Immigration and citizenship

Japanese immigrants began arriving in the United States at the end of the nineteenth century when workers were recruited to meet the growing need for low-wage laborers in the Territory of Hawaii and on the West Coast. Commodore Perry had opened Japan to American commerce and trade relations in 1853, but anti-Asian sentiment resulted in the Gentlemen's Agreement of 1907, which halted the immigration of workers from Japan. In 1910, the Japanese population was about 80,000 in Hawaii and 72,000 on the continental United States. Japanese women continued to enter the country until the 1924 Immigration Act cut off immigration from Japan to the United States. Most of the early Japanese immigrants, the Issei (first generation), came as contract agricultural laborers, although many others were students and merchants. While Japanese immigrants were prohibited by discriminatory laws from becoming naturalized citizens of the United States, their American-born children (nisei) held U.S. citizenship.

Immigration and citizenship (280)

Related articles from the Densho Encyclopedia :
Immigration, Japanese associations

279 items
Notification of appointment date (ddr-densho-278-9)
doc Notification of appointment date (ddr-densho-278-9)
Appointment notice for Henry Watanabe to return to the United States from Japan.
The Newell Star, Vol. II, No. 14 (April 6, 1945) (ddr-densho-284-63)
doc The Newell Star, Vol. II, No. 14 (April 6, 1945) (ddr-densho-284-63)
Selected article titles: "Stop List Interviews, Deportation Hearings Being Conducted Here" (pp. 1-2), "Center's End of Year Population Figures Given" (p. 1), "Four Violators Plead Guilty at Project Trials" (p. 2), and "Hana Matsuri: Center Buddhist Churches to Hold Gotanye Services" (p. 3).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 95, No. 4 (July 23, 1982) (ddr-pc-54-29)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 95, No. 4 (July 23, 1982) (ddr-pc-54-29)
Selected article titles: "U.S. Appellate Court Rules INS Raids Violate Constitutional Rights" (pp. 1, 3), "Kokekokko: 'Japanese Camps'" (p. 6), "Inouye's 6 Steps to Reduce Tensions for War" (p. 8), and "Chief Justice Warren and the Japanese Detention Cases" (pp. 8, 12).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 52, No. 26 (June 30, 1961) (ddr-pc-33-26)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 52, No. 26 (June 30, 1961) (ddr-pc-33-26)
Selected article titles: "$300,000 Grant for History Asked, Outlook Encouraging" (p. 1), "Prime Minister Ikeda Cements Japanese-American Friendship in Washington Visit" (pp. 1-2), "'Command Decision': Evacuation, Part 5" (p. 1), and "Japanese Wives of Akron GIs Meet at International Institute, All Anxious to Learn More English and Become Americanized" (p. 3).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 58, No. 13 (September 27, 1963) (ddr-pc-35-39)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 58, No. 13 (September 27, 1963) (ddr-pc-35-39)
Selected article titles: "'Weak' Textbooks Charge Recalls Anti-Nisei Passages" (p. 1), "Atomic Bomb Casualty in Hiroshima Said to Have Been Exaggerated by Washington" (p. 1), and "'American Citizenship - Showcase for Freedom'" (p. 2).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 89, No. 2054 (August 3, 1979) (ddr-pc-51-30)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 89, No. 2054 (August 3, 1979) (ddr-pc-51-30)
Selected article titles: "Minidoka Site Dedication: Sen. Church, Hosokawa Paired" (p. 1), "Viet Refugees in Japan Unhappy, Few Want to Stay" (p. 1), "From the Frying Pan: Chapter Vote on Redress" (p. 5), and "Jesse Kuhaulua Faces Toughest Sumo Bout: Career or Citizenship" (p. 8).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 89, No. 2074 (December 21-28, 1979) (ddr-pc-51-50)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 89, No. 2074 (December 21-28, 1979) (ddr-pc-51-50)
Special holiday issue. Selected article titles: "School Teacher Recalls Minidoka" (p. 26), "In Defense of JACL's Founding Membership Principle: Citizenship" (pp. 47-48), "Nikkei Impressions of Nikkei America After a Long Absence" (pp. 49, 92), and "Growing up in Postwar Japan" (pp. 54, 94).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 85, No. 7 (August 12, 1977) (ddr-pc-49-31)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 85, No. 7 (August 12, 1977) (ddr-pc-49-31)
Selected article titles: "Asians Question Ruling on Filipino Nurses" (p.1), "Carter's Plan on Illegal Aliens Finally Detailed" (p.1), "Mineta Keeps Hectic Schedule on Recent Home District Visit" (p.1, 3), "A Sansei Awakening" (p.4, 7), "Tacoma Reunion" (p.4), "Young Peoples Christian Conference Foundation Stone for Nisei Leadership" (p.7).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 84, No. 4 (February 4, 1977) (ddr-pc-49-4)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 84, No. 4 (February 4, 1977) (ddr-pc-49-4)
Selected article titles: "Illegal Immigration on the Rise in US" (p.1), "New Yorkers to Discuss Nsei 'after-65' Problems" (p.1, 7), "Canada to Decorate Issei and Sansei" (p.1), "Wendy Yoshimura: One Juror Was 'Pressured'" (p.2, 4).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 46, No. 12 (March 21, 1958) (ddr-pc-30-12)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 46, No. 12 (March 21, 1958) (ddr-pc-30-12)
