Immigration and citizenship

Japanese immigrants began arriving in the United States at the end of the nineteenth century when workers were recruited to meet the growing need for low-wage laborers in the Territory of Hawaii and on the West Coast. Commodore Perry had opened Japan to American commerce and trade relations in 1853, but anti-Asian sentiment resulted in the Gentlemen's Agreement of 1907, which halted the immigration of workers from Japan. In 1910, the Japanese population was about 80,000 in Hawaii and 72,000 on the continental United States. Japanese women continued to enter the country until the 1924 Immigration Act cut off immigration from Japan to the United States. Most of the early Japanese immigrants, the Issei (first generation), came as contract agricultural laborers, although many others were students and merchants. While Japanese immigrants were prohibited by discriminatory laws from becoming naturalized citizens of the United States, their American-born children (nisei) held U.S. citizenship.

Immigration and citizenship (302)

Related articles from the Densho Encyclopedia :
Immigration, Japanese associations

302 items
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 52, No. 26 (June 30, 1961) (ddr-pc-33-26)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 52, No. 26 (June 30, 1961) (ddr-pc-33-26)
Selected article titles: "$300,000 Grant for History Asked, Outlook Encouraging" (p. 1), "Prime Minister Ikeda Cements Japanese-American Friendship in Washington Visit" (pp. 1-2), "'Command Decision': Evacuation, Part 5" (p. 1), and "Japanese Wives of Akron GIs Meet at International Institute, All Anxious to Learn More English and Become Americanized" (p. 3).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 55, No.1 (July 6, 1962) (ddr-pc-34-27)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 55, No.1 (July 6, 1962) (ddr-pc-34-27)
Selected article titles: "Congressman Walter Announces Policy Study on Immigration" (p.1, 4), "'Popularity' of Honolulu's Japanese Community Leadership Regarded as Grim Political Factor in Inouye's Senate Race" (p.1, 3), "History Project Support Hits Minimum Goal, Now $109,000" (p.1).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 55, No. 25 (December 21, 1962) (ddr-pc-34-51)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 55, No. 25 (December 21, 1962) (ddr-pc-34-51)
Selected article titles: "What Prevented Disaster from Becoming a Catastrophe? Evacuation and Resettlement of Japanese Americans Reviewed" (p.A1-2), "Nisei GI and Resettlement" (p.A1, 3), "First Returnees Set Economic Rebirth Pattern" (p.A3), "Fear of Negro-Japanese Conflict Premature" (p.A3), "Japanese American Migration Patterns Following War Relocation" (p.B1-2), "Civil Rights" (p.B3-4), "'60-'70 Planning Commission Cites Advance in Youth" (p.B5), …
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 55, No. 17 (October 26, 1962) (ddr-pc-34-43)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 55, No. 17 (October 26, 1962) (ddr-pc-34-43)
Selected article titles: "Nisei in Washington and Idaho Facing Their 'Moment of Truth' on Nov. 6" (p.1), "U.S. Supreme Court to Hear Schneider Case Testing I&N Act's Denaturalization Section" (p.1), "California Sued by Issei Widow Charging Alien Land Law Denied Right to Inheritance" (p.1-2), "Alien Land Law Claim Fight" (p.2), "Kennedy Signs No-Tax Claims Legislation" (p.3), …
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 55, No. 14 (October 5, 1962) (ddr-pc-34-40)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 55, No. 14 (October 5, 1962) (ddr-pc-34-40)
Selected article titles: "Legislators Understood Discriminatory Language of Law Barring Orientals Suffrage Rights, Job Now with Voters" (p.1, 4), "Idaho SJR 1: Questions and Answers" (p.1, 4), "For Equality for Naturalized Citizens" (p.1-2), "Issei Virtues Extoled in Okura Tribute: (p.3).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 55, No. 12 (September 21, 1962) (ddr-pc-34-38)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 55, No. 12 (September 21, 1962) (ddr-pc-34-38)
Selected article titles: "Hart Immigration Bill" (p.1-2), "Washington Repeal Campaign on SJR 21 Moves into High" (p.1-2), "1889 Land Law 'Lies about Like a Loaded Weapon'" (p.1), "Japanese American Community Leaders First to Be Summoned in New Series of Conferences with Seattle Mayor in New Hall" (p.3).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 56, No. 4 (January 25, 1963) (ddr-pc-35-4)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 56, No. 4 (January 25, 1963) (ddr-pc-35-4)
