Immigration and citizenship

Japanese immigrants began arriving in the United States at the end of the nineteenth century when workers were recruited to meet the growing need for low-wage laborers in the Territory of Hawaii and on the West Coast. Commodore Perry had opened Japan to American commerce and trade relations in 1853, but anti-Asian sentiment resulted in the Gentlemen's Agreement of 1907, which halted the immigration of workers from Japan. In 1910, the Japanese population was about 80,000 in Hawaii and 72,000 on the continental United States. Japanese women continued to enter the country until the 1924 Immigration Act cut off immigration from Japan to the United States. Most of the early Japanese immigrants, the Issei (first generation), came as contract agricultural laborers, although many others were students and merchants. While Japanese immigrants were prohibited by discriminatory laws from becoming naturalized citizens of the United States, their American-born children (nisei) held U.S. citizenship.

Immigration and citizenship (285)

Related articles from the Densho Encyclopedia :
Immigration, Japanese associations

285 items
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 77, No. 03, (July 20, 1973) (ddr-pc-45-28)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 77, No. 03, (July 20, 1973) (ddr-pc-45-28)
Select article titles: "State Alien Job Laws Voided" (p.1); "Inouye Avoiding Lure of TV Showmanship" (p.1); "Nat'l JACL Produces Kit for Chapters to Push Local Area History Workshops" (p.1); "'Guilty by Reason of Race' Reactions from Japan" (p.3).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 76, No. 24, (June 22, 1973) (ddr-pc-45-24)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 76, No. 24, (June 22, 1973) (ddr-pc-45-24)
Select article titles: "New Look in JACL Greets Officials Attending National Interim Session" (p.1); "Asian American Actors Win Case Against N.Y. Repertory Theater" (p.1); "San Francisco Asian Action Group Urges JACL Return Gerontology Fund" (p.1); "Nisei Knocks Mineta Elk Boycott" (p.3); "Rep. Mink Urges Emphasis on Asian Studies" (p.3); "Facts (Not Innuendoes) Needed to Fix Korean ...
Pacific citizen, Vol. 77, No. 23, (December 7, 1973) (ddr-pc-45-48)
doc Pacific citizen, Vol. 77, No. 23, (December 7, 1973) (ddr-pc-45-48)
Select article titles: "U.S. Judge Rules 3-1 Ration for S.F. Police Dept." (p.1); "Calif. Legislature: Reappointment Settled" (p.1); "'Gambare!', Bannai Urges Nisei" (p.1); "Returned Land from U.S. Military in Japan to Be Converted into Parks" (p.5); "Geologist Says Japan Emerged from North Coast" (p.6).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 79, No. 17 (October 25, 1974) (ddr-pc-46-42)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 79, No. 17 (October 25, 1974) (ddr-pc-46-42)
Selected article titles: "Personal Profiles in Brief: Governor Ariyoshi" (pp. 1, 6), "3,000 'GI Babies' to Be Stateless" (p. 1), "Nikkei--A Term That Japanese All Understand" (p. 2), and "Status of Aliens in JACL" (pp. 2, 4).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 79, No. 19 (November 8, 1974) (ddr-pc-46-44)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 79, No. 19 (November 8, 1974) (ddr-pc-46-44)
Selected article titles: "Illegal Alien a Nat'l Crisis, Saxbe Declares" (p. 1), "Ramsey Clark Views Evacuation" (p. 1), "East Wind: Asian American Attitudes" (p. 2), and "Rep. Ed Derwinski: U.S. Favors Japan Over Common Mkt." (p. 3).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 78, No. 17 (May 3, 1974) (ddr-pc-46-17)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 78, No. 17 (May 3, 1974) (ddr-pc-46-17)
Selected article titles: "'Operation Zebra' Reminds JACL of 1942 Evacuation of Japanese" (p. 1), "Tighter U.S. Policy Seen Reducing Number of Foreign Students This Year" (p. 1), "Washington Newsletter: What Can I Do About P.R.?" (p. 2), and "30-Year Debate of 'Direct Hit' Off Oregon Coast by Japanese Sub Ends" (p. 3).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 78, No. 25 (June 28, 1974) (ddr-pc-46-25)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 78, No. 25 (June 28, 1974) (ddr-pc-46-25)
