The DDR will be down for planned maintenance on Wednesday, December 11, 2019 from 12:00PM (noon) PST until 2:00PM PST. Densho websites encyclopedia.densho.org and resourceguide.densho.org will also be unavailable during this time; however, you will still be able to visit our blog and find other information about Densho at our main website, www.densho.org. We apologize for any inconvenience this may cause. Please email questions or comments to [email protected]

.

Immigration and citizenship

Japanese immigrants began arriving in the United States at the end of the nineteenth century when workers were recruited to meet the growing need for low-wage laborers in the Territory of Hawaii and on the West Coast. Commodore Perry had opened Japan to American commerce and trade relations in 1853, but anti-Asian sentiment resulted in the Gentlemen's Agreement of 1907, which halted the immigration of workers from Japan. In 1910, the Japanese population was about 80,000 in Hawaii and 72,000 on the continental United States. Japanese women continued to enter the country until the 1924 Immigration Act cut off immigration from Japan to the United States. Most of the early Japanese immigrants, the Issei (first generation), came as contract agricultural laborers, although many others were students and merchants. While Japanese immigrants were prohibited by discriminatory laws from becoming naturalized citizens of the United States, their American-born children (nisei) held U.S. citizenship.

Immigration and citizenship (285)

Related articles from the Densho Encyclopedia :
Immigration, Japanese associations

