Returning home

When the camps closed, Japanese Americans were handed $25 and put on trains headed for the places they had been forcibly removed from nearly four years earlier. Harassment was common -- many returning Japanese Americans were greeted with signs reading "No Japs Allowed." Other discovered their property had been vandalized or stolen. Homes and businesses that had been boarded up or left in the care of others were abandoned and stripped of furnishings and goods. For the majority, who did not have homes to return to, housing was the most serious problem. Housing discrimination was severe in many areas and persisted to varying degrees until the civil rights legislation of the 1960s. Former camp inmates with no other options moved into hostels and converted community institutions with conditions not much better than the camps they had just left. Although this period was stressful, it is remembered as a time when people came together to share what they had.

World War II (215)
Leaving camp (260)
Returning home (1010)

Related articles from the Densho Encyclopedia :
Alien land laws, Hood River incident, Kazuo Masuda, Return to West Coast

1010 items
Third Annual Oregon Nisei Bowling League Tournament Dance- Trophies (ddr-one-1-114)
av Third Annual Oregon Nisei Bowling League Tournament Dance- Trophies (ddr-one-1-114)
Black and white photographic negative of Bruce Fukuda holding two trophies at the Third Annual Oregon Nisei Bowling League Tournament Dance at McElroy's Ballroom in Portland, Oregon.
Leave permit identification card (ddr-csujad-42-109)
img Leave permit identification card (ddr-csujad-42-109)
A leave permit identification card issued for Mariko Mollie Hirashima on April 19, 1945. It certifies that she "may travel and reside within the areas of Western Defense Command heretofore prohibited to persons of Japanese ancestry." Mariko is one of the daughters of Itsuhei and Tomoye Takano and incarcerated in the Manzanar incarceration camp during the …
Uniform express receipt (ddr-csujad-42-118)
doc Uniform express receipt (ddr-csujad-42-118)
A receipt issued by Railway Express Agency on December 14, 1945. It details the shipment that Fumio Fred Takano shipped from Chicago, Illinois, to Los Angeles, California, including three boxes, one tool box, one footlocker, and one carton. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: tak_01_66_001
Notice from Gila River Project, War Relocation Authority, United States Department of Interior, July 7, 1945 (ddr-csujad-42-112)
doc Notice from Gila River Project, War Relocation Authority, United States Department of Interior, July 7, 1945 (ddr-csujad-42-112)
A notice from Gila River Project, War Relocation Authority, United States Department of the Interior. It certifies that Fumio Fred Takano has returned the work equipment which belongs to War Relocation Authority. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: tak_01_61_001
Letter from John D. Seater, Chief Project Steward, Gila River Project, War Relocation Authority, United States Department of the Interior, July 30, 1945 (ddr-csujad-42-116)
doc Letter from John D. Seater, Chief Project Steward, Gila River Project, War Relocation Authority, United States Department of the Interior, July 30, 1945 (ddr-csujad-42-116)
A letter from John D. Seater, Chief Project Steward, Gila River Project, War Relocation Authority, United States Department of the Interior. It itemizes the Itsuhei Takano's belongings in his unit in the barracks, 31-2-D, in the Gila River incarceration camp. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: tak_01_64_001
Letter from Tsuruno Meguro to Fumio Fred and Yoneko Takano, June 21, 1945 (ddr-csujad-42-83)
doc Letter from Tsuruno Meguro to Fumio Fred and Yoneko Takano, June 21, 1945 (ddr-csujad-42-83)
A letter from Tsuruno Meguro to her son-in-law and daughter, Fumio Fred and Yoneko Takano in Chicago, Illinois. She writes from Santa Clarita, California, where she has been reestablishing her life after the forced evacuation and incarceration. The letter explains about the reason why she has not moved to Los Angles, California, but instead to Saugus, …
Letter from Henry C. Freeland, Leave Officer for L. H. Bennett, Project Director, Gila River Project, War Relocation Authority, United States Department of the Interior, August 6, 1945 (ddr-csujad-42-117)