Selected article titles: "An Editorial Up Front: Age Discrimination" (p. 1), "2,000 Textbooks Okayed Despite Ethnic Protests" (p. 1), "S.F. Area Asian Americans Face Job Bias, Major Study Reveals" (pp. 1, 3), and "Supreme Court to Review U.S. Ban on Hiring Aliens" (p. 3).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 79, No. 18 (November 1, 1974) (ddr-pc-46-43)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 79, No. 18 (November 1, 1974) (ddr-pc-46-43)
Selected article titles: "To the Point: Racism Within Us" (p. 1), "Alien Farm Labor Issue Confuses Supreme Court" (pp. 1, 4), "Hawaiian 442 Veterans Revisit Europe at 30th Ann'y of Bruyeres Liberation" (p. 1), and "JACL--Sansei Study Tour: Unique Look Through Japan" (p. 3).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 82, No. 4 (January 30, 1976) (ddr-pc-48-4)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 82, No. 4 (January 30, 1976) (ddr-pc-48-4)
Selected article titles: "JACL Anti-Defamation Chairman Denounces Hayakawa's Column" (p. 1), "Estimate 40,000 Vietnamese Will Be Living in California by June, 1976" (pp. 1-2), "Enomoto Faces Charge of Reverse Bias as State Affirmative Action Challenge" (p. 1), and "Editorials: Executive Order 9066" (p. 2).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 82, No. 17 (April 30, 1976) (ddr-pc-48-17)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 82, No. 17 (April 30, 1976) (ddr-pc-48-17)
Selected article titles: "Reparation Campaign Underway" (pp. 1, 3), "Illegal Alien Law Okd" (pp. 1, 3), "Committee for Iva Toguri" (p. 1), and "Wendy's Pretrial" (p. 2).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 85, No. 21 (November 18, 1977) (ddr-pc-49-45)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 85, No. 21 (November 18, 1977) (ddr-pc-49-45)
Selected article titles: "Supreme Court: Rights of Alien to Be Police Argued, Other Major Cases on Aliens Still Pending" (p.1), "Seattle JACLer in Prominent Role at National Women's Conference" (p.1), "Carter Team Lashed for Shunning the Nikkei" (p.1, 9), "Reparations? No!" (p.4), "Evacuees from Peru" (p.5), "Calif. Agriculture and the Nikkei" (p.7), "A Third Position Presented ...
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 85, No. 14 (September 30, 1977) (ddr-pc-49-38)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 85, No. 14 (September 30, 1977) (ddr-pc-49-38)
Selected article titles: "Census Bureau Plans to Drop 'Asian/Pac Island' Category" (p.1), "UC Davis Winning War of Briefs in Bakke Case" (p.1), "EXECOM Looks at Reparations" (p.1-2, 4), "E-1 Visa Student Privilege in Other States Encouraged" (p.2), "Tacoma Reunion-One Man's View" (p.3, 7), "Japanese Christian Mission Centennial in U.S. All Set" (p.7).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 85, No. 2 (July 8, 1977) (ddr-pc-49-26)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 85, No. 2 (July 8, 1977) (ddr-pc-49-26)
Selected article titles: "Angry Words Fly Over J-Town Housing: (p.1), "AMA Conference Tables Move to Aid Hibakusha" (p.1), "Asians Criticize Census Test Site" (p.1), "Hearing Off on Retirement Credit Bill" (p.2), "Law Denying College Aid to Aliens Invalidated" (p.3), "Nisei Marriages Evolving" (p.5).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 85, No. 7 (August 12, 1977) (ddr-pc-49-31)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 85, No. 7 (August 12, 1977) (ddr-pc-49-31)
Selected article titles: "Asians Question Ruling on Filipino Nurses" (p.1), "Carter's Plan on Illegal Aliens Finally Detailed" (p.1), "Mineta Keeps Hectic Schedule on Recent Home District Visit" (p.1, 3), "A Sansei Awakening" (p.4, 7), "Tacoma Reunion" (p.4), "Young Peoples Christian Conference Foundation Stone for Nisei Leadership" (p.7).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 85, No. 1 (July 1, 1977) (ddr-pc-49-25)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 85, No. 1 (July 1, 1977) (ddr-pc-49-25)
Selected article titles: "JACL Joins 20 Other Nat'l Groups in Case Against Bakke" (p.1-2), "'Nondeportable' Status Likely to Relieve Longtime 'Illegals'" (p.1-2), "Gov. Ray Signs E-1 Visa Alien Tuition Law" (p.1-2), "The Pride at Seabrook" (p.4).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 84, No. 4 (February 4, 1977) (ddr-pc-49-4)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 84, No. 4 (February 4, 1977) (ddr-pc-49-4)
