Immigration and citizenship

Japanese immigrants began arriving in the United States at the end of the nineteenth century when workers were recruited to meet the growing need for low-wage laborers in the Territory of Hawaii and on the West Coast. Commodore Perry had opened Japan to American commerce and trade relations in 1853, but anti-Asian sentiment resulted in the Gentlemen's Agreement of 1907, which halted the immigration of workers from Japan. In 1910, the Japanese population was about 80,000 in Hawaii and 72,000 on the continental United States. Japanese women continued to enter the country until the 1924 Immigration Act cut off immigration from Japan to the United States. Most of the early Japanese immigrants, the Issei (first generation), came as contract agricultural laborers, although many others were students and merchants. While Japanese immigrants were prohibited by discriminatory laws from becoming naturalized citizens of the United States, their American-born children (nisei) held U.S. citizenship.

Immigration and citizenship (280)

Related articles from the Densho Encyclopedia :
Immigration, Japanese associations

279 items
The Northwest Times Vol. 2 No. 13 (February 4, 1948) (ddr-densho-229-84)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 2 No. 13 (February 4, 1948) (ddr-densho-229-84)
"H.R. Passes Bill to Liquidate Enemy Property. 250-Million Worth of Assets Once Belonging to Japanese, Germans Affected by Measure" (pg. 1), "Treason Trial Against Nisei in L.A. Delayed to May 11" (pg. 1)
The Northwest Times Vol. 1 No. 21 (March 21, 1947) (ddr-densho-229-8)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 1 No. 21 (March 21, 1947) (ddr-densho-229-8)
"Unions Reject Alaska Industrial Offer" (p. 1), "B.C. Students Ask Citizenship for Japanese, Indians" (p. 1), "Yoshida Urges U.S. to Stay in Japan to Insure Peace" (p. 1)
The Northwest Times Vol. 2 No. 21 (March 3, 1948) (ddr-densho-229-92)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 2 No. 21 (March 3, 1948) (ddr-densho-229-92)
"Japan-Born Youth Awarded U.S. Rights so He May Join Father, a Citizen in L.A." (p. 1), "Anti-Red Unit Favors Rights for Japanese" (p. 1), "Winnipeg Meet Will Consider JCCA Program" (p. 4), "JACL to Place Plaque on Ship Honoring Nisei" (p. 4).
The Northwest Times Vol. 3 No. 1 (January 1, 1949) (ddr-densho-229-167)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 3 No. 1 (January 1, 1949) (ddr-densho-229-167)
"Report from Washington: Work, Accomplishments of ADC in Legislative, Educational Horizons in U.S. Presented" (p. 1), "Claims Queries and Replies" (p. 6),
Pacific Citizen, Vol 68, No. 7 (February 14, 1969) (ddr-pc-41-7)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol 68, No. 7 (February 14, 1969) (ddr-pc-41-7)
Select article titles: "Immigration centennial plans for fall revealed" (p. 1); "Matsunaga focuses on S.F. State issue" (p. 1); "Japan and President Nixon" (p. 2); "JACL To Support Human Rights Body For Utah" (p. 4); "PSWDC civil rights workshop hears views of two 'involved' Sansei youth" (p. 4).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 88, No. 2041 (May 4, 1979) (ddr-pc-51-17)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 88, No. 2041 (May 4, 1979) (ddr-pc-51-17)
