Immigration and citizenship

Japanese immigrants began arriving in the United States at the end of the nineteenth century when workers were recruited to meet the growing need for low-wage laborers in the Territory of Hawaii and on the West Coast. Commodore Perry had opened Japan to American commerce and trade relations in 1853, but anti-Asian sentiment resulted in the Gentlemen's Agreement of 1907, which halted the immigration of workers from Japan. In 1910, the Japanese population was about 80,000 in Hawaii and 72,000 on the continental United States. Japanese women continued to enter the country until the 1924 Immigration Act cut off immigration from Japan to the United States. Most of the early Japanese immigrants, the Issei (first generation), came as contract agricultural laborers, although many others were students and merchants. While Japanese immigrants were prohibited by discriminatory laws from becoming naturalized citizens of the United States, their American-born children (nisei) held U.S. citizenship.

Immigration and citizenship (302)

Related articles from the Densho Encyclopedia :
Immigration, Japanese associations

302 items
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 58, No. 17 (October 25, 1963) (ddr-pc-35-43)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 58, No. 17 (October 25, 1963) (ddr-pc-35-43)
Selected article titles: "Problems Facing Farmers Dependent upon 'Braceros' Detailed, Many Seem Resigned Program Will Continue for a Year More" (pp. 1-2), "Washington Newsletter: Civil Rights Battle" (p. 2), and "U.S. Gov't Will Pay for Property Claims Rising Out of Bombing on Pearl Harbor" (p. 3).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 59, Vol. 22 (November 27, 1964) (ddr-pc-36-48)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 59, Vol. 22 (November 27, 1964) (ddr-pc-36-48)
Selected article titles: "Hospital Money Plan Endorsed by Chicago JACL for Members; Enrollment Period Underway, Seek 250 Acceptable Applications" (p.1), "Hawaii GI Vote Issue Placed before U.S. Supreme Court" (p.1), "Warn against Racial Stereotypes in Books" (p.1), "Prop. 14 Called Part of Nation-Wide Plan to Roll Back Social Progress of Past Years" (p.1), "Issei History Seen …
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 58, Vol. 4 (January 24, 1964) (ddr-pc-36-4)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 58, Vol. 4 (January 24, 1964) (ddr-pc-36-4)
Selected article titles: "History Project Calls for Issei List, Documents" (p.1-2), "U.S. Immigration Policy Free of Racial Quotas Sought" (p.1), "Injunction to Halt Fair Housing Act Initiative to Repeal Denied in Court" (p.1, 3), "Immigration Policy and JACL" (p.2), "Puyallup Contributes $100 to Housing Fight" (p.4).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 59, Vol. 5 (July 31, 1964) (ddr-pc-36-31)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 59, Vol. 5 (July 31, 1964) (ddr-pc-36-31)
Selected article titles: "Kido's 36-Year Leadership in JACL Commemorated" (p.1, 4), "Naturalized Citizen Wife of Serviceman in Hawaii Denied Voter Registration" (p.1), "Defeat of Prop. 14 Principle Agenda Item for NC-WNDC" (p.1), "Nisei Teacher Pilots Training Class Among Youngsters in N.Y.'s Harlem" (p.1), "Immigration Legislation" (p.2).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 58, Vol. 1 (January 3, 1964) (ddr-pc-36-1)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 58, Vol. 1 (January 3, 1964) (ddr-pc-36-1)
Selected article titles: "West L.A. JACL Concludes First Year Under Woman Presidebt" (p.1), "Senate Subcommittee to Consider Two Proposals for Changes in Immigration Law" (p.1), "Los Angeles Slated for Study Project of Area Redevelopment Administration" (p.1), "1963 in Retrospect" (p.2), "Kawakita Returns to Japan, Grateful to President Kennedy for Release Order" (p.3).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 58, Vol. 17 (April 24, 1964) (ddr-pc-36-17)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 58, Vol. 17 (April 24, 1964) (ddr-pc-36-17)
Selected article titles: "'Pointless' Tactics of Concern to Civil Rights Proponents" (p.1-2), "Buddhists Rights Not Affected by Atheist Amendment" (p.1), "Canada to Revise Immigration Policy" (p.1), "Notice to Claimants of Yen Certificates" (p.2), "Carnegie Grant to Japanese History Project Draws Mexican American Comment" (p.3).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 58, Vol. 7 (February 14, 1964) (ddr-pc-36-7)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 58, Vol. 7 (February 14, 1964) (ddr-pc-36-7)