Selected article titles: "Illegal Immigration on the Rise in US" (p.1), "New Yorkers to Discuss Nsei 'after-65' Problems" (p.1, 7), "Canada to Decorate Issei and Sansei" (p.1), "Wendy Yoshimura: One Juror Was 'Pressured'" (p.2, 4).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 89, No. 2054 (August 3, 1979) (ddr-pc-51-30)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 89, No. 2054 (August 3, 1979) (ddr-pc-51-30)
Selected article titles: "Minidoka Site Dedication: Sen. Church, Hosokawa Paired" (p. 1), "Viet Refugees in Japan Unhappy, Few Want to Stay" (p. 1), "From the Frying Pan: Chapter Vote on Redress" (p. 5), and "Jesse Kuhaulua Faces Toughest Sumo Bout: Career or Citizenship" (p. 8).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 89, No. 2074 (December 21-28, 1979) (ddr-pc-51-50)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 89, No. 2074 (December 21-28, 1979) (ddr-pc-51-50)
Special holiday issue. Selected article titles: "School Teacher Recalls Minidoka" (p. 26), "In Defense of JACL's Founding Membership Principle: Citizenship" (pp. 47-48), "Nikkei Impressions of Nikkei America After a Long Absence" (pp. 49, 92), and "Growing up in Postwar Japan" (pp. 54, 94).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 88, No. 2041 (May 4, 1979) (ddr-pc-51-17)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 88, No. 2041 (May 4, 1979) (ddr-pc-51-17)
Selected article titles: "Omission of Asians 'Glaring Oversight' on U.S. List Designating 'Minorities'" (pp. 1-2, 11), "First Friday Feature: Angel Island Immigration Station Dedicated" (p. 3), "Japan Today: May 4-10 Asian/Pacific American Heritage Week" (p. 6), and "West Coast Nisei Farmers in 1942, if Given a Free Choice, Wanted to Remain" (p. 10).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 89, No. 2053 (July 27, 1979) (ddr-pc-51-29)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 89, No. 2053 (July 27, 1979) (ddr-pc-51-29)
Selected article titles: "U.S. Responds to 'Save the Boat People' Campaign" (p. 1), "In the Last 100 Years: Estimate 905,000 Japanese Emigrated" (p. 1), "Guest Speaker: A 'No-No' Segregee" (pp. 4, 9), and "Nisei in Japan: Yankee Samurai Here and Now" (p. 10).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 95, No. 4 (July 23, 1982) (ddr-pc-54-29)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 95, No. 4 (July 23, 1982) (ddr-pc-54-29)
Selected article titles: "U.S. Appellate Court Rules INS Raids Violate Constitutional Rights" (pp. 1, 3), "Kokekokko: 'Japanese Camps'" (p. 6), "Inouye's 6 Steps to Reduce Tensions for War" (p. 8), and "Chief Justice Warren and the Japanese Detention Cases" (pp. 8, 12).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 94, No. 2 (January 15, 1982) (ddr-pc-54-2)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 94, No. 2 (January 15, 1982) (ddr-pc-54-2)
Selected article titles: "New Alien Law Eliminates Annual Address Reporting" (p. 1), "The Other Internees of World War II" (pp. 2-3), "Peter Imamura: Separate but Equal" (p. 3), and "Chapter Report: JACL in Japan Keeps Rolling" (p. 10).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 94, No. 8 (February 26, 1982) (ddr-pc-54-8)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 94, No. 8 (February 26, 1982) (ddr-pc-54-8)
Selected article titles: "'Reagan's Raids': People or Numbers" (pp. 1, 8), "JACL Now Preparing for 3-Year Redress Campaign" (pp. 1, 10), "East Wind: Issei Principles" (p. 5), and "Moshi-Moshi: Samrai Without Mystique--Kabu" (p. 12).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 95, No. 13 (September 24, 1982) (ddr-pc-54-38)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 95, No. 13 (September 24, 1982) (ddr-pc-54-38)
Selected article titles: "House Judiciary Committee Votes to Retain 5th Preference" (p. 1), "Japanese Canadians to Seek Redress for WW2 Relocation" (pp. 1-2), "Former Nisei Queen Responds to Rift Over 'Mixed Ancestry'" (p. 3), and "Alaskan and Japan Cities Make 'Sister Port' Pact Official" (p. 8).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 95, No. 12 (September 17, 1982) (ddr-pc-54-37)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 95, No. 12 (September 17, 1982) (ddr-pc-54-37)
Selected article titles: "JACL Urges Retention of 5th Preference in Immigrant Bill" (p. 1), "Names of Former State Workers Eligible for AB 2710 Released" (pp. 1-2), "Noguchi Begins His Defense" (p. 3), and "From the Frying Pan: Nisei Aging Project in Critical Need" (p. 5).
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