Selected article titles: "Omission of Asians 'Glaring Oversight' on U.S. List Designating 'Minorities'" (pp. 1-2, 11), "First Friday Feature: Angel Island Immigration Station Dedicated" (p. 3), "Japan Today: May 4-10 Asian/Pacific American Heritage Week" (p. 6), and "West Coast Nisei Farmers in 1942, if Given a Free Choice, Wanted to Remain" (p. 10).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 58, No. 17 (October 25, 1963) (ddr-pc-35-43)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 58, No. 17 (October 25, 1963) (ddr-pc-35-43)
Selected article titles: "Problems Facing Farmers Dependent upon 'Braceros' Detailed, Many Seem Resigned Program Will Continue for a Year More" (pp. 1-2), "Washington Newsletter: Civil Rights Battle" (p. 2), and "U.S. Gov't Will Pay for Property Claims Rising Out of Bombing on Pearl Harbor" (p. 3).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 94, No. 8 (February 26, 1982) (ddr-pc-54-8)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 94, No. 8 (February 26, 1982) (ddr-pc-54-8)
Selected article titles: "'Reagan's Raids': People or Numbers" (pp. 1, 8), "JACL Now Preparing for 3-Year Redress Campaign" (pp. 1, 10), "East Wind: Issei Principles" (p. 5), and "Moshi-Moshi: Samrai Without Mystique--Kabu" (p. 12).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 95, No. 13 (September 24, 1982) (ddr-pc-54-38)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 95, No. 13 (September 24, 1982) (ddr-pc-54-38)
Selected article titles: "House Judiciary Committee Votes to Retain 5th Preference" (p. 1), "Japanese Canadians to Seek Redress for WW2 Relocation" (pp. 1-2), "Former Nisei Queen Responds to Rift Over 'Mixed Ancestry'" (p. 3), and "Alaskan and Japan Cities Make 'Sister Port' Pact Official" (p. 8).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 94, No. 2 (January 15, 1982) (ddr-pc-54-2)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 94, No. 2 (January 15, 1982) (ddr-pc-54-2)
Selected article titles: "New Alien Law Eliminates Annual Address Reporting" (p. 1), "The Other Internees of World War II" (pp. 2-3), "Peter Imamura: Separate but Equal" (p. 3), and "Chapter Report: JACL in Japan Keeps Rolling" (p. 10).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 94, No. 6 (February 12, 1982) (ddr-pc-54-6)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 94, No. 6 (February 12, 1982) (ddr-pc-54-6)
Selected article titles: "Immigration Raids Alarm Little Tokyo" (pp. 1, 12), "FDR 'Tapes' Tell More Than a Few Racial Slurs" (pp. 1, 7), "60th Anniversary Installation: Why the JACL Endures" (p. 7), and "The Major Supreme Court Error of WW2: Evacuation Cases" (p. 9).
Gidra, Vol. I, No. 4 (July 1969) (ddr-densho-297-4)
doc Gidra, Vol. I, No. 4 (July 1969) (ddr-densho-297-4)
Selected article titles: "Experimental College Starts" (p. 1), "Yellow Brotherhood Food for Thought" (p. 1), "Blind Reflections?" (p. 2), "The Misunderstanding in Chinatown" (p. 4).
Green Card (ddr-densho-325-53)
doc Green Card (ddr-densho-325-53)
The Green Card for Shitsuko Nimura, Hisa Nimura Horiuchi's mother.
Alien Registration Receipt Card (ddr-densho-325-52)
doc Alien Registration Receipt Card (ddr-densho-325-52)
Alien Registration Receipt Card for Shitsuko Nimura, Hisa Nimura Horiuchi's mother.
