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Returning home

When the camps closed, Japanese Americans were handed $25 and put on trains headed for the places they had been forcibly removed from nearly four years earlier. Harassment was common -- many returning Japanese Americans were greeted with signs reading "No Japs Allowed." Other discovered their property had been vandalized or stolen. Homes and businesses that had been boarded up or left in the care of others were abandoned and stripped of furnishings and goods. For the majority, who did not have homes to return to, housing was the most serious problem. Housing discrimination was severe in many areas and persisted to varying degrees until the civil rights legislation of the 1960s. Former camp inmates with no other options moved into hostels and converted community institutions with conditions not much better than the camps they had just left. Although this period was stressful, it is remembered as a time when people came together to share what they had.

World War II (215)
Leaving camp (260)
Returning home (1010)

Related articles from the Densho Encyclopedia :
Alien land laws, Hood River incident, Kazuo Masuda, Return to West Coast

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1010 items
Finishing touches, painting (ddr-csujad-38-301)
img Finishing touches, painting (ddr-csujad-38-301)
Photographed is the Masukawa family's house in Los Angeles, California, being repaired. The caption reads: Finishing touches, painting. Title from caption. The handwritten note on the back side describes the house. The first part of the note is found in item: csudh_nao_0352. A photo from: Mitzi Naohara photo album (csudh_nao_0200), page 19. See this object in …
Emiko and Grandma (ddr-csujad-38-313)
img Emiko and Grandma (ddr-csujad-38-313)
Photographed are Koyuta Masukawa and Emiko. The caption reads: Emiko and Grandma, 7 yrs, 58 yrs old. Title from caption. The handwritten note on the back side reads: The photo was taken on April 15, 1946. Mother age at 58. Emiko age at 7. Papa took it. I became an old grandma. [In Japanese]. A photo …
Heart Mountain Relocation Project Fifth Community Council, 4th session (August 24, 1945) (ddr-csujad-45-55)
doc Heart Mountain Relocation Project Fifth Community Council, 4th session (August 24, 1945) (ddr-csujad-45-55)
The council minutes feature the report on WRA freight rules for leaving for the East Coast. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: HMRC_01-01_084
Letter from Tsuruno Meguro to Fumio Fred and Yoneko Takano, June 21, 1945, English translation (ddr-csujad-42-84)
doc Letter from Tsuruno Meguro to Fumio Fred and Yoneko Takano, June 21, 1945, English translation (ddr-csujad-42-84)
English translation of the letter: csudh_tak_0083. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: tak_01_40_001_eng
Letter from James Brell, CWO USA, Actg Asst Adj Gen, to Mr. Fumio Fred Takano, June 21, 1945 (ddr-csujad-42-111)
doc Letter from James Brell, CWO USA, Actg Asst Adj Gen, to Mr. Fumio Fred Takano, June 21, 1945 (ddr-csujad-42-111)
A letter from James Brell, Acting Assistant Adjutant General, Chief Warrant Officer, Western Defense Command, United States Army, to Fumio Fred Takano in the Gila River incarceration camp. The letter informs that Fumio's exclusion status has been changed and he is authorized to travel and reside within the West Coast exclusion zone. It also instructs him …
Photograph of a hospital nurse in front of a building (ddr-csujad-47-332)
img Photograph of a hospital nurse in front of a building (ddr-csujad-47-332)
Photograph of a female hospital nurse standing in front of a brick building at Manzanar incarceration camp. She is wearing her uniform. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: ecm_merritt_0491
Photograph of Bea White and son, with Lucille Bouche and Elizabeth Moxley at the closing of Manzanar (ddr-csujad-47-327)
img Photograph of Bea White and son, with Lucille Bouche and Elizabeth Moxley at the closing of Manzanar (ddr-csujad-47-327)
Photograph of Bea White and son, with Lucille Bouche and Elizabeth Moxley at the closing of Manzanar incarceration camp. They are standing in front of the entrance to the camp with the closure notification: This project officially closed, November 21-1945, no admittance, except on business. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization …
Photograph of Christine Little (ddr-csujad-47-316)
img Photograph of Christine Little (ddr-csujad-47-316)
Photograph of two people, one is Christine Little, standing in front of a car with a trailer attached as the Little family is getting ready to depart the Manzanar incarceration camp. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: ecm_merritt_0471
Photograph of Dr. Little with hospital nurses (ddr-csujad-47-317)
img Photograph of Dr. Little with hospital nurses (ddr-csujad-47-317)
Photograph of Dr. Morse and Christine Little posing with other hospital nurses as the Little family gets ready to depart the Manzanar incarceration camp. Behind the group is a car and trailer loaded with the families belongings. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: ecm_merritt_0472
Photograph of Christine Little (ddr-csujad-47-312)
img Photograph of Christine Little (ddr-csujad-47-312)
Photograph of Christine Little posing in front of a tree with a car in the background at the Manzanar incarceration camp. She is wearing a winter coat. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: ecm_merritt_0464
Photograph of Bea White and son, with Lucille Bouche and Elizabeth Moxley at the closing of Manzanar (ddr-csujad-47-328)
img Photograph of Bea White and son, with Lucille Bouche and Elizabeth Moxley at the closing of Manzanar (ddr-csujad-47-328)