Selected article titles: "Major Medical Plan Offered to PSW JACLers" (p.1, 3), "House Passes Civil Rights Bill Virtually Intact, 290-130" (p.1-2), "JACL's Job to Impress the Young" (p.1), "JACL to Honor Men for Repealing Neb. Miscegenation Law" (p.1), "Opposition Mounts against Initiative to Kill Fair Housing" (p.3).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 58, Vol. 21 (May 22, 1964) (ddr-pc-36-21)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 58, Vol. 21 (May 22, 1964) (ddr-pc-36-21)
Selected article titles: "Realtor against Initiative Addresses PSWDC, Explains Cal. Fair Housing" (p.1, 4), "100th Infantry Regains Old Name" (p.1), "Naturalized Issei Permanently Residing in Japan Aided by Rule" (p.1), "Community Affairs Seminar to Be Organized" (p.3).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 60, No. 10 (March 5, 1965) (ddr-pc-37-10)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 60, No. 10 (March 5, 1965) (ddr-pc-37-10)
Selected article titles: "1st Civil Rights Bill Passed in State of Utah" (p.1), "Home-Owners near Farm Labor Camp Protest Skid-Row Recruits" (p.1), "Wyoming Governor Signs Act Repealing Miscegenation Law" (p.1), "Immigration Testimony" (p.2), "First California Gray Whale Captured Alive for Sea World by Nisei Commercial Whaler, Considered Top U.S. Sharpshooter" (p.3), "Hawaii's Reapportionment Task Toughened by …
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 61, No. 24 (December 10, 1965) (ddr-pc-37-50)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 61, No. 24 (December 10, 1965) (ddr-pc-37-50)
Selected article titles: "All Systems 'Go' for Repeal of Washington Land Law"(p.1-2), "Education Key to Freedom, Mrs. Mink says" (p.1), "1965 Immigration Laws" (p.2), "Tall Watch-Tower Overlooking Minidoka WRA Camp Still Standing, says Seattleite after Insepction Trip" (p.3), "'Nisei' Japanese Cherry Trees Planted at Washington Monument Area, Part of 3,800 from Japanese Government" (p.5), "10 Visas …
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 61, No. 16 (October 15, 1965) (ddr-pc-37-42)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 61, No. 16 (October 15, 1965) (ddr-pc-37-42)
Selected article titles: "L.A. Mexicans Deny Anti-Negro Feelings High" (p.1), "History Project: Yakima Indian Lands Farmed by Issei" (p.1-2), "Against the KKK in Bogalusa" (p.1-2), "New Immigration Law" (p.2), "Peace Corps Allays Fear and Prejudice in Ghana" (p.3), "Less Pressures on Sansei Attributed to Their Decline" (p.4), "Youth Welfare-Delinquency Prevention Conference Nov. 6 at L.A. County …
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 61, No. 12 (September 17, 1965) (ddr-pc-37-38)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 61, No. 12 (September 17, 1965) (ddr-pc-37-38)
Selected article titles: "Preliminary Findings of JACL History Project Upset Myths" (p.1-2), "Against the KKK in Bogalusa" (p.1-2), "B'nai B'rith Cites Gains in Civil Rights Laws in States" (p.1), "Senate Immigration Debate" (p.2), "Nisei Democrats Support Proposal for Creating L.A. City Human Relations Dept." (p.3), "Financial, Moral Support Necessary for Maintaining National Jr. JACL Enthusiasm" (p.4), …
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 60, No. 21 (May 21, 1965) (ddr-pc-37-21)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 60, No. 21 (May 21, 1965) (ddr-pc-37-21)
Selected article titles: "JACLers across Nation to Honor Nisei War Dead" (p.1), "JACL Favors Administration's Changes to Immigration Law" (p.1-2), "Seattle Councilman Wing Luke Missing on Plane Flight" (p.1), "FDR Jr. to Chair New Post in EEOC to Rid Job Bias" (p.1-2), "Immigration Bill Activity" (p.2), "Civil Rights Compared to Cancer" (p.2).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 60, No. 2 (January 8, 1965) (ddr-pc-37-2)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 60, No. 2 (January 8, 1965) (ddr-pc-37-2)
Selected article titles: "Prop. 14 Upheld in First Test at Orange County" (p.1), "President Johnson Outlines His Thoughts of Great Society" (p.1-2), "California Braceros No More-Growers Uncertain about Future" (p.1), "San Francisco Main Port for Issei Emigres" (p.3), "Preparation Needed to Cope with Japanese Visitors to Hawaii" (p.3).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 61, No. 25 (December 17, 1965) (ddr-pc-37-51)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 61, No. 25 (December 17, 1965) (ddr-pc-37-51)
Selected article titles: "Labor Red Tape May Keep Immigration Doors Tight" (p.1-2), "Federal Voting Law Supercedes State Literacy Provision" (p.1), "Findings of McCone Commission" (p.1-2), "Shonien Home Sold for $85,000 Fund Reserved for Community Projects" (p.4).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 60, No. 24 (June 11, 1965) (ddr-pc-37-24)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 60, No. 24 (June 11, 1965) (ddr-pc-37-24)
