Returning home

When the camps closed, Japanese Americans were handed $25 and put on trains headed for the places they had been forcibly removed from nearly four years earlier. Harassment was common -- many returning Japanese Americans were greeted with signs reading "No Japs Allowed." Other discovered their property had been vandalized or stolen. Homes and businesses that had been boarded up or left in the care of others were abandoned and stripped of furnishings and goods. For the majority, who did not have homes to return to, housing was the most serious problem. Housing discrimination was severe in many areas and persisted to varying degrees until the civil rights legislation of the 1960s. Former camp inmates with no other options moved into hostels and converted community institutions with conditions not much better than the camps they had just left. Although this period was stressful, it is remembered as a time when people came together to share what they had.

World War II (231)
Leaving camp (287)
Returning home (1048)

Related articles from the Densho Encyclopedia :
Alien land laws, Hood River incident, Kazuo Masuda, Return to West Coast

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1048 items
G.D. Holmquist Contract Housing Manager terms and conditions of occupancy (ddr-csujad-5-100)
doc G.D. Holmquist Contract Housing Manager terms and conditions of occupancy (ddr-csujad-5-100)
Terms and conditions of occupancy issued by G.D. Holmquist Contract Housing Manager. Enclosed with the letter (csudh_oki_0098). See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: oki_01_30_004
Japanese address-book, L.A., Cal. 1945 (ddr-csujad-5-296)
doc Japanese address-book, L.A., Cal. 1945 (ddr-csujad-5-296)
A directory compiled by Roy Tazawa in 1945. It lists addresses of the Japanese and Japanese Americans who returned to Los Angeles, California after the forced evacuation and incarceration. It also includes Japanese American business guide and advertisements. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: oki_03_33_001
[Travel permit] (ddr-csujad-5-99)
doc [Travel permit] (ddr-csujad-5-99)
A travel permit issued by Leave Officer of "Rohwer Relocation Center." It certifies that Tomeyo Okine is permitted to leave for Long Beach, California with the permission of the United States Attorney. Enclosed with the letter (csudh_oki_0098). See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: oki_01_30_003
War Relocation Authority Evacuation Property Office receipt (ddr-csujad-5-193)
doc War Relocation Authority Evacuation Property Office receipt (ddr-csujad-5-193)
A receipt issued by War Relocation Authority Evacuation Property Office for Seiichi Okine's belongings, listing "5 cartons, 3 trunks, 2 bundles." See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: oki_02_37_001
[Travel permit] (ddr-csujad-5-98)
doc [Travel permit] (ddr-csujad-5-98)
A travel permit issued by Leave Officer of "Rohwer Relocation Center." It certifies that Seiichi Okine is permitted to leave for Long Beach, California with the permission of the United States Attorney. Enclosed with the letter (csudh_oki_0098). See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: oki_01_30_002
Letter from Sojiro Nishimura to Mr. and Mrs. Okine, December 24, [1945] [in Japanese] (ddr-csujad-5-114)
doc Letter from Sojiro Nishimura to Mr. and Mrs. Okine, December 24, [1945] [in Japanese] (ddr-csujad-5-114)
A greeting letter from Munejiro Nishimura in Gardena, California to Seiichi and Tomeyo Okine in Hawthorne, California. In the letter, he thanks them for a Christmas gift and informs that he and his family has been staying in a house provided by a Caucasian friend who is supportive to the Japanese. The arrival date and place …
Memo from A.M. Tollefson, Colonel, CMP, Director, Prisoner of War Operations Division to CG US Army Forces, October 23, 1945 (ddr-csujad-55-231)
doc Memo from A.M. Tollefson, Colonel, CMP, Director, Prisoner of War Operations Division to CG US Army Forces, October 23, 1945 (ddr-csujad-55-231)
Memorandum of understanding from A. M. Tollefson to CG US Army Forces regarding relocation of enemy aliens to Hawaii. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: sac_jaac_0233
Letter from H.C. Herring to Mr. M. Abe, November 20, 1945 (ddr-csujad-55-26)