Selected article titles: "Washington Newsletter: Lest We Forget: 442nd RCT Formed 20 Years Ago" (pp. 1-2), "Berkeley City Council Passes Tough Ordinance Prohibiting Bias in Housing, Each Day of Bias Considered as Separate Offense" (p. 1), "Spark M. Matsunaga" (p. 2), and "Congressman Matsunaga Urges Nisei to Take on Full-Fledged Citizenship" (p. 2).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 58, No. 13 (September 27, 1963) (ddr-pc-35-39)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 58, No. 13 (September 27, 1963) (ddr-pc-35-39)
Selected article titles: "'Weak' Textbooks Charge Recalls Anti-Nisei Passages" (p. 1), "Atomic Bomb Casualty in Hiroshima Said to Have Been Exaggerated by Washington" (p. 1), and "'American Citizenship - Showcase for Freedom'" (p. 2).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 58, Vol. 25 (June 19, 1964) (ddr-pc-36-25)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 58, Vol. 25 (June 19, 1964) (ddr-pc-36-25)
Selected article titles: "President Johnson May Sign Civil Rights Omnibus July 4" (p.1-2), "JACL Convention to Fete Ben Kuroki for Aiding Evacuees" (p.1), "PSWDC Proposals to Defeat Housing Initiative Bared" (p.1), "Denaturalized Issei Overstaying Abroad Asked to Reapply" (p.1), "Questions of Youth Assembly" (p.2), "Canada Not Proud of Wartime Treatement of Evacuees: Pearson" (p.3).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 59, Vol. 6 (August 7, 1964) (ddr-pc-36-32)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 59, Vol. 6 (August 7, 1964) (ddr-pc-36-32)
Selected article titles: "Negro Mayor of Richmond to Address NC-WNDC" (p.1), "Clers Get Answers Refuting Charges against Prop. 14" (p.1, 4), "30 pct. Of Eligible Nisei Registered as Voters in San Francisco County" (p.1), "Impact of HR 7700 on Labor Market Said Insignificant" (p.1), "Calif. Eager to Hire Language Class Teachers" (p.4).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 60, No. 22 (May 28, 1965) (ddr-pc-37-22)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 60, No. 22 (May 28, 1965) (ddr-pc-37-22)
Selected article titles: "History Project: Nisei Homesteads near Heart Mountain" (p.1), "Calif. FEPC Budget Slashed, Housing Program in Danger" (p.1), "Author Michener says 'Hawaii Way Ahead' in Civil Rights Fight, Might Return to Isles" (p.1), "Immigration Bill Timetable" (p.2), "Utah Opens Own Rights Commission" (p.3), "'Myakawa Rd.' in Houston Linked to Ill-Fated Rice-Growing PRoject Originator in …
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 61, No. 14 (October 1, 1965) (ddr-pc-37-40)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 61, No. 14 (October 1, 1965) (ddr-pc-37-40)
Selected article titles: "U.S. Civil Rights Agencies Target of Streamlining" (p.1), "Sen. Kuchel Praises Nisei in California during Debate on Immigration Bill, Enters JACL Letter in Congressional Record(p.1, 5), "Week-Long Debate in Senate Deletes Racism in Immigration" (p.1, 3), "200 Naturalized Issei Celebrate Decade of Citizenship at Downtwon L.A. JACL Fete" (p.1), "Senate Immigration Bill" (p.2), …
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 61, No. 26 (December 24-31, 1965) (ddr-pc-37-52)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 61, No. 26 (December 24-31, 1965) (ddr-pc-37-52)
Selected article titles: "For Equality In and Under the Law" (p.A1, A3), "Immigration: Abolish Quota System over Five-Year Period" (p.A5-A6), "Japanese Resent Stigma of 1924 Exclusion Act" (p.A8, A10), "Dr. Steve Abe: Psychologist Compares Nisei-Sansei Teenage Relationship" (p.B3-B5, B23), "The Enemy at Guadlcanal" (p.B6, B10, B18), "The Road through the Pasture"(p.B20). The holiday issue included advertisements …
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 61, No. 8 (August 20, 1965) (ddr-pc-37-34)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 61, No. 8 (August 20, 1965) (ddr-pc-37-34)
Selected article titles: "Los Angeles Riot Heaps Nisei Business with $1 Million Loss" (p.1), "Orange County Nisei Protest Filming of Nisei Traitor Story" (p.1, 3), "Agenda for Youth Delegates Announced" (p.1), "House Immigration Bill" (p.2), "History Project: Issei Innkeepers of Seattle" (p.3, 5), "Nisei Progress in Brazil Recorded" (p.3), "Open Housing Resolution Ok'd by Seattle JACL" …
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 61, No. 15 (October 8, 1965) (ddr-pc-37-41)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 61, No. 15 (October 8, 1965) (ddr-pc-37-41)
Selected article titles: "President Signs Immigration Act Repealing Asian Quotas" (p.1, 3), "CREA Lauded by Commissioner Gordon for Effortts to Fight Housing Discrimination" (p.1), "Final Evacuation Claim Approved by U.S. Court of Claims" (p.1), "PNWDC Prepping for Third Try at Land Law Repeal" (p.1, 4), "History Project: "Contributions of Pacific Northwest Issei" (p.4).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 60, No. 23 (June 4, 1965) (ddr-pc-37-23)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 60, No. 23 (June 4, 1965) (ddr-pc-37-23)