285 items
An Oral History with Seiko Ishida (ddr-csujad-29-11)
av An Oral History with Seiko Ishida (ddr-csujad-29-11)
Retired Kibei teacher recounts samurai parents' background and their immigration to Seattle, Washington; socioeconomic composition of Seattle's Japanese community; earlier teacher training; prewar stays in Japan as a child and as a tutor in a missionary family; experiences as a teacher in the wartime resettlement in New York; and postwar return to Los Angeles. This oral ...
An Oral History with Craig Kei Ihara (ddr-csujad-29-1)
av An Oral History with Craig Kei Ihara (ddr-csujad-29-1)
Oral history with Craig Kei Ihara, Sansei and California State University, Fullerton philosophy professor, born at the Rohwer incarceration camp, Arkansas discusses family history, focusing on religion, education, aspirations, and cultural heritage; and recent overnight stay at old Rohwer campsite. This oral history was conducted for the Japanese American Oral History Project for the Center for ...
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 42, No. 10 (March 9, 1956) (ddr-pc-28-10)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 42, No. 10 (March 9, 1956) (ddr-pc-28-10)
Selected article titles: "Lane-Hillings Evacuation Claims Bill Unanimously Passed by House" (p. 1), "Asia Reds keep up discrimination tales" (p. 1), "JACL Asks FBI Hunt 'Lincoln Yamamoto'" (p. 1), "Bob Sakata honored Colorado's young farmer of year" (p. 2), "Oregon governor praises Japanese Americans, say 'no group has better earned' right to citizenship at Snake River ...
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 42, No. 7 (Febuary 17, 1956) (ddr-pc-28-7)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 42, No. 7 (Febuary 17, 1956) (ddr-pc-28-7)
Selected article titles: "Bill implementing Ike's message on immigration ups Japan quota: 563" (p. 1), "House Judiciary considering Lane-Hillings claim bill" (p. 1), "Publication of Letter Arouses Nisei Protest to Newsweek" (p. 1), "JACL telegram defends Nisei loyalty to U.S. in reply to magazine letter" (p. 1), "Colorado community boasts of 100% in naturalization of eligible ...
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 44, No. 19 (May 10, 1957) (ddr-pc-29-19)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 44, No. 19 (May 10, 1957) (ddr-pc-29-19)
Select article titles: "Continuation of Japanese Farm Labor Held Likely by Hillings" (p. 1); "San Diegans urge elimination of Fuzz Young Story" (p. 1); "'Golden Reel' prize awarded to Nisei" (p. 1); "Against farm labor program but for higher Japan quota" (p. 1); "Seven months remain for 'illegally admitted' aliens in U.S. to change status to ...
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 46, No. 11 (March 14, 1958) (ddr-pc-30-11)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 46, No. 11 (March 14, 1958) (ddr-pc-30-11)
Select article titles: "Five records bettered in JACL pinfest" (p.1); "Naturalization classes resumed to aid Japanese wives of ex-GIs" (p.8); "Documentary film on 1942 evacuation under production" (p.8)
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 46, No. 17 (April 25, 1958) (ddr-pc-30-17)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 46, No. 17 (April 25, 1958) (ddr-pc-30-17)
Select article titles: "Sansei slain, innocent victim of teenage gang skirmish" (p.1); "ADC booster in Hawaii helps 1,200 Issei achieve U.S. citizenship" (p.8) Starting in No. 13, the volume number in the header changes from 46 to 26. This printing error is not corrected for the rest of the volume.
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 47, No. 13 (September 26, 1958) (ddr-pc-30-39)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 47, No. 13 (September 26, 1958) (ddr-pc-30-39)
Select article titles: "Man who helped 1,200 former aliens gain U.S. citizenship to be recognized" (p.1); "JACL endorses 'Give a Buck' plan for political campaigns" (p.1); "Buddhist leader appeals to Nisei, Sansei to fuse best of U.S.-Japan cultures" (p.7)
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 46, No. 12 (March 21, 1958) (ddr-pc-30-12)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 46, No. 12 (March 21, 1958) (ddr-pc-30-12)
Select article titles: "Merriam Unabridged Dictionary to note use of 'Jap' as disparaging remark in next edition" (p.1); "Helping other minorities helps all, JACLers told at own Brotherhood dinner" (p.5); "4,000 Japanese war brides in Hawaii; 600 in Chicago area" (p.8)
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 47, No.5 (August 1, 1958) (ddr-pc-30-31)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 47, No.5 (August 1, 1958) (ddr-pc-30-31)
Select article titles: "Stranded Japanese wife of sailor finds U.S. Navy had heart as red tape cut" (p.1); "Urge chapters give delegates free hand on voting of JACL's U.S.-Japan policy" (p. 5); "House passes bill to aid alien not listed as 'Legally Admitted'" (p.8)
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 47, No. 8 (August 22, 1958) (ddr-pc-30-34)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 47, No. 8 (August 22, 1958) (ddr-pc-30-34)
Select article titles: "Crucial issues before conventioners" (p.1); "Japanese press still ignores progress of U.S.-born Nisei" (p.7); "Congress approves bills to aid alien status adjustment in U.S." (p.8) Week of Biennium Conference in Salt Lake City, Utah
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 46, No. 22 (May 30, 1958) (ddr-pc-30-22)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 46, No. 22 (May 30, 1958) (ddr-pc-30-22)
Select article titles: "Sansei gunmen trail date set" (p. 1); "Nisei wins write-in election for California school post" (p.1); "Dr. Nishikawa to be keynote Confab speaker" (p. 1); "Nisei drowns trying to rescue youngster" (p. 3); "Over 6,000 immigrants from Japan admitted during 1957" (p. 8) Starting in No. 13, the volume number in the header ...
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 50, No. 21 (May 20, 1960) (ddr-pc-32-21)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 50, No. 21 (May 20, 1960) (ddr-pc-32-21)
Select article titles: "Nisei attorney alleges racial bias in San Jose suburban housing tract" (p.1); "Canada relaxes rule permitting citizens to import marriage mates" (p.1)
