Concentration Camps, U.S.A. (book), Gila River, Heart Mountain, Jerome, Manzanar, Minidoka, Poston (Colorado River), Psychological effects of camp, Rohwer, Sites of incarceration, Topaz, Tule Lake

1199 items
Photograph of barracks at Manzanar (ddr-csujad-47-338)
img Photograph of barracks at Manzanar (ddr-csujad-47-338)
Photograph of several barracks and the cleared ground in front of them at Manzanar incarceration camp. Snow covered mountains can be seen in the background. A bare tree is visible in the foreground. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: ecm_merritt_0497
Letter from George H. Nakamura (ddr-csujad-55-2183)
doc Letter from George H. Nakamura (ddr-csujad-55-2183)
Correspondence from George Hideo Nakamura regarding Nakamura's pension credits and requesting consideration for the time he was incarcerated in the Tule Lake incarceration camp. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: sac_jaac_2285
Memo from Relocation Planning Commission to Community Council, February 28, 1944 (ddr-csujad-55-603)
doc Memo from Relocation Planning Commission to Community Council, February 28, 1944 (ddr-csujad-55-603)
Memorandum of understanding from Robert Kodama, Executive Secretary of the Relocation Planning Commission, to the Heart Mountain Community Council regarding the background and purpose of the Relocation Planning Commission. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: sac_jaac_0605
Letter from Kent Syverud, Assistant Professor, University of Michigan Law School, to Professor Yuzuru John Takeshita, September 23, 1987 (ddr-csujad-55-258)
doc Letter from Kent Syverud, Assistant Professor, University of Michigan Law School, to Professor Yuzuru John Takeshita, September 23, 1987 (ddr-csujad-55-258)
Correspondence from Kent Syverud to Professor Yuzuru John Takeshita regarding the Japanese American incarceration during World War II and redress. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: sac_jaac_0260
Japanese American individuals at an incarceration camp (ddr-csujad-55-2272)
img Japanese American individuals at an incarceration camp (ddr-csujad-55-2272)
Black and white photograph depicting two Japanese American individuals at an incarceration camp. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: sac_jaac_2376
Election results (ddr-csujad-55-266)
doc Election results (ddr-csujad-55-266)
Election results for block chairmen at Heart Mountain incarceration camp. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: sac_jaac_0268
Poston 2 WRA Camp (ddr-csujad-55-2492)
img Poston 2 WRA Camp (ddr-csujad-55-2492)
Map of Poston 2 incarceration camp and the surrounding area in Yuma (LaPaz) County, Arizona. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: sac_jaac_2598
Contraband articles: Western Defense Command (ddr-csujad-55-864)
doc Contraband articles: Western Defense Command (ddr-csujad-55-864)
List and description of items classified by the Western Defense Command as contraband. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: sac_jaac_0866
Resolution (ddr-csujad-55-494)
doc Resolution (ddr-csujad-55-494)
Resolution calling for a meeting of "evacuee leaders" from nine incarceration camps to discuss problems related to incarceration. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: sac_jaac_0496
Relocation program: a guidebook for the residents of relocation centers (ddr-csujad-55-345)
doc Relocation program: a guidebook for the residents of relocation centers (ddr-csujad-55-345)
Pamphlet describing the policies and procedures of the War Relocation Authority regarding the "relocation program." Includes policies on leave, work placement, travel and subsistence, food, lodging, health services, clothing allowances, community government, education,internal security, consumer enterprises, center-produced newspapers, legal aid, public assistance grants, recreation, religion, burial and cremation, property assistance, contraband, voting rights, income tax liability, …
Japanese American internment in World War II--the issue of redress IPO158 (ddr-csujad-55-157)
doc Japanese American internment in World War II--the issue of redress IPO158 (ddr-csujad-55-157)
Packet of information prepared by the Library of Congress in order to provide basic information on the "World War II internment, the Commission, its findings, and pro/con material on the complex issue of redress." Includes an analysis of, "the internment of German and Italian Aliens Compared with the Internment of Japanese Aliens in the United States …
Heart Mountain administrative officers (ddr-csujad-55-265)
doc Heart Mountain administrative officers (ddr-csujad-55-265)