doc Letter from Henry C. Freeland, Leave Officer for L. H. Bennett, Project Director, Gila River Project, War Relocation Authority, United States Department of the Interior, August 6, 1945 (ddr-csujad-42-117)
A letter from Henry C. Freeland, Leave Officer for L. H. Bennett, Project Director, Gila River Project, War Relocation Authority, Untied States Department of the Interior. It certifies that Itsuhei Takano is permitted to travel to Los Angeles, California by the Department of Justice. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project …
Evacuee property receipt (ddr-csujad-42-97)
doc Evacuee property receipt (ddr-csujad-42-97)
A property receipt issued to Fumio Fred Takano. It lists two boxes. It appears to be a receipt for the shipment of Fumio's belongings from the Gila River incarceration to Los Angeles, California. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: tak_01_50_002
Letter from Tsuruno Meguro to Fumio Fred and Yoneko Takano, June 21, 1945, typescript (ddr-csujad-42-85)
doc Letter from Tsuruno Meguro to Fumio Fred and Yoneko Takano, June 21, 1945, typescript (ddr-csujad-42-85)
Japanese typescript of the letter: csudh_tak_0083. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: tak_01_40_001_jpn
Letter from John D. Seater, Chief Project Steward, Gila River Project, July 10, 1945 (ddr-csujad-42-113)
doc Letter from John D. Seater, Chief Project Steward, Gila River Project, July 10, 1945 (ddr-csujad-42-113)
A letter from John D. Seater, Chief Project Steward, Gila River Project, War Relocation Authority, United States Department of the Interior. It lists the food items and certifies that they are Fumio Fred Takano's personal belongings. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: tak_01_62_001
Photograph of Bea White and son, with Lucille Bouche and Elizabeth Moxley at the closing of Manzanar (ddr-csujad-47-326)
img Photograph of Bea White and son, with Lucille Bouche and Elizabeth Moxley at the closing of Manzanar (ddr-csujad-47-326)
Photograph of Bea White and son, with Lucille Bouche and Elizabeth Moxley at the closing of Manzanar incarceration camp. They are standing in front of the entrance to the camp with the closure notification: This project officially closed, November 21-1945, no admittance, except on business. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization …
Photograph of people with dogs in front of a car and barracks (ddr-csujad-47-329)
img Photograph of people with dogs in front of a car and barracks (ddr-csujad-47-329)
Photograph of four people with three dogs on a lawn at Manzanar incarceration camp. Behind them are two cars and several barracks buildings. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: ecm_merritt_0488
Photograph of Dr. Little with hospital nurses (ddr-csujad-47-318)
img Photograph of Dr. Little with hospital nurses (ddr-csujad-47-318)
Photograph of Dr. Morse and Christine Little posing with other hospital nurses as the Little family gets ready to depart the Manzanar incarceration camp. Behind the group is a car and trailer loaded with the families belongings. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: ecm_merritt_0473
Photograph of Christine Little (ddr-csujad-47-311)
img Photograph of Christine Little (ddr-csujad-47-311)
Photograph of Christine Little posing in front of a building near the Manzanar incarceration camp. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: ecm_merritt_0463
Photograph of Dr. Morse Little and his two sons getting ready to depart (ddr-csujad-47-349)
img Photograph of Dr. Morse Little and his two sons getting ready to depart (ddr-csujad-47-349)
Photograph of Dr. Morse Little and his two sons as they are getting ready to depart Manzanar incarceration camp. Behind them is a car, utility pole, several buildings and the Inyo mountains. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: ecm_merritt_1470
Photograph of Dr. Morse Little (ddr-csujad-47-314)
img Photograph of Dr. Morse Little (ddr-csujad-47-314)
Photograph of Dr. Morse Little holding a camera with a car and trailer in the background at Manzanar incarceration camp. The trailer is full of their belongings as they are preparing to depart. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: ecm_merritt_0469