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 50, No. 13 (March 25, 1960) (ddr-pc-32-13)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 50, No. 13 (March 25, 1960) (ddr-pc-32-13)
Select article titles: "Ike's immigration bill hailed as 'step in right direction'" (p. 1); "JACL Accepts Invitation for White House Conference on Youth" (p.1); "Son of Shinto priest becomes convert of Judaism after lifetime study of Old Testament, assisted Jewish refugees flee Nazi terror" (p.3); "Yoshino, Masaoka named delegates to civil liberties meet" (p.8)
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 51, No. 5 (July 29, 1960) (ddr-pc-32-31)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 51, No. 5 (July 29, 1960) (ddr-pc-32-31)
Select article titles: "Hearst editorial supports repeal of alien land law" (p.1); "Canadian Nisei bids for BC legislature" (p.1); "Promotions slow for Oriental workers to supervisory posts, says state expert" (p.3); "Japanese Canadians told 'careful consideration' to immigration problems assured, discuss U.S. Asian-Pacific triangle formula" (p.8)
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 50, No. 14 (April 1, 1960) (ddr-pc-32-14)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 50, No. 14 (April 1, 1960) (ddr-pc-32-14)
Select article titles: "Yokohama student selected as JACL Scout for Jamboree" (p.1); "Gov't invitation for naturalized citizens goes nation-wide" (p.1); "Call in Nisei toxicologist when arsenic found in coffee drunk by Seattle workers" (p.2);
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 50 No. 8 (February 19, 1960) (ddr-pc-32-8)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 50 No. 8 (February 19, 1960) (ddr-pc-32-8)
Select article titles: "40,000 Japanese Admitted to U.S. in Past Decade" (p.1); "Story of Sansei co-ed 'blackbaited' from college sorority because of ancestry places meaning in JACL youth program" (p.3); "'Cap' Tamura promoted county counsel for Orange County, on staff since 1948" (p.8)
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 51, No. 11 (September 9, 1960) (ddr-pc-32-37)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 51, No. 11 (September 9, 1960) (ddr-pc-32-37)
Select article titles: "JACL accepts Governor's call to attend senior citizens talk" (p.1); "Heartache and hardship immigration cases cited in JCCA brief evoke sympathy from Canada legislators and prime minister" (p.1); "Issei widow nearly deported to Mexico saved by CL plea" (p.3); "Magnuson hits alien land law as undemocratic" (p.8)
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 51, No. 1 (July 1, 1960) (ddr-pc-32-27)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 51, No. 1 (July 1, 1960) (ddr-pc-32-27)
Select article titles: "League plans definitive Issei history" (p.1); "Visiting novelist from Japan compares 'children of setting sun' with U.S. beatniks" (p.6); "78-year-old Issei among few survivors of first shipload of Japanese to Hawaii" (p.7); "'Japanese go home' incidents reported by Nisei newspaperman in wake of Eisenhower's visit to Japan being postponed" (p.8)
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 51, No. 10 (September 2, 1960) (ddr-pc-32-36)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 51, No. 10 (September 2, 1960) (ddr-pc-32-36)
Select article titles: "Japanese in Hawaii celebrate 75th anniv. Of 1st emigration; recall roll of Ben Franklin's descendant in Japan in 1860-70s" (p.1); "Washington State Congressional Group Endorses Repeal Anti-Alien Land Law" (p. 6)
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 50, No. 12 (March 18, 1960) (ddr-pc-32-12)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 50, No. 12 (March 18, 1960) (ddr-pc-32-12)
Select article titles: "Eisenhower message highlights meeting of 250 naturalized Issei in Los Angeles" (p.1); "Over 5,000 Japanese Immigrants admitted last year into U.S." (p. 8)
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 53, No. 21 (November 24, 1961) (ddr-pc-33-47)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 53, No. 21 (November 24, 1961) (ddr-pc-33-47)
Selected article titles: "42 Restaurants Along Hwy. 40 Ends Race Bias" (pp. 1, 3), "150 Fresno Area Issei Honored by JACL, Hear Yoshimura Report on 'Issei Story'" (p. 1), "'How Much Nipponese Culture Should We Teach Children?' Revives Memories of Roaring '20 Days of Yesler Way Hall" (p. 3), and "Adopted Children from Japan Picking Up ...
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 52, No. 26 (June 30, 1961) (ddr-pc-33-26)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 52, No. 26 (June 30, 1961) (ddr-pc-33-26)
Selected article titles: "$300,000 Grant for History Asked, Outlook Encouraging" (p. 1), "Prime Minister Ikeda Cements Japanese-American Friendship in Washington Visit" (pp. 1-2), "'Command Decision': Evacuation, Part 5" (p. 1), and "Japanese Wives of Akron GIs Meet at International Institute, All Anxious to Learn More English and Become Americanized" (p. 3).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 54, No. 5 (February 2, 1962) (ddr-pc-34-5)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 54, No. 5 (February 2, 1962) (ddr-pc-34-5)
Selected article titles: "PSWDC Chapter Clinic Expected to Be Among Best" (p.1), "Revised Fair Housing Bill for San Fancisco City Presented" (p.1), "1942 Emergency Meeting" (p.2), "New Canadian Immigration Policy Removing Some Color Bars Adopted, Seek Quality Instead of Quantity-JCCA Not 'Sold'" (p.3), "Oregon State Senator Urges Nisei to Pass Wartime Evacuation Experiences to Sansei" (p.3), ...
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 55, No. 25 (December 21, 1962) (ddr-pc-34-51)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 55, No. 25 (December 21, 1962) (ddr-pc-34-51)
Selected article titles: "What Prevented Disaster from Becoming a Catastrophe? Evacuation and Resettlement of Japanese Americans Reviewed" (p.A1-2), "Nisei GI and Resettlement" (p.A1, 3), "First Returnees Set Economic Rebirth Pattern" (p.A3), "Fear of Negro-Japanese Conflict Premature" (p.A3), "Japanese American Migration Patterns Following War Relocation" (p.B1-2), "Civil Rights" (p.B3-4), "'60-'70 Planning Commission Cites Advance in Youth" (p.B5), ...
API