Concentration camps

The War Relocation Authority (WRA) oversaw construction of ten concentration camps in sparsely populated and isolated areas. Between June and October 1942, Japanese Americans were transferred from the "assembly centers" to the larger camps. Housing approximately 120,000 people, the camps were designed to be self-contained communities, complete with hospitals, post offices, schools, warehouses, and residential areas. The WRA attempted to establish normalcy by setting up newspapers, a degree of self-government, sports leagues, and social events. But confinement, monotony, and harsh conditions exacerbated tensions between pro- and anti-camp administration residents and between the disempowered Issei and their U.S.-born Nisei children. At several centers, conflicts erupted into violence and at the Manzanar concentration camp the unrest resulted in fatal shootings. The WRA gradually granted work and school leave to those they considered "loyal." The last camp closed in March 1946.

Concentration camps (541)

Related articles from the Densho Encyclopedia :
Concentration Camps, U.S.A. (book), Gila River, Heart Mountain, Jerome, Manzanar, Minidoka, Poston (Colorado River), Psychological effects of camp, Rohwer, Sites of incarceration, Topaz, Tule Lake

540 items
Letter to Mollie Wilson from Sadae (Lillian) Nishioka (c. 1942) (ddr-janm-1-95)
doc Letter to Mollie Wilson from Sadae (Lillian) Nishioka (c. 1942) (ddr-janm-1-95)
Handwritten letter to Mollie Wilson from Sadae (Lillian) Nishioka (c. 1942) from the Poston (Colorado River) Incarceration Camp in Parker, Arizona.
Outside the Barracks (ddr-densho-258-127)
img Outside the Barracks (ddr-densho-258-127)
Two men stand outside a barracks, one in a military uniform. Caption below: "[illegible] & Yukio Tanaka."
Group photograph at the Tule Lake 2nd Annual Conference (ddr-densho-300-7)
img Group photograph at the Tule Lake 2nd Annual Conference (ddr-densho-300-7)
Caption on reverse: "Tule Lake Second Annual Conference. Newell, California. April 3-4, 1943. Chairman - Kumeo [?] Yoshinori."
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 81, No. 2 (July 11, 1975) (ddr-pc-47-27)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 81, No. 2 (July 11, 1975) (ddr-pc-47-27)
Selected article titles: "JACL--Headquarters Dedication: Two-Year Wait Ends July 20" (pp. 1, 3), "Stricter Whaling Quotas Adopted by International Body" (pp. 1-2), "JACL--Special Board Meeting: JACL Initiates Audit of Gerontology Project" (pp. 1-2), and "An Acre at Topaz Fenced and Cleared" (p. 3).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 81, No. 9 (August 29, 1975) (ddr-pc-47-34)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 81, No. 9 (August 29, 1975) (ddr-pc-47-34)
Selected article titles: "JACL--National Travel Program: 11 Charter Flights to Japan Being Planned for 1976" (p. 1), "JACL Weak Points Viewed" (pp. 1, 4), "1975 Nisei Week Queen and Court" (p. 4), and "Poston: As It Looked in '69" (p. 5).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 83, No. 16 (October 15, 1976) (ddr-pc-48-41)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 83, No. 16 (October 15, 1976) (ddr-pc-48-41)
Selected article titles: "Canadian Nikkei Prepare for Issei Centennial Year" (pp. 1, 4), "Museum to Display Evacuation Camp Art and Crafts" (p. 1), "Editorial: Topaz: 1942-1946" (p. 2), and "National Constitution Japanese American Citizens League" (pp. 5-6).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 53, No. 17 (October 27, 1961) (ddr-pc-33-43)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 53, No. 17 (October 27, 1961) (ddr-pc-33-43)
Selected article titles: "Canada Leader Defends Wartime Nisei Evacuation" (p. 1), "National Park Status for Rohwer Asked" (p. 1), "Washington Newsletter: Freedom in Employment" (p. 1), and "Issei Story Project: Who, What, Why, How?" (p. 4).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 52, No. 21 (May 26, 1961) (ddr-pc-33-21)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 52, No. 21 (May 26, 1961) (ddr-pc-33-21)
Selected article titles: "Washington Newsletter: Shame of Our Nation" (p. 1), "Rowher WRA Cemetery May Become Nat'l Shrine Maintained by Nat'l Park Service" (p. 1), "Prejudice and Hawaiian Dialect" (p. 2), and "Nisei Psychologist Granted $62,000 to Study Rise of Japanese American Delinquency" (p. 3).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 78, No. 19 (May 17, 1974) (ddr-pc-46-19)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 78, No. 19 (May 17, 1974) (ddr-pc-46-19)
Selected article titles: "Changed to 'JAN': USAF Drops 'JAP'" (p. 1), "Japan-U.S. Friendship Act Under Study" (pp. 1-2), "Tule Lake Designated Historical Landmark" (pp. 1, 6), and "A Grandfather's Hope for Children of Intermarriage" (pp. 2, 5).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 81, No. 14 (October 3, 1975) (ddr-pc-47-39)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 81, No. 14 (October 3, 1975) (ddr-pc-47-39)
Selected article titles: "Nisei Farm Problems Aired" (p. 1), "Nikkei Back at Poston for Look" (pp. 1-2), "Manzanar Plaque Found Defaced" (p. 1), and "From the Frying Pan: John Dean on Redress" (p. 2).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 107, No. 2 (July 22-29, 1988) (ddr-pc-60-27)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 107, No. 2 (July 22-29, 1988) (ddr-pc-60-27)
