Immigration and citizenship

Japanese immigrants began arriving in the United States at the end of the nineteenth century when workers were recruited to meet the growing need for low-wage laborers in the Territory of Hawaii and on the West Coast. Commodore Perry had opened Japan to American commerce and trade relations in 1853, but anti-Asian sentiment resulted in the Gentlemen's Agreement of 1907, which halted the immigration of workers from Japan. In 1910, the Japanese population was about 80,000 in Hawaii and 72,000 on the continental United States. Japanese women continued to enter the country until the 1924 Immigration Act cut off immigration from Japan to the United States. Most of the early Japanese immigrants, the Issei (first generation), came as contract agricultural laborers, although many others were students and merchants. While Japanese immigrants were prohibited by discriminatory laws from becoming naturalized citizens of the United States, their American-born children (nisei) held U.S. citizenship.

Immigration and citizenship (290)

Related articles from the Densho Encyclopedia :
Immigration, Japanese associations

290 items
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 78, No. 17 (May 3, 1974) (ddr-pc-46-17)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 78, No. 17 (May 3, 1974) (ddr-pc-46-17)
Selected article titles: "'Operation Zebra' Reminds JACL of 1942 Evacuation of Japanese" (p. 1), "Tighter U.S. Policy Seen Reducing Number of Foreign Students This Year" (p. 1), "Washington Newsletter: What Can I Do About P.R.?" (p. 2), and "30-Year Debate of 'Direct Hit' Off Oregon Coast by Japanese Sub Ends" (p. 3).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 81, No. 7 (August 15, 1975) (ddr-pc-47-32)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 81, No. 7 (August 15, 1975) (ddr-pc-47-32)
Selected article titles: "Nat'l JACL Facing Deficit of $30,000" (pp. 1-2), "FBI Still Keeps List of Security 'Risks' on File" (pp. 1-2), and "High Influx of Asian Immigrants, Tourists to Stay" (p. 4).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 80, No. 4 (January 31, 1975) (ddr-pc-47-4)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 80, No. 4 (January 31, 1975) (ddr-pc-47-4)
Selected article titles: "'Toshiba Story' Irks Union Call for Boycott" (pp. 1, 4), "Supreme Court Hears Arguments on Aliens Being Employed in U.S. Gov't" (p. 1), "Dobashi-Ushio Duologue" (pp. 1-2), and "Ore-Idaho Nikkei Pioneers Feted" (p. 3).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 82, No. 4 (January 30, 1976) (ddr-pc-48-4)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 82, No. 4 (January 30, 1976) (ddr-pc-48-4)
Selected article titles: "JACL Anti-Defamation Chairman Denounces Hayakawa's Column" (p. 1), "Estimate 40,000 Vietnamese Will Be Living in California by June, 1976" (pp. 1-2), "Enomoto Faces Charge of Reverse Bias as State Affirmative Action Challenge" (p. 1), and "Editorials: Executive Order 9066" (p. 2).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 82, No. 17 (April 30, 1976) (ddr-pc-48-17)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 82, No. 17 (April 30, 1976) (ddr-pc-48-17)
Selected article titles: "Reparation Campaign Underway" (pp. 1, 3), "Illegal Alien Law Okd" (pp. 1, 3), "Committee for Iva Toguri" (p. 1), and "Wendy's Pretrial" (p. 2).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 85, No. 7 (August 12, 1977) (ddr-pc-49-31)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 85, No. 7 (August 12, 1977) (ddr-pc-49-31)
Selected article titles: "Asians Question Ruling on Filipino Nurses" (p.1), "Carter's Plan on Illegal Aliens Finally Detailed" (p.1), "Mineta Keeps Hectic Schedule on Recent Home District Visit" (p.1, 3), "A Sansei Awakening" (p.4, 7), "Tacoma Reunion" (p.4), "Young Peoples Christian Conference Foundation Stone for Nisei Leadership" (p.7).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 85, No. 1 (July 1, 1977) (ddr-pc-49-25)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 85, No. 1 (July 1, 1977) (ddr-pc-49-25)
Selected article titles: "JACL Joins 20 Other Nat'l Groups in Case Against Bakke" (p.1-2), "'Nondeportable' Status Likely to Relieve Longtime 'Illegals'" (p.1-2), "Gov. Ray Signs E-1 Visa Alien Tuition Law" (p.1-2), "The Pride at Seabrook" (p.4).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 84, No. 4 (February 4, 1977) (ddr-pc-49-4)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 84, No. 4 (February 4, 1977) (ddr-pc-49-4)
Selected article titles: "Illegal Immigration on the Rise in US" (p.1), "New Yorkers to Discuss Nsei 'after-65' Problems" (p.1, 7), "Canada to Decorate Issei and Sansei" (p.1), "Wendy Yoshimura: One Juror Was 'Pressured'" (p.2, 4).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 85, No. 21 (November 18, 1977) (ddr-pc-49-45)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 85, No. 21 (November 18, 1977) (ddr-pc-49-45)
Selected article titles: "Supreme Court: Rights of Alien to Be Police Argued, Other Major Cases on Aliens Still Pending" (p.1), "Seattle JACLer in Prominent Role at National Women's Conference" (p.1), "Carter Team Lashed for Shunning the Nikkei" (p.1, 9), "Reparations? No!" (p.4), "Evacuees from Peru" (p.5), "Calif. Agriculture and the Nikkei" (p.7), "A Third Position Presented ...