Selected article titles: "Top JACL Scholarship Raised to $400" (p.1-2), "JACL Interim Youth Council Set June 26-27 at Salt Lake City" (p.1, 4), "Senate Voting Rights Bill" (p.2), "State Supreme Court to Rule on Prop. 14" (p.3), "Amassador Grew Endorsed JACL during War Years, Aided Issei Naturalization Program as Eloquent Witness before Congress" (p.3), "Watsonville JACL …
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 63, No. 16 (October 14, 1966) (ddr-pc-38-41)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 63, No. 16 (October 14, 1966) (ddr-pc-38-41)
Select article titles: "Civil rights fight nothing new to Nisei" (p. 1); "3,261 Japanese Immigrants" (p. 3); "Canadian waves Yellow Peril flag" (p. 3).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 62, No. 7 (February 16, 1966) (ddr-pc-38-7)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 62, No. 7 (February 16, 1966) (ddr-pc-38-7)
Select article titles: "Greater participation of Nisei in gov't urged at San Jose JACL installation" (p.1); "Immigration history of U.S. told in brief in forthcoming 'This Week'" (p.1); "South Seattle Farming Areas May Be Boeing's" (p.1).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 63, No. 26 (December 23-30, 1966) (ddr-pc-38-51)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 63, No. 26 (December 23-30, 1966) (ddr-pc-38-51)
Select article titles: "Why leadership of Japanese community at time of Evacuation fell upon JACL" (p. A1); "Order of Evacuation Brings on One of America's Greatest Swindles" (p. A3); "The Closing of Manzanar" (p. B1); "Worthy Partners for Building Peace" (p. Supplement 1); "Immigration, Evacuation Claims, Civil Rights" (p. B17). The holiday issue included advertisements bought …
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 75, No. 14 (October 6, 1972) (ddr-pc-44-39)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 75, No. 14 (October 6, 1972) (ddr-pc-44-39)
Selected article titles: "Chavez Hurls Threat at Nisei Farm League" (p.1, 5), "Yen Claims Bill: Questions Raised, Answers Furnished" (p.1), "Immigrants Changing New York" (p.1), "A Nisei View of Japan: Understand the Japanese?" (p.2).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 74, No. 7 (February 25, 1972) (ddr-pc-44-7)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 74, No. 7 (February 25, 1972) (ddr-pc-44-7)
Selected article titles: "Illegal Alien Issue Still Seething" (p.1, 6), "Land Justice Dept. Action to Reduce Production of Drugs this Year by 80%" (p.1-3), "Nat'l Asian Confab on Mental Health Set for April 28-29" (p.5).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 77, No. 10, (September 7, 1973) (ddr-pc-45-35)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 77, No. 10, (September 7, 1973) (ddr-pc-45-35)
Select article titles:"Opposition to So. Korea Govt. Seen Taking Hold" (p.1); "EXECOM at Detroit Open Board sessions Voted" (p.1); "NIMH Funds Asian American Drug Abuse Program on County-wide Basis" (p.1); "Citizenship and the Alien" (p.2); "You Are Out of Order, Mr. Wilson" (p.3); "United Japanese Community Services Operating on United Crusade Funding" (p.6).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 77, No. 05, (August 3, 1973) (ddr-pc-45-30)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 77, No. 05, (August 3, 1973) (ddr-pc-45-30)
Select article titles: "If Constitution Can Be Amended Issei Might Be U.S. President" (p.1); "Sen. Inouye Will Talk to Himself in Hawaiian" (p.1); "Ruth Asawa's Wire Sculptures Draw Raves at San Francisco Museum of Art" (p.3); "Nat'l CACA Convenes in L.A." (p.4); "Low-key Minority Hiring Practices in State Corrections Dept. Pays Off" (p.4).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 77, No. 03, (July 20, 1973) (ddr-pc-45-28)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 77, No. 03, (July 20, 1973) (ddr-pc-45-28)
Select article titles: "State Alien Job Laws Voided" (p.1); "Inouye Avoiding Lure of TV Showmanship" (p.1); "Nat'l JACL Produces Kit for Chapters to Push Local Area History Workshops" (p.1); "'Guilty by Reason of Race' Reactions from Japan" (p.3).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 76, No. 24, (June 22, 1973) (ddr-pc-45-24)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 76, No. 24, (June 22, 1973) (ddr-pc-45-24)
Select article titles: "New Look in JACL Greets Officials Attending National Interim Session" (p.1); "Asian American Actors Win Case Against N.Y. Repertory Theater" (p.1); "San Francisco Asian Action Group Urges JACL Return Gerontology Fund" (p.1); "Nisei Knocks Mineta Elk Boycott" (p.3); "Rep. Mink Urges Emphasis on Asian Studies" (p.3); "Facts (Not Innuendoes) Needed to Fix Korean …
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