Photograph of Bea White and son, with Lucille Bouche and Elizabeth Moxley at the closing of Manzanar incarceration camp. They are standing in front of the entrance to the camp with the closure notification: This project officially closed, November 21-1945, no admittance, except on business. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization …
Photograph of women at Manzanar (ddr-csujad-47-330)
img Photograph of women at Manzanar (ddr-csujad-47-330)
Photograph of three women with a utility pole in the background at Manzanar incarceration camp. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: ecm_merritt_0489
Photograph of Dr. Morse Little (ddr-csujad-47-313)
img Photograph of Dr. Morse Little (ddr-csujad-47-313)
Photograph of Dr. Morse Little holding a camera with a car and trailer in the background at Manzanar incarceration camp. The trailer is full of their belongings as they are preparing to depart. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: ecm_merritt_0468
Photograph of Dr. Morse Little and family getting ready to depart (ddr-csujad-47-315)
img Photograph of Dr. Morse Little and family getting ready to depart (ddr-csujad-47-315)
Photograph of Dr. Morse and Christine Little with their two sons and the family dog as they are getting ready to depart Manzanar incarceration camp. Behind them is a car, utility pole, several buildings and the Inyo mountains. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: ecm_merritt_0470
Southern Pacific Company train assignment (ddr-csujad-55-218)
doc Southern Pacific Company train assignment (ddr-csujad-55-218)
Train assignments from the Southern Pacific Company for a train bound for Davis, California. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: sac_jaac_0220
Community analyst report, no. 74 (May 1, 1945) (ddr-csujad-55-1663)
doc Community analyst report, no. 74 (May 1, 1945) (ddr-csujad-55-1663)
Community Analyst Trend Report Report from April 23 to 29, 1945. Report on Poston incarceration camp including departure of incarcerees and their relocation plans, closing of Relocation Centers, employment shortages at the camp, selective service, and a youth conference. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: sac_jaac_1665
Permit (ddr-csujad-55-1667)
doc Permit (ddr-csujad-55-1667)
Permit to use property for the operation of a hostel for former incarcerees who have recently left incarceration camps. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: sac_jaac_1669
Memo from Henry C.  Freeland, Relocation Advisor, Gila River Project to Whom It May Concern re: Permission for Masatoshi Abe to travel, October 24, 1945 (ddr-csujad-55-30)
doc Memo from Henry C. Freeland, Relocation Advisor, Gila River Project to Whom It May Concern re: Permission for Masatoshi Abe to travel, October 24, 1945 (ddr-csujad-55-30)
Certification letter granting Masatoshi Abe permission to travel to Gardena, California. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: sac_jaac_00033
Community analysis report, no. 70 (April 18, 1945) (ddr-csujad-55-1662)
doc Community analysis report, no. 70 (April 18, 1945) (ddr-csujad-55-1662)
Report on "Destination of Leaves to the Evacuated Area, January to March, 1945." Covers number of incarcerees taking indefinite leave from Poston incarceration camp, their destination in California, and the conditions for incarcerees returning to regions of California. "Community analysis section." See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: sac_jaac_1664
Nisei enemy gets jail term (ddr-csujad-55-1974)
doc Nisei enemy gets jail term (ddr-csujad-55-1974)
Clipping of the article, "Nisei Enemy Gets Jail Term." From the Masako Adachi scrapbook, page 20. See also sac_jaac_1953. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: sac_jaac_1977
Letter from Kenneth Hori to George Waegell, August 5, 1945 (ddr-csujad-55-2557)
doc Letter from Kenneth Hori to George Waegell, August 5, 1945 (ddr-csujad-55-2557)
Correspondence from Kenneth Hori to George Waegell. Kenneth states he is stationed at Camp Ritchie in Maryland. Kenneth's family is expected to return to Florin, California. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: sac_jaac_2664
Facts about trouble at Auburn, California, given by WRA West Coast Assistant Director (ddr-csujad-55-1676)
doc Facts about trouble at Auburn, California, given by WRA West Coast Assistant Director (ddr-csujad-55-1676)
Report on an incident of racial violence in Auburn, California against former incarceree Sumio Doi and family. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: sac_jaac_1678
An Oral History with Katsuma Mukaeda (ddr-csujad-29-56)
vh An Oral History with Katsuma Mukaeda (ddr-csujad-29-56)
Chairman of Japanese American Cultural Center and former president of Japanese Chamber of Commerce recounts conditions of prewar Los Angeles's Little Tokyo, its wartime conversion into a black community, postwar reestablishment as a Japanese-American cultural and commercial center. Includes comments on discriminatory legislation, prewar Japan-American relations. World War II removal and incarceration, camp conditions, wartime repatriation …
Return to Santa Ana, California, from the Poston Center (ddr-csujad-29-219)
img Return to Santa Ana, California, from the Poston Center (ddr-csujad-29-219)
Photograph of a family returning to Orange County home after incarceration. Photograph titled: "The interviewee is pictured in 1945 after his return to Santa Ana, California, from the Poston Center, carrying his wife and son over the threshold of their Orange County home." See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: …
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