Concentration camps

The War Relocation Authority (WRA) oversaw construction of ten concentration camps in sparsely populated and isolated areas. Between June and October 1942, Japanese Americans were transferred from the "assembly centers" to the larger camps. Housing approximately 120,000 people, the camps were designed to be self-contained communities, complete with hospitals, post offices, schools, warehouses, and residential areas. The WRA attempted to establish normalcy by setting up newspapers, a degree of self-government, sports leagues, and social events. But confinement, monotony, and harsh conditions exacerbated tensions between pro- and anti-camp administration residents and between the disempowered Issei and their U.S.-born Nisei children. At several centers, conflicts erupted into violence and at the Manzanar concentration camp the unrest resulted in fatal shootings. The WRA gradually granted work and school leave to those they considered "loyal." The last camp closed in March 1946.

World War II (231)
Concentration camps (1454)

Related articles from the Densho Encyclopedia :
Concentration Camps, U.S.A. (book), Gila River, Heart Mountain, Jerome, Manzanar, Minidoka, Poston (Colorado River), Psychological effects of camp, Rohwer, Sites of incarceration, Topaz, Tule Lake

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1454 items
People gathering around a vehicle covered in baggage (ddr-csujad-26-91)
img People gathering around a vehicle covered in baggage (ddr-csujad-26-91)
Group of people, including men with bicycles, gather around a vehicle with baggage tied to the roof. From photo album of Robert Billigmeier. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: mei_05_028
Young women (ddr-csujad-26-123)
img Young women (ddr-csujad-26-123)
A group of young Japanese American women poses with a Caucasian woman in front of a barracks building. From photo album of Robert Billigmeier. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: mei_05_092
Japanese couple (ddr-csujad-26-124)
img Japanese couple (ddr-csujad-26-124)
Photo of a Japanese American couple wearing crucifix pins pose outdoors. A crowd is in the background. From photo album of Robert Billigmeier. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: mei_05_093
Nursery school (ddr-csujad-26-97)
img Nursery school (ddr-csujad-26-97)
Children and teacher raising hands in a nursery school classroom. Caption on back of photograph reads, "Nursery school." From photo album of Robert Billigmeier. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: mei_05_034
Outline of University of California study of evacuation and resettlement (ddr-csujad-26-2)
doc Outline of University of California study of evacuation and resettlement (ddr-csujad-26-2)
Outline for an academic social science study, the Japanese American Evacuation and Resettlement Study (JERS), led by the University of California of the incarceration of Japanese Americans during World War II. Outline highlights area of administrative, social, political and personal areas to be studied by a team of researchers encamped with incarcerees. See this object in …
Fashion show (ddr-csujad-26-127)
img Fashion show (ddr-csujad-26-127)
Two Japanese American women pose in front of an audience during a fashion show. Verso reads, "a fashion show." From photo album of Robert Billigmeier. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: mei_05_096
Farm [farm workers loading truck] (ddr-csujad-26-72)
img Farm [farm workers loading truck] (ddr-csujad-26-72)
Three workers smile at the camera while loading a truck. Caption on back of photograph reads, "The farm." From photo album of Robert Billigmeier. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: mei_05_009
Group photo in front of barracks (ddr-csujad-26-136)
img Group photo in front of barracks (ddr-csujad-26-136)
Three Japanese American women and one man pose together in front of a barracks building. An automobile and additional barracks can be seen in the background. From photo album of Robert Billigmeier. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: mei_05_106
Barracks row (ddr-csujad-26-86)
img Barracks row (ddr-csujad-26-86)
A man walks toward a row of barracks lining a dusty road. From photo album of Robert Billigmeier. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: mei_05_023
People on hillside viewing camp (ddr-csujad-26-73)
img People on hillside viewing camp (ddr-csujad-26-73)
Photo of people standing along a hillside overlooking camp. From photo album of Robert Billigmeier. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: mei_05_010
Women gather next to bus (ddr-csujad-26-74)
img Women gather next to bus (ddr-csujad-26-74)
Women gather next to a packed bus with people inside possibly for "resettlement." From photo album of Robert Billigmeier. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: mei_05_011
Young man on tractor (ddr-csujad-26-131)
