Immigration and citizenship

Japanese immigrants began arriving in the United States at the end of the nineteenth century when workers were recruited to meet the growing need for low-wage laborers in the Territory of Hawaii and on the West Coast. Commodore Perry had opened Japan to American commerce and trade relations in 1853, but anti-Asian sentiment resulted in the Gentlemen's Agreement of 1907, which halted the immigration of workers from Japan. In 1910, the Japanese population was about 80,000 in Hawaii and 72,000 on the continental United States. Japanese women continued to enter the country until the 1924 Immigration Act cut off immigration from Japan to the United States. Most of the early Japanese immigrants, the Issei (first generation), came as contract agricultural laborers, although many others were students and merchants. While Japanese immigrants were prohibited by discriminatory laws from becoming naturalized citizens of the United States, their American-born children (nisei) held U.S. citizenship.

Immigration and citizenship (290)

Related articles from the Densho Encyclopedia :
Immigration, Japanese associations

290 items
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 69, No. 25 (December 19,1969) (ddr-pc-41-51)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 69, No. 25 (December 19,1969) (ddr-pc-41-51)
Select article titles: "Brief History of Japanese in Colusa County: Shadow of Its Former Self" (A p. 1); "New history reveals Issei as ideal builders in America despite variances" (A p. 9); "For Better Americans in a Greater America" (D. p. 11); "In a Democracy laws are the people's safeguard" (Supplement p. 3); "The Japanese American: ...
Pacific Citizen, Vol 68, No. 3 (January 17, 1969) (ddr-pc-41-3)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol 68, No. 3 (January 17, 1969) (ddr-pc-41-3)
Select article titles: "Immigtation law changes sought" (p. 1); "Reno JACL Seeks Heirs Of First Issei In U.S." (p. 1); "Why Dr. Hayakawa accepted college president's job" (p. 1); "'Melting pot' concept resisted by some ethnic groups in America if 'this means Anglo Saxon domination'" (p. 3); "Asian American Studies popular" (p. 4).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 74, No. 12 (March 31, 1972) (ddr-pc-44-12)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 74, No. 12 (March 31, 1972) (ddr-pc-44-12)
Selected article titles: "Asians Protest Propsed for Employer Knowingly Hiring Illegals" (p.1), "Interviewing Techniques Initial Course for Univ. of Utah Asian Studies Class" (p.1), "Encampment for Citizenship Seeks Asian Applicants" (p.2), "Issei Suicide Pattern Noted in Med Journal" (p.3-4), "Nisei Grower-Shipper Accused in $40 Million Class Action Suit" (p.4)
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 74, No. 8 (March 3, 1972) (ddr-pc-44-8)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 74, No. 8 (March 3, 1972) (ddr-pc-44-8)
Selected article titles: "Patsy Tells Seattle Nisei Why She's Running for U.S. President" (p.1, 6), "University Becoming a Modern Dinosaur" (p.3), "Canada's Version of Evacuation" (p.3), "Backlash Seen in Editorials Evoked by 'Exec. Order 9066' Book-Photo Display" (p.6).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 79, No. 19 (November 8, 1974) (ddr-pc-46-44)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 79, No. 19 (November 8, 1974) (ddr-pc-46-44)
Selected article titles: "Illegal Alien a Nat'l Crisis, Saxbe Declares" (p. 1), "Ramsey Clark Views Evacuation" (p. 1), "East Wind: Asian American Attitudes" (p. 2), and "Rep. Ed Derwinski: U.S. Favors Japan Over Common Mkt." (p. 3).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 79, No. 17 (October 25, 1974) (ddr-pc-46-42)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 79, No. 17 (October 25, 1974) (ddr-pc-46-42)
Selected article titles: "Personal Profiles in Brief: Governor Ariyoshi" (pp. 1, 6), "3,000 'GI Babies' to Be Stateless" (p. 1), "Nikkei--A Term That Japanese All Understand" (p. 2), and "Status of Aliens in JACL" (pp. 2, 4).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 78, No. 25 (June 28, 1974) (ddr-pc-46-25)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 78, No. 25 (June 28, 1974) (ddr-pc-46-25)
Selected article titles: "An Editorial Up Front: Age Discrimination" (p. 1), "2,000 Textbooks Okayed Despite Ethnic Protests" (p. 1), "S.F. Area Asian Americans Face Job Bias, Major Study Reveals" (pp. 1, 3), and "Supreme Court to Review U.S. Ban on Hiring Aliens" (p. 3).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 79, No. 18 (November 1, 1974) (ddr-pc-46-43)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 79, No. 18 (November 1, 1974) (ddr-pc-46-43)
Selected article titles: "To the Point: Racism Within Us" (p. 1), "Alien Farm Labor Issue Confuses Supreme Court" (pp. 1, 4), "Hawaiian 442 Veterans Revisit Europe at 30th Ann'y of Bruyeres Liberation" (p. 1), and "JACL--Sansei Study Tour: Unique Look Through Japan" (p. 3).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 78, No. 17 (May 3, 1974) (ddr-pc-46-17)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 78, No. 17 (May 3, 1974) (ddr-pc-46-17)
Selected article titles: "'Operation Zebra' Reminds JACL of 1942 Evacuation of Japanese" (p. 1), "Tighter U.S. Policy Seen Reducing Number of Foreign Students This Year" (p. 1), "Washington Newsletter: What Can I Do About P.R.?" (p. 2), and "30-Year Debate of 'Direct Hit' Off Oregon Coast by Japanese Sub Ends" (p. 3).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 82, No. 17 (April 30, 1976) (ddr-pc-48-17)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 82, No. 17 (April 30, 1976) (ddr-pc-48-17)
Selected article titles: "Reparation Campaign Underway" (pp. 1, 3), "Illegal Alien Law Okd" (pp. 1, 3), "Committee for Iva Toguri" (p. 1), and "Wendy's Pretrial" (p. 2).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 82, No. 4 (January 30, 1976) (ddr-pc-48-4)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 82, No. 4 (January 30, 1976) (ddr-pc-48-4)
Selected article titles: "JACL Anti-Defamation Chairman Denounces Hayakawa's Column" (p. 1), "Estimate 40,000 Vietnamese Will Be Living in California by June, 1976" (pp. 1-2), "Enomoto Faces Charge of Reverse Bias as State Affirmative Action Challenge" (p. 1), and "Editorials: Executive Order 9066" (p. 2).
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