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 89, No. 2074 (December 21-28, 1979) (ddr-pc-51-50)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 89, No. 2074 (December 21-28, 1979) (ddr-pc-51-50)
Special holiday issue. Selected article titles: "School Teacher Recalls Minidoka" (p. 26), "In Defense of JACL's Founding Membership Principle: Citizenship" (pp. 47-48), "Nikkei Impressions of Nikkei America After a Long Absence" (pp. 49, 92), and "Growing up in Postwar Japan" (pp. 54, 94). The holiday issue included advertisements bought by JACL members and chapters that included ...
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 88, No. 2041 (May 4, 1979) (ddr-pc-51-17)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 88, No. 2041 (May 4, 1979) (ddr-pc-51-17)
Selected article titles: "Omission of Asians 'Glaring Oversight' on U.S. List Designating 'Minorities'" (pp. 1-2, 11), "First Friday Feature: Angel Island Immigration Station Dedicated" (p. 3), "Japan Today: May 4-10 Asian/Pacific American Heritage Week" (p. 6), and "West Coast Nisei Farmers in 1942, if Given a Free Choice, Wanted to Remain" (p. 10).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 89, No. 2053 (July 27, 1979) (ddr-pc-51-29)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 89, No. 2053 (July 27, 1979) (ddr-pc-51-29)
Selected article titles: "U.S. Responds to 'Save the Boat People' Campaign" (p. 1), "In the Last 100 Years: Estimate 905,000 Japanese Emigrated" (p. 1), "Guest Speaker: A 'No-No' Segregee" (pp. 4, 9), and "Nisei in Japan: Yankee Samurai Here and Now" (p. 10).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 95, No. 13 (September 24, 1982) (ddr-pc-54-38)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 95, No. 13 (September 24, 1982) (ddr-pc-54-38)
Selected article titles: "House Judiciary Committee Votes to Retain 5th Preference" (p. 1), "Japanese Canadians to Seek Redress for WW2 Relocation" (pp. 1-2), "Former Nisei Queen Responds to Rift Over 'Mixed Ancestry'" (p. 3), and "Alaskan and Japan Cities Make 'Sister Port' Pact Official" (p. 8).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 95, No. 9 (August 27, 1982) (ddr-pc-54-34)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 95, No. 9 (August 27, 1982) (ddr-pc-54-34)
Selected article titles: "SF Civil Rights Groups File Suit Against INS for 'Raids'" (pp. 1-2), "Senate Immigration Bill Was Opposed by Civil Rights Groups" (pp. 1, 12), "Ye Editor's Desk: When Mike Spoke Up" (pp. 4, 6), and "Behind the War Clouds: A Story of Unsung Valor and Devotion" (pp. 8-9).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 95, No. 12 (September 17, 1982) (ddr-pc-54-37)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 95, No. 12 (September 17, 1982) (ddr-pc-54-37)
Selected article titles: "JACL Urges Retention of 5th Preference in Immigrant Bill" (p. 1), "Names of Former State Workers Eligible for AB 2710 Released" (pp. 1-2), "Noguchi Begins His Defense" (p. 3), and "From the Frying Pan: Nisei Aging Project in Critical Need" (p. 5).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 94, No. 7 (February 19, 1982) (ddr-pc-54-7)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 94, No. 7 (February 19, 1982) (ddr-pc-54-7)
Selected article titles: "EO 9066 Proclaimed 40 Years Ago" (pp. 1-2), "Immigration Raids to Continue; Ten Aliens Voluntarily Go Home" (pp. 1, 8), "Redress Phase 3: Remembering 9066" (p. 2), and "School Discipline in Tokyo Falling" (p. 5).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 107, No. 17 (November 25, 1988) (ddr-pc-60-42)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 107, No. 17 (November 25, 1988) (ddr-pc-60-42)
Selected article titles: "Coalition Calls for Ethnic Studies Course" (p. 1), "13,639 Names to Be Included: Memorial Honoring Nikkei WW2 Vets, MIS Proposed" (p. 1), "Immigration Control and Reform Act: Mineta, Matsui, Irked by Report" (p. 1), and "Over 175 Attend JACL-Sponsored Redress Workshop" (p. 2).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 110, No. 11 (March 23, 1990) (ddr-pc-62-11)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 110, No. 11 (March 23, 1990) (ddr-pc-62-11)
