Returning home

When the camps closed, Japanese Americans were handed $25 and put on trains headed for the places they had been forcibly removed from nearly four years earlier. Harassment was common -- many returning Japanese Americans were greeted with signs reading "No Japs Allowed." Other discovered their property had been vandalized or stolen. Homes and businesses that had been boarded up or left in the care of others were abandoned and stripped of furnishings and goods. For the majority, who did not have homes to return to, housing was the most serious problem. Housing discrimination was severe in many areas and persisted to varying degrees until the civil rights legislation of the 1960s. Former camp inmates with no other options moved into hostels and converted community institutions with conditions not much better than the camps they had just left. Although this period was stressful, it is remembered as a time when people came together to share what they had.

World War II (231)
Leaving camp (287)
Returning home (1048)

Related articles from the Densho Encyclopedia :
Alien land laws, Hood River incident, Kazuo Masuda, Return to West Coast

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1048 items
Photograph of Dr. Morse Little and family getting ready to depart (ddr-csujad-47-315)
img Photograph of Dr. Morse Little and family getting ready to depart (ddr-csujad-47-315)
Photograph of Dr. Morse and Christine Little with their two sons and the family dog as they are getting ready to depart Manzanar incarceration camp. Behind them is a car, utility pole, several buildings and the Inyo mountains. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: ecm_merritt_0470
Photograph of a hospital nurse in front of a building (ddr-csujad-47-332)
img Photograph of a hospital nurse in front of a building (ddr-csujad-47-332)
Photograph of a female hospital nurse standing in front of a brick building at Manzanar incarceration camp. She is wearing her uniform. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: ecm_merritt_0491
Photograph of Bea White and son, with Lucille Bouche and Elizabeth Moxley at the closing of Manzanar (ddr-csujad-47-327)
img Photograph of Bea White and son, with Lucille Bouche and Elizabeth Moxley at the closing of Manzanar (ddr-csujad-47-327)
Photograph of Bea White and son, with Lucille Bouche and Elizabeth Moxley at the closing of Manzanar incarceration camp. They are standing in front of the entrance to the camp with the closure notification: This project officially closed, November 21-1945, no admittance, except on business. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization …
Photograph of Christine Little (ddr-csujad-47-316)
img Photograph of Christine Little (ddr-csujad-47-316)
Photograph of two people, one is Christine Little, standing in front of a car with a trailer attached as the Little family is getting ready to depart the Manzanar incarceration camp. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: ecm_merritt_0471
Photograph of Christine Little (ddr-csujad-47-312)
img Photograph of Christine Little (ddr-csujad-47-312)
Photograph of Christine Little posing in front of a tree with a car in the background at the Manzanar incarceration camp. She is wearing a winter coat. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: ecm_merritt_0464
Photograph of Bea White and son, with Lucille Bouche and Elizabeth Moxley at the closing of Manzanar (ddr-csujad-47-328)
img Photograph of Bea White and son, with Lucille Bouche and Elizabeth Moxley at the closing of Manzanar (ddr-csujad-47-328)
Photograph of Bea White and son, with Lucille Bouche and Elizabeth Moxley at the closing of Manzanar incarceration camp. They are standing in front of the entrance to the camp with the closure notification: This project officially closed, November 21-1945, no admittance, except on business. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization …
Photograph of women at Manzanar (ddr-csujad-47-330)
img Photograph of women at Manzanar (ddr-csujad-47-330)
Photograph of three women with a utility pole in the background at Manzanar incarceration camp. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: ecm_merritt_0489
Photograph of Dr. Morse Little (ddr-csujad-47-313)
img Photograph of Dr. Morse Little (ddr-csujad-47-313)
Photograph of Dr. Morse Little holding a camera with a car and trailer in the background at Manzanar incarceration camp. The trailer is full of their belongings as they are preparing to depart. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: ecm_merritt_0468
Photograph of Dr. Little with hospital nurses (ddr-csujad-47-317)
img Photograph of Dr. Little with hospital nurses (ddr-csujad-47-317)
Photograph of Dr. Morse and Christine Little posing with other hospital nurses as the Little family gets ready to depart the Manzanar incarceration camp. Behind the group is a car and trailer loaded with the families belongings. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: ecm_merritt_0472
Photograph of Dr. Little with hospital nurses (ddr-csujad-47-318)
img Photograph of Dr. Little with hospital nurses (ddr-csujad-47-318)
Photograph of Dr. Morse and Christine Little posing with other hospital nurses as the Little family gets ready to depart the Manzanar incarceration camp. Behind the group is a car and trailer loaded with the families belongings. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: ecm_merritt_0473
Photograph of Dr. Morse Little and his two sons getting ready to depart (ddr-csujad-47-349)
img Photograph of Dr. Morse Little and his two sons getting ready to depart (ddr-csujad-47-349)
Photograph of Dr. Morse Little and his two sons as they are getting ready to depart Manzanar incarceration camp. Behind them is a car, utility pole, several buildings and the Inyo mountains. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: ecm_merritt_1470
Photograph of Christine Little (ddr-csujad-47-311)
img Photograph of Christine Little (ddr-csujad-47-311)
Photograph of Christine Little posing in front of a building near the Manzanar incarceration camp. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: ecm_merritt_0463
Photograph of Dr. Morse Little (ddr-csujad-47-314)
img Photograph of Dr. Morse Little (ddr-csujad-47-314)