List of administrative officers at Heart Mountain incarceration camp. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: sac_jaac_0267
Location map of WRA projects (ddr-csujad-55-2494)
img Location map of WRA projects (ddr-csujad-55-2494)
Partial map of the United States indicating the location of Tule Lake, Minidoka, Heart Mountain, Topaz, and Manzanar incarceration camps. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: sac_jaac_2600
News clippings, February-March, 1944 (ddr-csujad-55-966)
doc News clippings, February-March, 1944 (ddr-csujad-55-966)
Collection of newspaper clippings covering Japanese Americans during World War II. Topics include incarceration camps, Japanese American soldiers, race, prejudice, work, "resettlement," and other commentary. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: sac_jaac_0968
Letter from Hideko Wakita to Mrs. Margaret Waegell, December 10, 1942 (ddr-csujad-55-74)
doc Letter from Hideko Wakita to Mrs. Margaret Waegell, December 10, 1942 (ddr-csujad-55-74)
Handwritten correspondence from Hideko Wakita to Margaret Waegell. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: sac_jaac_00078
Tule Lake (ddr-csujad-55-2705)
doc Tule Lake (ddr-csujad-55-2705)
The pamphlet includes a brief description of Tule Lake camp and the program for Tule Lake plaque dedication ceremony held on May 27, 1979. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: sac_jaac_2869
East wooded area (ddr-csujad-55-2637)
img East wooded area (ddr-csujad-55-2637)
A photograph of east wooded area at the Jerome camp, Denson, Arkansas, 1943. Title from caption. See also sac_jaac_2808 for envelope. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: sac_jaac_2801
Relocation of persons of Japanese ancestry in the United States: some causes and effects (ddr-csujad-55-338)
doc Relocation of persons of Japanese ancestry in the United States: some causes and effects (ddr-csujad-55-338)
Article describing the political and sociological implications of the Japanese incarceration during World War II written from the perspective of an anthropologist. Reprinted from Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: sac_jaac_0340
Letter from Leo Uchida to James Waegell, Jack, and George, May 22, 1944 (ddr-csujad-55-2336)
doc Letter from Leo Uchida to James Waegell, Jack, and George, May 22, 1944 (ddr-csujad-55-2336)
Correspondence from Leo Uchida to Jim [James Waegell], Jack, and George regarding Uchida's life and schooling at Manzanar incarceration camp during World War II. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: sac_jaac_2442
Tulelake reunion III (ddr-csujad-55-2709)
doc Tulelake reunion III (ddr-csujad-55-2709)
Pamphlet of Tule Lake reunion III held at Sacramento, California, May 27-30, 1988. Includes historical photographs of people incarcerated at Tule Lake camp. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: sac_jaac_2873
Letter from Dillon S. Myer, Director, War Relocation Authority, to WRA staff members, 1943 (ddr-csujad-55-1655)
doc Letter from Dillon S. Myer, Director, War Relocation Authority, to WRA staff members, 1943 (ddr-csujad-55-1655)
Correspondence from Dillon S. Myer to all staff members regarding two War Relocation Authority reports on incarceration camps. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: sac_jaac_1657
Day of remembrance 1990: a promise fulfilled (ddr-csujad-55-2691)
doc Day of remembrance 1990: a promise fulfilled (ddr-csujad-55-2691)
Pamphlet of 1990 day of remembrance sponsored by Japanese American Citizens' League. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: sac_jaac_2855
Tule Lake interlude (ddr-csujad-55-368)
doc Tule Lake interlude (ddr-csujad-55-368)
Pamphlet commemorating the first anniversary of Tule Lake incarceration camp. Includes articles on "various aspects of evacuee life as experienced by the nisei" during 1942-1943. Includes essays, poetry, and illustrations by incarcerees, primarily covering daily life at Tule Lake incarceration camp. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: sac_jaac_0370
Manzanar WRA Camp (ddr-csujad-55-2487)
img Manzanar WRA Camp (ddr-csujad-55-2487)
Map of Inyo County, California and the site of Manzanar incarceration camp. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: sac_jaac_2593
Minidoka Relocation Center (ddr-csujad-55-2485)
img Minidoka Relocation Center (ddr-csujad-55-2485)
Map of the Minidoka incarceration camp in Jerome County, Arkansas. Includes layout of barracks, camp data, and statistics. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: sac_jaac_2591
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