Selected article titles: "Masaoka Warns Resolution Endangers Redress Program" (pp. 1, 10), "Candlelit Lantern Floats, Buddhist-Christian Services to Remember Hibakusha of Hiroshima-Nagasaki" (p. 3), "National JACL Constitution / Bylaws" (pp. 7-10), and "Former Renunciant Charges WW2 Scientist with Defamation" (p. 13).
Foundation for Tule Lake voluntary fire station (ddr-densho-345-116)
img Foundation for Tule Lake voluntary fire station (ddr-densho-345-116)
A series of photographs taken by Harry Gamble and his team at Manzanar and Tule Lake concentration camps as part of their research. This research was then used to lobby for Tule Lake and not Manzanar be the camp to be designated a National Historic Landmark.
Tule Lake building foundations of internee housing (ddr-densho-345-103)
img Tule Lake building foundations of internee housing (ddr-densho-345-103)
A series of photographs taken by Harry Gamble and his team at Manzanar and Tule Lake concentration camps as part of their research. This research was then used to lobby for Tule Lake and not Manzanar be the camp to be designated a National Historic Landmark.
Tule Lake guard tower tops and military police station (ddr-densho-345-99)
img Tule Lake guard tower tops and military police station (ddr-densho-345-99)
A series of photographs taken by Harry Gamble and his team at Manzanar and Tule Lake concentration camps as part of their research. This research was then used to lobby for Tule Lake and not Manzanar be the camp to be designated a National Historic Landmark. The two guard tower tops and military police station were ...
Original administrative office buildings at Tule Lake (ddr-densho-345-126)
img Original administrative office buildings at Tule Lake (ddr-densho-345-126)
A series of photographs taken by Harry Gamble and his team at Manzanar and Tule Lake concentration camps as part of their research. This research was then used to lobby for Tule Lake and not Manzanar be the camp to be designated a National Historic Landmark.
Tule Lake guard tower base (ddr-densho-345-96)
img Tule Lake guard tower base (ddr-densho-345-96)
A series of photographs taken by Harry Gamble and his team at Manzanar and Tule Lake concentration camps as part of their research. This research was then used to lobby for Tule Lake and not Manzanar be the camp to be designated a National Historic Landmark.
Manzanar internee housing area (ddr-densho-345-80)
img Manzanar internee housing area (ddr-densho-345-80)
A series of photographs taken by Harry Gamble and his team at Manzanar and Tule Lake concentration camps as part of their research. This research was then used to lobby for Tule Lake and not Manzanar be the camp to be designated a National Historic Landmark.
Added entrance to Military Police office at Tule Lake (ddr-densho-345-122)
img Added entrance to Military Police office at Tule Lake (ddr-densho-345-122)
A series of photographs taken by Harry Gamble and his team at Manzanar and Tule Lake concentration camps as part of their research. This research was then used to lobby for Tule Lake and not Manzanar be the camp to be designated a National Historic Landmark. This entrance was added along the northern boundary of camp ...
Stove vent holes in barracks (ddr-densho-345-138)
img Stove vent holes in barracks (ddr-densho-345-138)
A series of photographs taken by Harry Gamble and his team at Manzanar and Tule Lake concentration camps as part of their research. This research was then used to lobby for Tule Lake and not Manzanar be the camp to be designated a National Historic Landmark. The stoves were located back to back in adjoining apartments ...
Tule Lake internee barracks (ddr-densho-345-147)
img Tule Lake internee barracks (ddr-densho-345-147)
A series of photographs taken by Harry Gamble and his team at Manzanar and Tule Lake concentration camps as part of their research. This research was then used to lobby for Tule Lake and not Manzanar be the camp to be designated a National Historic Landmark.
Original military police office at Tule Lake (ddr-densho-345-123)
img Original military police office at Tule Lake (ddr-densho-345-123)
A series of photographs taken by Harry Gamble and his team at Manzanar and Tule Lake concentration camps as part of their research. This research was then used to lobby for Tule Lake and not Manzanar be the camp to be designated a National Historic Landmark.
Tule Lake building foundations of internee housing (ddr-densho-345-104)
img Tule Lake building foundations of internee housing (ddr-densho-345-104)
A series of photographs taken by Harry Gamble and his team at Manzanar and Tule Lake concentration camps as part of their research. This research was then used to lobby for Tule Lake and not Manzanar be the camp to be designated a National Historic Landmark.
Voluntary fire station in administrative area of Tule Lake (ddr-densho-345-128)
img Voluntary fire station in administrative area of Tule Lake (ddr-densho-345-128)
A series of photographs taken by Harry Gamble and his team at Manzanar and Tule Lake concentration camps as part of their research. This research was then used to lobby for Tule Lake and not Manzanar be the camp to be designated a National Historic Landmark.
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