Select article titles: "Merriam Unabridged Dictionary to note use of 'Jap' as disparaging remark in next edition" (p.1); "Helping other minorities helps all, JACLers told at own Brotherhood dinner" (p.5); "4,000 Japanese war brides in Hawaii; 600 in Chicago area" (p.8)
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 47, No.5 (August 1, 1958) (ddr-pc-30-31)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 47, No.5 (August 1, 1958) (ddr-pc-30-31)
Select article titles: "Stranded Japanese wife of sailor finds U.S. Navy had heart as red tape cut" (p.1); "Urge chapters give delegates free hand on voting of JACL's U.S.-Japan policy" (p. 5); "House passes bill to aid alien not listed as 'Legally Admitted'" (p.8)
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 46, No. 11 (March 14, 1958) (ddr-pc-30-11)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 46, No. 11 (March 14, 1958) (ddr-pc-30-11)
Select article titles: "Five records bettered in JACL pinfest" (p.1); "Naturalization classes resumed to aid Japanese wives of ex-GIs" (p.8); "Documentary film on 1942 evacuation under production" (p.8)
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 42, No. 7 (Febuary 17, 1956) (ddr-pc-28-7)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 42, No. 7 (Febuary 17, 1956) (ddr-pc-28-7)
Selected article titles: "Bill implementing Ike's message on immigration ups Japan quota: 563" (p. 1), "House Judiciary considering Lane-Hillings claim bill" (p. 1), "Publication of Letter Arouses Nisei Protest to Newsweek" (p. 1), "JACL telegram defends Nisei loyalty to U.S. in reply to magazine letter" (p. 1), "Colorado community boasts of 100% in naturalization ...
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 50, No. 14 (April 1, 1960) (ddr-pc-32-14)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 50, No. 14 (April 1, 1960) (ddr-pc-32-14)
Select article titles: "Yokohama student selected as JACL Scout for Jamboree" (p.1); "Gov't invitation for naturalized citizens goes nation-wide" (p.1); "Call in Nisei toxicologist when arsenic found in coffee drunk by Seattle workers" (p.2);
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 60, No. 22 (May 28, 1965) (ddr-pc-37-22)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 60, No. 22 (May 28, 1965) (ddr-pc-37-22)
Selected article titles: "History Project: Nisei Homesteads near Heart Mountain" (p.1), "Calif. FEPC Budget Slashed, Housing Program in Danger" (p.1), "Author Michener says 'Hawaii Way Ahead' in Civil Rights Fight, Might Return to Isles" (p.1), "Immigration Bill Timetable" (p.2), "Utah Opens Own Rights Commission" (p.3), "'Myakawa Rd.' in Houston Linked to ...
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 60, No. 23 (June 4, 1965) (ddr-pc-37-23)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 60, No. 23 (June 4, 1965) (ddr-pc-37-23)
Selected article titles: "Top JACL Scholarship Raised to $400" (p.1-2), "JACL Interim Youth Council Set June 26-27 at Salt Lake City" (p.1, 4), "Senate Voting Rights Bill" (p.2), "State Supreme Court to Rule on Prop. 14" (p.3), "Amassador Grew Endorsed JACL during War Years, Aided Issei Naturalization Program as Eloquent Witness before ...
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 63, No. 26 (December 23-30, 1966) (ddr-pc-38-51)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 63, No. 26 (December 23-30, 1966) (ddr-pc-38-51)
Select article titles: "Why leadership of Japanese community at time of Evacuation fell upon JACL" (p. A1); "Order of Evacuation Brings on One of America's Greatest Swindles" (p. A3); "The Closing of Manzanar" (p. B1); "Worthy Partners for Building Peace" (p. Supplement 1); "Immigration, Evacuation Claims, Civil Rights" (p. B17).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 63, No. 16 (October 14, 1966) (ddr-pc-38-41)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 63, No. 16 (October 14, 1966) (ddr-pc-38-41)
Select article titles: "Civil rights fight nothing new to Nisei" (p. 1); "3,261 Japanese Immigrants" (p. 3); "Canadian waves Yellow Peril flag" (p. 3).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 75, No. 14 (October 6, 1972) (ddr-pc-44-39)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 75, No. 14 (October 6, 1972) (ddr-pc-44-39)
Selected article titles: "Chavez Hurls Threat at Nisei Farm League" (p.1, 5), "Yen Claims Bill: Questions Raised, Answers Furnished" (p.1), "Immigrants Changing New York" (p.1), "A Nisei View of Japan: Understand the Japanese?" (p.2).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 77, No. 03, (July 20, 1973) (ddr-pc-45-28)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 77, No. 03, (July 20, 1973) (ddr-pc-45-28)
Select article titles: "State Alien Job Laws Voided" (p.1); "Inouye Avoiding Lure of TV Showmanship" (p.1); "Nat'l JACL Produces Kit for Chapters to Push Local Area History Workshops" (p.1); "'Guilty by Reason of Race' Reactions from Japan" (p.3).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 58, Vol. 25 (June 19, 1964) (ddr-pc-36-25)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 58, Vol. 25 (June 19, 1964) (ddr-pc-36-25)
Selected article titles: "President Johnson May Sign Civil Rights Omnibus July 4" (p.1-2), "JACL Convention to Fete Ben Kuroki for Aiding Evacuees" (p.1), "PSWDC Proposals to Defeat Housing Initiative Bared" (p.1), "Denaturalized Issei Overstaying Abroad Asked to Reapply" (p.1), "Questions of Youth Assembly" (p.2), "Canada Not Proud of Wartime Treatement of ...
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