Photograph of Dr. Morse Little holding a camera with a car and trailer in the background at Manzanar incarceration camp. The trailer is full of their belongings as they are preparing to depart. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: ecm_merritt_0469
Photograph of mobile structures and trailers (ddr-csujad-47-331)
img Photograph of mobile structures and trailers (ddr-csujad-47-331)
Photograph of a temporary structure and a large trailer in front of barracks at Manzanar incarceration camp. Two men are walking between the structures. In the foreground there is a clothes pole. The photograph is slightly out of focus. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: ecm_merritt_0490
Photograph of Bea White and son, with Lucille Bouche and Elizabeth Moxley at the closing of Manzanar (ddr-csujad-47-326)
img Photograph of Bea White and son, with Lucille Bouche and Elizabeth Moxley at the closing of Manzanar (ddr-csujad-47-326)
Photograph of Bea White and son, with Lucille Bouche and Elizabeth Moxley at the closing of Manzanar incarceration camp. They are standing in front of the entrance to the camp with the closure notification: This project officially closed, November 21-1945, no admittance, except on business. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization …
Photograph of people with dogs in front of a car and barracks (ddr-csujad-47-329)
img Photograph of people with dogs in front of a car and barracks (ddr-csujad-47-329)
Photograph of four people with three dogs on a lawn at Manzanar incarceration camp. Behind them are two cars and several barracks buildings. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: ecm_merritt_0488
Photograph of the Little family (ddr-csujad-47-310)
img Photograph of the Little family (ddr-csujad-47-310)
Photograph of the Little family getting ready to depart the Manzanar incarceration camp with the Sierra Nevada in the background. They are leaning against the family car. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: ecm_merritt_0461
Photograph of people in front of a barracks at Manzanar (ddr-csujad-47-333)
img Photograph of people in front of a barracks at Manzanar (ddr-csujad-47-333)
Photograph of four men, a woman and a young boy outside of a barracks at Manzanar incarceration camp. They are getting ready to depart. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: ecm_merritt_0492
Letter from Makoto Okine to Mr. S. Okine, January 15, 1946 [in Japanese] (ddr-csujad-5-123)
doc Letter from Makoto Okine to Mr. S. Okine, January 15, 1946 [in Japanese] (ddr-csujad-5-123)
A letter from Makoto Okine to his father, Seiichi Okine in Hawthorne, California. This letter is probably written in Italy where Makoto is stationed as a U.S. Army soldier and mailed via New York by the U.S. Army Postal Service. He regrets not being able to write to his father for a long time because he …
Letter from Mrs. K. Befu to Mr. and Mrs. S. Okine, January 15, 1946 [in Japanese] (ddr-csujad-5-119)
doc Letter from Mrs. K. Befu to Mr. and Mrs. S. Okine, January 15, 1946 [in Japanese] (ddr-csujad-5-119)
A letter from Komaki Befu in Los Angeles, California to Seiichi and Tomeyo Okine, in Hawthorne, California. She thanks Mr. and Mrs. Okine for their visit and the mochi mailed to her. She also informs that Mr. Yoshikawa has given her son, Masuo Befu, a farewell gift. The handwritten notes on the back of the envelope …
Letter from Ayame Okine to Mr. and Mrs. Okine, December 13, 1945 [in Japanese] (ddr-csujad-5-112)
doc Letter from Ayame Okine to Mr. and Mrs. Okine, December 13, 1945 [in Japanese] (ddr-csujad-5-112)
Ayame Okine writes from Bartlett, Illinois, to her parents-in-law, Seiichi and Tomeyo Okine in Hawthorne, California. She states that she is glad to hear that they have returned to California safely and would be able to spend winter holidays at home. She also describes the Japanese community in Chicago, making mochi for new year's day. The …
Letter from Makoto Okine to Seiichi Okine, October 12, [1945] [in Japanese] (ddr-csujad-5-187)
doc Letter from Makoto Okine to Seiichi Okine, October 12, [1945] [in Japanese] (ddr-csujad-5-187)
A letter from Makoto Okine to his father, Seiichi Okine in the Rohwer incarceration camp. It appears that he writes from Italy where he is stationed as a U. S. Army solder. He assumes that many people has left the Rohwer incarceration camp and it appears empty. He mentions that his brother, Masao's request [probably for …
Letter from Corine Key, Relocation Adviser, Rohwer Relocation Center, to Federal Public Housing Authority Project Director, November 1, 1945 (ddr-csujad-5-97)
doc Letter from Corine Key, Relocation Adviser, Rohwer Relocation Center, to Federal Public Housing Authority Project Director, November 1, 1945 (ddr-csujad-5-97)
A letter from Corine Key, Relocation Advisor at the Rohwer incarceration camp to Federal Federal Public Housing Authority Project Director in Long Beach, California. It certifies that the Okines are eligible for federal housing on the basis of their sons' service with the U.S. Army. Enclosed with other items: csudh_oki_0099, csudh_oki_0100, and csudh_oki_0101. See this object …
Letter from Mrs. T. Nakagawa to Mr. and Mrs. Okine, January 17, [1946], [in Japanese] (ddr-csujad-5-188)
doc Letter from Mrs. T. Nakagawa to Mr. and Mrs. Okine, January 17, [1946], [in Japanese] (ddr-csujad-5-188)
A letter from Mrs. T. Nakagawa, a former incarceree in the Rhower incarceration camp, to Seiichi and Tomeyo Okine. She informs that her family is doing well and thanks them for their kindness when her daughter, Shizue, visited them. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: oki_02_32_001
Letter from Ed Bethune, Personnel Technician, United States Department of the Interior War Relocation Authority, November 7, 1945 (ddr-csujad-5-101)
doc Letter from Ed Bethune, Personnel Technician, United States Department of the Interior War Relocation Authority, November 7, 1945 (ddr-csujad-5-101)
A recommendation letter for Hatsuno Hotty Okine written by Ed Bethune, United States Department of the Interior War Relocation Authority, who is her supervisor when she is employed in "the Evacuee Personnel Section of the Rohwer Relocation Center." See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: oki_01_31_001
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