doc Letter from H.C. Herring to Mr. M. Abe, November 20, 1945 (ddr-csujad-55-26)
Correspondence from H.C. Herring to Mr. M. Abe outlining a work arrangement for carpentry, painting, and general labor. Includes the type of work, hourly rate, other compensation, and effective dates of the contract and a signed acceptance from M. Abe. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: sac_jaac_00029
Letter from W.W. Lessing, Relocation Officer, War Relocation Authority, to Mrs. George H. Nakamura, November 25, 1945 (ddr-csujad-55-2450)
doc Letter from W.W. Lessing, Relocation Officer, War Relocation Authority, to Mrs. George H. Nakamura, November 25, 1945 (ddr-csujad-55-2450)
Correspondence from W.W. Lessing to Dorothy Nakamura regarding grants for former incarcerees returning to their former homes after World War II. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: sac_jaac_2556
Community analyst report, no. 74 (May 1, 1945) (ddr-csujad-55-1663)
doc Community analyst report, no. 74 (May 1, 1945) (ddr-csujad-55-1663)
Community Analyst Trend Report Report from April 23 to 29, 1945. Report on Poston incarceration camp including departure of incarcerees and their relocation plans, closing of Relocation Centers, employment shortages at the camp, selective service, and a youth conference. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: sac_jaac_1665
Permit (ddr-csujad-55-1667)
doc Permit (ddr-csujad-55-1667)
Permit to use property for the operation of a hostel for former incarcerees who have recently left incarceration camps. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: sac_jaac_1669
Southern Pacific Company train assignment (ddr-csujad-55-218)
doc Southern Pacific Company train assignment (ddr-csujad-55-218)
Train assignments from the Southern Pacific Company for a train bound for Davis, California. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: sac_jaac_0220
Resettlement bulletin, vol. 2, no. 7 (September 1944) (ddr-csujad-55-1671)
doc Resettlement bulletin, vol. 2, no. 7 (September 1944) (ddr-csujad-55-1671)
Bulletin covering issues related to "resettlement" including news, resources, and opinions. Current issue includes articles on family resettlement through churches, California annual conference of the Methodist Church, Missionary Society of the Evangelical Church, the Southern California-Arizona conference of the Methodist Church, relocation to Chicago, integration, and information on hostels. See this object in the California State …
Letter from Helen Hopt Kleven, 1945, page 11 (ddr-csujad-55-791)
doc Letter from Helen Hopt Kleven, 1945, page 11 (ddr-csujad-55-791)
Correspondence (page 11 only) from Helen Hopt Kleven regarding attitudes towards resettlement of Japanese Americans to the west coast. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: sac_jaac_0793
Memo from Henry C.  Freeland, Relocation Advisor, Gila River Project to Whom It May Concern re: Permission for Masatoshi Abe to travel, October 24, 1945 (ddr-csujad-55-30)
doc Memo from Henry C. Freeland, Relocation Advisor, Gila River Project to Whom It May Concern re: Permission for Masatoshi Abe to travel, October 24, 1945 (ddr-csujad-55-30)
Certification letter granting Masatoshi Abe permission to travel to Gardena, California. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: sac_jaac_00033
Administrative notice, no. 237 (April 3, 1945) (ddr-csujad-55-1666)
doc Administrative notice, no. 237 (April 3, 1945) (ddr-csujad-55-1666)
WRA Assistance for Housing Accommodations in West Coast Areas, War Relocation Authority. Policies and procedures for housing accommodations for former incarcerees returning to west coast areas. Covers conditions for housing facilities to obtain government loans in order to support the influx of former incarcerees and other procedures related to housing. See this object in the California …
Community analyst report, no. 77 (May 15, 1945) (ddr-csujad-55-1664)
doc Community analyst report, no. 77 (May 15, 1945) (ddr-csujad-55-1664)
Community Analyst Trend Report from May 7 to 13, 1945. Report on Poston incarceration camp including departure of incarcerees and their relocation plans, army clearance, incarceree committees, incidents in Fresno, CA and Parker, AZ, combining mess halls, school closings, V-E Day, and a suicide. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project …