Select article titles: "An Address from JACL-LEC Legislative Strategy Chair"(p.1);"Asian Pacific Municipal Officials Caucus Holds Workshop on Black/Asian Relations"(p.1);"Sakura Grove Dedicated as Memorial to Walerga Assembly Center"(p.2); "70% Increase in Asian/Pacific People from 1980 to 1988 Due to Immigration"(p.3); "San Francisco's Boy Scout Troop 12, Among U.S.'s Oldest, Founded by Issei"(p.8).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 111, No. 1 (July 6-13, 1990) (ddr-pc-62-26)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 111, No. 1 (July 6-13, 1990) (ddr-pc-62-26)
Select article titles: "Draft Resisters React Favorably to Resolution"(p.1);"Redress Eligibility Process for WWII Nisei Servicemen Explained"(p.1);"Recent Immigrants Strain Chinatown's Resources"(p.2); "L.A. Unified School District Dedicates Its First Japanese American Named School"(p.3); "Resolution 13: To Heal the Community's Wartime Wounds"(p.6).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 120, No. 12 (June 16-July 6, 1995) (ddr-pc-67-12)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 120, No. 12 (June 16-July 6, 1995) (ddr-pc-67-12)
Selected article titles: "Affirmative Action Programs Limited by Supreme Court" (pp. 1, 12), "JACL Opposes Cuts in Number of Legal Immigrants Allowed" (pp. 1, 5, 12), "Central California Highway to Honor 100/442nd, MIS" (p. 4), "Sgt. John Matsumoto Quiet Saga of WWII Nisei Aerial Gunner" (p. 5), and "Tracing the Jewish-Nisei Connection: Inouye, Vets Reunited with ...
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 122, No. 9 (May 3-16, 1996) (ddr-pc-68-9)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 122, No. 9 (May 3-16, 1996) (ddr-pc-68-9)
Selected article titles: "JACL Leaders: Robert Sakaniwa Views Role as JACL D.C. Representative" (pp. 1, 14), "Civil Liberties Public Education Board to Dispense $5 Million Fund" (pp. 1, 12), "JACL National Convention News: Here's the Lineup for the 34th Biennual [sic] JACL Convention" (p. 6), and "From the Frying Pan: Novel Brings Awareness of Evacuation" (p. ...
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 68, No. 21 (May 23, 1969) (ddr-pc-41-21)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 68, No. 21 (May 23, 1969) (ddr-pc-41-21)
Select article titles: "JACL firms commemoration of Centennial" (p. 1); " Racist strategy charged in Noguchi hearing" (p. 1); "JACL to Honor Nisei War Dead of Three Wars in May 25 Service" (p. 1); "San Francisco supervisory board adopts Title II repeal resolution" (p. 3)
Pacific Citizen, Vol 68, No. 3 (January 17, 1969) (ddr-pc-41-3)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol 68, No. 3 (January 17, 1969) (ddr-pc-41-3)
Select article titles: "Immigtation law changes sought" (p. 1); "Reno JACL Seeks Heirs Of First Issei In U.S." (p. 1); "Why Dr. Hayakawa accepted college president's job" (p. 1); "'Melting pot' concept resisted by some ethnic groups in America if 'this means Anglo Saxon domination'" (p. 3); "Asian American Studies popular" (p. 4).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 74, No. 12 (March 31, 1972) (ddr-pc-44-12)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 74, No. 12 (March 31, 1972) (ddr-pc-44-12)
Selected article titles: "Asians Protest Propsed for Employer Knowingly Hiring Illegals" (p.1), "Interviewing Techniques Initial Course for Univ. of Utah Asian Studies Class" (p.1), "Encampment for Citizenship Seeks Asian Applicants" (p.2), "Issei Suicide Pattern Noted in Med Journal" (p.3-4), "Nisei Grower-Shipper Accused in $40 Million Class Action Suit" (p.4)
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 77, No. 05, (August 3, 1973) (ddr-pc-45-30)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 77, No. 05, (August 3, 1973) (ddr-pc-45-30)
Select article titles: "If Constitution Can Be Amended Issei Might Be U.S. President" (p.1); "Sen. Inouye Will Talk to Himself in Hawaiian" (p.1); "Ruth Asawa's Wire Sculptures Draw Raves at San Francisco Museum of Art" (p.3); "Nat'l CACA Convenes in L.A." (p.4); "Low-key Minority Hiring Practices in State Corrections Dept. Pays Off" (p.4).
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