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 85, No. 2 (July 8, 1977) (ddr-pc-49-26)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 85, No. 2 (July 8, 1977) (ddr-pc-49-26)
Selected article titles: "Angry Words Fly Over J-Town Housing: (p.1), "AMA Conference Tables Move to Aid Hibakusha" (p.1), "Asians Criticize Census Test Site" (p.1), "Hearing Off on Retirement Credit Bill" (p.2), "Law Denying College Aid to Aliens Invalidated" (p.3), "Nisei Marriages Evolving" (p.5).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 85, No. 14 (September 30, 1977) (ddr-pc-49-38)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 85, No. 14 (September 30, 1977) (ddr-pc-49-38)
Selected article titles: "Census Bureau Plans to Drop 'Asian/Pac Island' Category" (p.1), "UC Davis Winning War of Briefs in Bakke Case" (p.1), "EXECOM Looks at Reparations" (p.1-2, 4), "E-1 Visa Student Privilege in Other States Encouraged" (p.2), "Tacoma Reunion-One Man's View" (p.3, 7), "Japanese Christian Mission Centennial in U.S. All Set" (p.7).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 85, No. 21 (November 18, 1977) (ddr-pc-49-45)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 85, No. 21 (November 18, 1977) (ddr-pc-49-45)
Selected article titles: "Supreme Court: Rights of Alien to Be Police Argued, Other Major Cases on Aliens Still Pending" (p.1), "Seattle JACLer in Prominent Role at National Women's Conference" (p.1), "Carter Team Lashed for Shunning the Nikkei" (p.1, 9), "Reparations? No!" (p.4), "Evacuees from Peru" (p.5), "Calif. Agriculture and the Nikkei" (p.7), "A Third Position Presented ...
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 85, No. 1 (July 1, 1977) (ddr-pc-49-25)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 85, No. 1 (July 1, 1977) (ddr-pc-49-25)
Selected article titles: "JACL Joins 20 Other Nat'l Groups in Case Against Bakke" (p.1-2), "'Nondeportable' Status Likely to Relieve Longtime 'Illegals'" (p.1-2), "Gov. Ray Signs E-1 Visa Alien Tuition Law" (p.1-2), "The Pride at Seabrook" (p.4).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 51, No. 1 (July 1, 1960) (ddr-pc-32-27)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 51, No. 1 (July 1, 1960) (ddr-pc-32-27)
Select article titles: "League plans definitive Issei history" (p.1); "Visiting novelist from Japan compares 'children of setting sun' with U.S. beatniks" (p.6); "78-year-old Issei among few survivors of first shipload of Japanese to Hawaii" (p.7); "'Japanese go home' incidents reported by Nisei newspaperman in wake of Eisenhower's visit to Japan being postponed" (p.8)
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 51, No. 10 (September 2, 1960) (ddr-pc-32-36)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 51, No. 10 (September 2, 1960) (ddr-pc-32-36)
Select article titles: "Japanese in Hawaii celebrate 75th anniv. Of 1st emigration; recall roll of Ben Franklin's descendant in Japan in 1860-70s" (p.1); "Washington State Congressional Group Endorses Repeal Anti-Alien Land Law" (p. 6)
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 55, No. 14 (October 5, 1962) (ddr-pc-34-40)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 55, No. 14 (October 5, 1962) (ddr-pc-34-40)
Selected article titles: "Legislators Understood Discriminatory Language of Law Barring Orientals Suffrage Rights, Job Now with Voters" (p.1, 4), "Idaho SJR 1: Questions and Answers" (p.1, 4), "For Equality for Naturalized Citizens" (p.1-2), "Issei Virtues Extoled in Okura Tribute: (p.3).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 55, No.1 (July 6, 1962) (ddr-pc-34-27)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 55, No.1 (July 6, 1962) (ddr-pc-34-27)
Selected article titles: "Congressman Walter Announces Policy Study on Immigration" (p.1, 4), "'Popularity' of Honolulu's Japanese Community Leadership Regarded as Grim Political Factor in Inouye's Senate Race" (p.1, 3), "History Project Support Hits Minimum Goal, Now $109,000" (p.1).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 76, No. 24, (June 22, 1973) (ddr-pc-45-24)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 76, No. 24, (June 22, 1973) (ddr-pc-45-24)
Select article titles: "New Look in JACL Greets Officials Attending National Interim Session" (p.1); "Asian American Actors Win Case Against N.Y. Repertory Theater" (p.1); "San Francisco Asian Action Group Urges JACL Return Gerontology Fund" (p.1); "Nisei Knocks Mineta Elk Boycott" (p.3); "Rep. Mink Urges Emphasis on Asian Studies" (p.3); "Facts (Not Innuendoes) Needed to Fix Korean ...
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