Immigration and citizenship

Japanese immigrants began arriving in the United States at the end of the nineteenth century when workers were recruited to meet the growing need for low-wage laborers in the Territory of Hawaii and on the West Coast. Commodore Perry had opened Japan to American commerce and trade relations in 1853, but anti-Asian sentiment resulted in the Gentlemen's Agreement of 1907, which halted the immigration of workers from Japan. In 1910, the Japanese population was about 80,000 in Hawaii and 72,000 on the continental United States. Japanese women continued to enter the country until the 1924 Immigration Act cut off immigration from Japan to the United States. Most of the early Japanese immigrants, the Issei (first generation), came as contract agricultural laborers, although many others were students and merchants. While Japanese immigrants were prohibited by discriminatory laws from becoming naturalized citizens of the United States, their American-born children (nisei) held U.S. citizenship.

Immigration and citizenship (302)

Related articles from the Densho Encyclopedia :
Immigration, Japanese associations

302 items
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 74, No. 8 (March 3, 1972) (ddr-pc-44-8)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 74, No. 8 (March 3, 1972) (ddr-pc-44-8)
Selected article titles: "Patsy Tells Seattle Nisei Why She's Running for U.S. President" (p.1, 6), "University Becoming a Modern Dinosaur" (p.3), "Canada's Version of Evacuation" (p.3), "Backlash Seen in Editorials Evoked by 'Exec. Order 9066' Book-Photo Display" (p.6).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 79, No. 19 (November 8, 1974) (ddr-pc-46-44)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 79, No. 19 (November 8, 1974) (ddr-pc-46-44)
Selected article titles: "Illegal Alien a Nat'l Crisis, Saxbe Declares" (p. 1), "Ramsey Clark Views Evacuation" (p. 1), "East Wind: Asian American Attitudes" (p. 2), and "Rep. Ed Derwinski: U.S. Favors Japan Over Common Mkt." (p. 3).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 79, No. 17 (October 25, 1974) (ddr-pc-46-42)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 79, No. 17 (October 25, 1974) (ddr-pc-46-42)
Selected article titles: "Personal Profiles in Brief: Governor Ariyoshi" (pp. 1, 6), "3,000 'GI Babies' to Be Stateless" (p. 1), "Nikkei--A Term That Japanese All Understand" (p. 2), and "Status of Aliens in JACL" (pp. 2, 4).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 78, No. 25 (June 28, 1974) (ddr-pc-46-25)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 78, No. 25 (June 28, 1974) (ddr-pc-46-25)
Selected article titles: "An Editorial Up Front: Age Discrimination" (p. 1), "2,000 Textbooks Okayed Despite Ethnic Protests" (p. 1), "S.F. Area Asian Americans Face Job Bias, Major Study Reveals" (pp. 1, 3), and "Supreme Court to Review U.S. Ban on Hiring Aliens" (p. 3).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 79, No. 18 (November 1, 1974) (ddr-pc-46-43)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 79, No. 18 (November 1, 1974) (ddr-pc-46-43)
Selected article titles: "To the Point: Racism Within Us" (p. 1), "Alien Farm Labor Issue Confuses Supreme Court" (pp. 1, 4), "Hawaiian 442 Veterans Revisit Europe at 30th Ann'y of Bruyeres Liberation" (p. 1), and "JACL--Sansei Study Tour: Unique Look Through Japan" (p. 3).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 78, No. 17 (May 3, 1974) (ddr-pc-46-17)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 78, No. 17 (May 3, 1974) (ddr-pc-46-17)
Selected article titles: "'Operation Zebra' Reminds JACL of 1942 Evacuation of Japanese" (p. 1), "Tighter U.S. Policy Seen Reducing Number of Foreign Students This Year" (p. 1), "Washington Newsletter: What Can I Do About P.R.?" (p. 2), and "30-Year Debate of 'Direct Hit' Off Oregon Coast by Japanese Sub Ends" (p. 3).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 82, No. 17 (April 30, 1976) (ddr-pc-48-17)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 82, No. 17 (April 30, 1976) (ddr-pc-48-17)
Selected article titles: "Reparation Campaign Underway" (pp. 1, 3), "Illegal Alien Law Okd" (pp. 1, 3), "Committee for Iva Toguri" (p. 1), and "Wendy's Pretrial" (p. 2).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 82, No. 4 (January 30, 1976) (ddr-pc-48-4)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 82, No. 4 (January 30, 1976) (ddr-pc-48-4)
Selected article titles: "JACL Anti-Defamation Chairman Denounces Hayakawa's Column" (p. 1), "Estimate 40,000 Vietnamese Will Be Living in California by June, 1976" (pp. 1-2), "Enomoto Faces Charge of Reverse Bias as State Affirmative Action Challenge" (p. 1), and "Editorials: Executive Order 9066" (p. 2).
Letter to the mayor of Kumamoto about a lost passport (ddr-densho-390-26)
doc Letter to the mayor of Kumamoto about a lost passport (ddr-densho-390-26)
A letter to Aikoji Kawaguchi, Mayor of Kumamoto, about a lost passport.
Juyo Matsuoka's alien registration card (ddr-densho-390-3)
doc Juyo Matsuoka's alien registration card (ddr-densho-390-3)
Juyo's alien registration card with receipt attached to the inside cover.
Registration Officer's Certificate (ddr-densho-383-528)
doc Registration Officer's Certificate (ddr-densho-383-528)
Certifying that George Tokuda is registered to vote in his home precinct while in Camp Harmony
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