Memo from Henry C. Freeland, Relocation Advisor, Gila River Project to Whom It May Concern re: Permission for Shige Abe to travel, October 24, 1945 (ddr-csujad-55-29)
doc Memo from Henry C. Freeland, Relocation Advisor, Gila River Project to Whom It May Concern re: Permission for Shige Abe to travel, October 24, 1945 (ddr-csujad-55-29)
Certification letter granting Shige Abe permission to travel to Gardena, California. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: sac_jaac_00032
Report of survey on West Coast (ddr-csujad-55-790)
doc Report of survey on West Coast (ddr-csujad-55-790)
Report regarding a survey of incarcerees who intend to return to the west coast after leaving the incarceration camp. Conducted by Rev. John M. Yamazaki. Yamazaki provides a descriptive account of his travel to survey the conditions on the west coast and outlines several factors impacting incarcerees return including "housing problem," "job situation," and "local sentiment …
Community analysis report, no. 70 (April 18, 1945) (ddr-csujad-55-1662)
doc Community analysis report, no. 70 (April 18, 1945) (ddr-csujad-55-1662)
Report on "Destination of Leaves to the Evacuated Area, January to March, 1945." Covers number of incarcerees taking indefinite leave from Poston incarceration camp, their destination in California, and the conditions for incarcerees returning to regions of California. "Community analysis section." See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: sac_jaac_1664
Leave program of the War Relocation Authority (ddr-csujad-55-1670)
doc Leave program of the War Relocation Authority (ddr-csujad-55-1670)
Report on the leave program of the War Relocation Authority. Covers west coast evacuation, development of the "relocation program," relocation offices, registration ("loyalty questionnaire"), changes in leave procedures, security investigation, leave clearance, project investigations, hearings, and review, evacuee support, change of address, community acceptance, and current problems with relocation. See this object in the California State …
Memo from V.R. Miller, Colonel, Infantry, Commanding, to the Adjutant General, War Department, Washington 25, D.C., September 6, 1945 (ddr-csujad-55-230)
doc Memo from V.R. Miller, Colonel, Infantry, Commanding, to the Adjutant General, War Department, Washington 25, D.C., September 6, 1945 (ddr-csujad-55-230)
Memorandum of understanding from V. R. Miller regarding Frank Okusako's request for relocation of his family from the Tule Lake incarceration camp. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: sac_jaac_0232
Granada community analysis report, #2 (ddr-csujad-55-788)
doc Granada community analysis report, #2 (ddr-csujad-55-788)
Report on "resettlement" from Granada incarceration camp. Includes: Are you interested in leaving the Center?; Why are you hesitant about resettlement? (including subsections on uncertainty of public sentiment, lack of money, lack of information, lack of confidence in making a reasonably satisfactory living, lack of proper living quarters, family ties and responsibilities, lack of confidence in …
Address to the Sheriffs of California by Robert W. Kenny, Attorney General of California, Sheriffs meeting, Sacramento, March 16, 1945 (ddr-csujad-55-1674)
doc Address to the Sheriffs of California by Robert W. Kenny, Attorney General of California, Sheriffs meeting, Sacramento, March 16, 1945 (ddr-csujad-55-1674)
Speech given to the Sheriffs of California at the Sheriffs meeting regarding protection, civil liberties, and discrimination against former incarcerees returning to the state. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: sac_jaac_1676
Story of the Nittas (ddr-csujad-55-342)
doc Story of the Nittas (ddr-csujad-55-342)
Pamphlet on the story of the Nitta family during World War II. Covers the Nitta's "evacuation", incarceration at Poston, and "resettlement." From verso, "Reprinted from NOW, through co-operation with the Congregational Committee on Christian Democracy from original manuscript supplied by the Reports Division of the War Relocation Authority, Los Angeles, July, 1945." See this object in …
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