Photograph of mobile structures and trailers (ddr-csujad-47-331)
img Photograph of mobile structures and trailers (ddr-csujad-47-331)
Photograph of a temporary structure and a large trailer in front of barracks at Manzanar incarceration camp. Two men are walking between the structures. In the foreground there is a clothes pole. The photograph is slightly out of focus. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: ecm_merritt_0490
Memo from A.M. Tollefson, Colonel, CMP, Director, Prisoner of War Operations Division to CG US Army Forces, October 23, 1945 (ddr-csujad-55-231)
doc Memo from A.M. Tollefson, Colonel, CMP, Director, Prisoner of War Operations Division to CG US Army Forces, October 23, 1945 (ddr-csujad-55-231)
Memorandum of understanding from A. M. Tollefson to CG US Army Forces regarding relocation of enemy aliens to Hawaii. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: sac_jaac_0233
Memo from Henry C. Freeland, Relocation Advisor, Gila River Project to Whom It May Concern re: Permission for Shige Abe to travel, October 24, 1945 (ddr-csujad-55-29)
doc Memo from Henry C. Freeland, Relocation Advisor, Gila River Project to Whom It May Concern re: Permission for Shige Abe to travel, October 24, 1945 (ddr-csujad-55-29)
Certification letter granting Shige Abe permission to travel to Gardena, California. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: sac_jaac_00032
Administrative notice, no. 237 (April 3, 1945) (ddr-csujad-55-1666)
doc Administrative notice, no. 237 (April 3, 1945) (ddr-csujad-55-1666)
WRA Assistance for Housing Accommodations in West Coast Areas, War Relocation Authority. Policies and procedures for housing accommodations for former incarcerees returning to west coast areas. Covers conditions for housing facilities to obtain government loans in order to support the influx of former incarcerees and other procedures related to housing. See this object in the California …
Community analyst report, no. 77 (May 15, 1945) (ddr-csujad-55-1664)
doc Community analyst report, no. 77 (May 15, 1945) (ddr-csujad-55-1664)
Community Analyst Trend Report from May 7 to 13, 1945. Report on Poston incarceration camp including departure of incarcerees and their relocation plans, army clearance, incarceree committees, incidents in Fresno, CA and Parker, AZ, combining mess halls, school closings, V-E Day, and a suicide. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project …
Leave program of the War Relocation Authority (ddr-csujad-55-1670)
doc Leave program of the War Relocation Authority (ddr-csujad-55-1670)
Report on the leave program of the War Relocation Authority. Covers west coast evacuation, development of the "relocation program," relocation offices, registration ("loyalty questionnaire"), changes in leave procedures, security investigation, leave clearance, project investigations, hearings, and review, evacuee support, change of address, community acceptance, and current problems with relocation. See this object in the California State …
Memo from V.R. Miller, Colonel, Infantry, Commanding, to the Adjutant General, War Department, Washington 25, D.C., September 6, 1945 (ddr-csujad-55-230)
doc Memo from V.R. Miller, Colonel, Infantry, Commanding, to the Adjutant General, War Department, Washington 25, D.C., September 6, 1945 (ddr-csujad-55-230)
Memorandum of understanding from V. R. Miller regarding Frank Okusako's request for relocation of his family from the Tule Lake incarceration camp. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: sac_jaac_0232
Letter from Rev. John M. Yamazaki, March 27, 1945 (ddr-csujad-55-789)
doc Letter from Rev. John M. Yamazaki, March 27, 1945 (ddr-csujad-55-789)
Correspondence from Reverend John M. Yamazaki to "friends" regarding "resettlement" to the west coast. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: sac_jaac_0791
Letter from Leo Uchida to James Waegell, November 8, 1944 (ddr-csujad-55-2338)
doc Letter from Leo Uchida to James Waegell, November 8, 1944 (ddr-csujad-55-2338)
Correspondence from Leo Uchida to James Waegell regarding military service during World War II, family relocation to do farming work, and updates on daily life. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: sac_jaac_2444
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