Selected article titles: "Passage of Immigration Bill (S 500) Urged by JACL at Senate Hearing" (p.1-3), "History Project: Issei Coal Miners of Carbon County, Utah" (p.1), "Councilman Wing Luke" (p.2), "Voting Rights Amendment May Aid Hawaiians" (p.3), "Role of the Women's Auxilliary" (p.3), "Buddhist Women Attend International Conference in New York" (p.6).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 61, No. 10 (September 3, 1965) (ddr-pc-37-36)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 61, No. 10 (September 3, 1965) (ddr-pc-37-36)
Selected article titles: "Senate Tightens Immigrations Bill, All Racial Quotas Removed" (p.1-2), "Earl Finch, Godfather of 442d, Heart Attack Victim at Age 49" (p.1, 5), "President's Corner: Civil Rights and the JACL" (p.1), "House Immigration Debate" (p.2), "Sponsors Deny Nisei Cast in Bad Light on 'FBI' Teleplay" (p.3), "Seattle Wonders if 'Watts Riot' Could Spark as …
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 60, No. 3 (January 15, 1965) (ddr-pc-37-3)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 60, No. 3 (January 15, 1965) (ddr-pc-37-3)
Selected article titles: "Another Angle Proposed to Eliminate Alien Land Law" (p.1), "Texas Issei Pioneers in Farming Had Little Thought of 'Hiki-Age'" (p.1-2, 4), "Japanese Supplemental Farm Workers Program in California Jeopardized by Latest U.S. Labor Dept. Rule to Remove Braceros" (p.1), "Los Angeles Area Oriental Groups Form Council" (p.3-4).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 61, No. 13 (September 24, 1965) (ddr-pc-37-39)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 61, No. 13 (September 24, 1965) (ddr-pc-37-39)
Selected article titles: "Issei-Nisei Success Stories in Midwest-East Recollected" (p.1, 4), "So. Calif. JACLers Implement Civil Rights at Grass-Root Level" (p.1-2), "Senate Passes Immigration Bill 76-18" (p.1), "Senate Immigration Bill" (p.2).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 62, No. 5 (February 4, 1966) (ddr-pc-38-5)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 62, No. 5 (February 4, 1966) (ddr-pc-38-5)
Select article titles: "Success Story: Japanese American Style" (p.1); "Sixth AJA killed in Vietnam, with helicopter team" (p.1); "Henry Kasai, 75, dies of Natural causes in Salt Lake Hospital" (p.1);"Appreciation banquet to three elders of Seattle community draws 300 Issei" (p.5).
Pacific Citizen, Vol 68, No. 7 (February 14, 1969) (ddr-pc-41-7)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol 68, No. 7 (February 14, 1969) (ddr-pc-41-7)
Select article titles: "Immigration centennial plans for fall revealed" (p. 1); "Matsunaga focuses on S.F. State issue" (p. 1); "Japan and President Nixon" (p. 2); "JACL To Support Human Rights Body For Utah" (p. 4); "PSWDC civil rights workshop hears views of two 'involved' Sansei youth" (p. 4).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 68, No. 21 (May 23, 1969) (ddr-pc-41-21)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 68, No. 21 (May 23, 1969) (ddr-pc-41-21)
Select article titles: "JACL firms commemoration of Centennial" (p. 1); " Racist strategy charged in Noguchi hearing" (p. 1); "JACL to Honor Nisei War Dead of Three Wars in May 25 Service" (p. 1); "San Francisco supervisory board adopts Title II repeal resolution" (p. 3)
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 69, No. 25 (December 19,1969) (ddr-pc-41-51)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 69, No. 25 (December 19,1969) (ddr-pc-41-51)
Select article titles: "Brief History of Japanese in Colusa County: Shadow of Its Former Self" (A p. 1); "New history reveals Issei as ideal builders in America despite variances" (A p. 9); "For Better Americans in a Greater America" (D. p. 11); "In a Democracy laws are the people's safeguard" (Supplement p. 3); "The Japanese American: …
Pacific Citizen, Vol 68, No. 3 (January 17, 1969) (ddr-pc-41-3)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol 68, No. 3 (January 17, 1969) (ddr-pc-41-3)
Select article titles: "Immigtation law changes sought" (p. 1); "Reno JACL Seeks Heirs Of First Issei In U.S." (p. 1); "Why Dr. Hayakawa accepted college president's job" (p. 1); "'Melting pot' concept resisted by some ethnic groups in America if 'this means Anglo Saxon domination'" (p. 3); "Asian American Studies popular" (p. 4).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 74, No. 12 (March 31, 1972) (ddr-pc-44-12)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 74, No. 12 (March 31, 1972) (ddr-pc-44-12)
Selected article titles: "Asians Protest Propsed for Employer Knowingly Hiring Illegals" (p.1), "Interviewing Techniques Initial Course for Univ. of Utah Asian Studies Class" (p.1), "Encampment for Citizenship Seeks Asian Applicants" (p.2), "Issei Suicide Pattern Noted in Med Journal" (p.3-4), "Nisei Grower-Shipper Accused in $40 Million Class Action Suit" (p.4)
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