img Young man on tractor (ddr-csujad-26-131)
Photo of a young Japanese American man on a tractor. Barracks building are seen in the background. From photo album of Robert Billigmeier. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: mei_05_101
On Castle Rock above the camp--facing Mt. Shasta (ddr-csujad-26-70)
img On Castle Rock above the camp--facing Mt. Shasta (ddr-csujad-26-70)
Photo of three Japanese Americans and four Caucasian people, including Robert Billigmeier, posing with snowballs and a dog. Caption on back of photograph reads, "On Castle Rock above the camp - facing Mt. Shasta." From photo album of Robert Billigmeier. Related photo in sequence ucsb_mei_0122. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization …
Large group photo (ddr-csujad-26-125)
img Large group photo (ddr-csujad-26-125)
Photo of a large group of Japanese Americans and Caucasian men and women pose in front of a barracks building with a baby and a dog. From photo album of Robert Billigmeier. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: mei_05_094
View from Castle Rock facing east (ddr-csujad-26-129)
img View from Castle Rock facing east (ddr-csujad-26-129)
Landscape photo featuring the Tule Lake incarceration camp and the roads around it as seen in the snow from a nearby hill top. Verso reads, "view from Castle Rock facing east." From photo album of Robert Billigmeier. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: mei_05_099
Young Japanese couple (ddr-csujad-26-119)
img Young Japanese couple (ddr-csujad-26-119)
Photo of a young Japanese American couple seated on a bench in front of barracks buildings. From photo album of Robert Billigmeier. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: mei_05_088
High school English (ddr-csujad-26-85)
img High school English (ddr-csujad-26-85)
A crowded classroom filled with students taking notes. Caption on back of photograph reads, "High school English." From photo album of Robert Billigmeier. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: mei_05_022
Women pose in front of building (ddr-csujad-26-84)
img Women pose in front of building (ddr-csujad-26-84)
A group of young women pose in front of what may be the side of a barracks building. From photo album of Robert Billigmeier. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: mei_05_021
Chapter outlines (ddr-csujad-26-33)
doc Chapter outlines (ddr-csujad-26-33)
Outline of chapter topics relating to incarceration based on materials collected during the Japanese American Evacuation and Resettlement Study (JERS). See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: mei_03_03_002
Two women walking (ddr-csujad-26-71)
img Two women walking (ddr-csujad-26-71)
Two Japanese American women walking while people gather in background in front of desert landscape. From photo album of Robert Billigmeier. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: mei_05_008
Large group photo (ddr-csujad-26-143)
img Large group photo (ddr-csujad-26-143)
Photo of a large group of Japanese Americans and Caucasian men and women pose in front of a barracks building with a baby and a dog. From photo album of Robert Billigmeier. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: mei_05_116
Father Dai (Daisuke Kitagawa) Episcopal minister and his flock (ddr-csujad-26-98)
img Father Dai (Daisuke Kitagawa) Episcopal minister and his flock (ddr-csujad-26-98)
Group photo of parishioners in front of building. Caption on back of photograph reads, "Father Dai (Daisuke Kitagawa) Episcopal minister and his flock." From photo album of Robert Billigmeier. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: mei_05_035
Structural report, chapter I: an introduction to Tule Lake (ddr-csujad-26-3)
doc Structural report, chapter I: an introduction to Tule Lake (ddr-csujad-26-3)
Portion of a report compiled as part of the Japanese American Evacuation and Resettlement Study (JERS) describing the landscape, climate, barracks, facilities, schedule, and daily life routines of incarcerees at the Tule Lake incarceration camp. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: mei_01_34_001
Woman and young men (ddr-csujad-26-82)
img Woman and young men (ddr-csujad-26-82)
A Caucasian woman and three young Japanese American men pose in front of a barracks building. From photo album of Robert Billigmeier. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: mei_05_019
Tule Lake monograph (ddr-csujad-26-1)
doc Tule Lake monograph (ddr-csujad-26-1)
Unpublished manuscript includes a collection of diary entries, letters, and essays written by school students incarcerated at the Tule Lake camp and collected through the Japanese American Evacuation and Resettlement Study (JERS). The writings include first-person descriptions of travel to the Tule Lake camp, adapting to camp, limitations of camp, day-to-day camp life, family life, community …
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