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Concentration camps

The War Relocation Authority (WRA) oversaw construction of ten concentration camps in sparsely populated and isolated areas. Between June and October 1942, Japanese Americans were transferred from the "assembly centers" to the larger camps. Housing approximately 120,000 people, the camps were designed to be self-contained communities, complete with hospitals, post offices, schools, warehouses, and residential areas. The WRA attempted to establish normalcy by setting up newspapers, a degree of self-government, sports leagues, and social events. But confinement, monotony, and harsh conditions exacerbated tensions between pro- and anti-camp administration residents and between the disempowered Issei and their U.S.-born Nisei children. At several centers, conflicts erupted into violence and at the Manzanar concentration camp the unrest resulted in fatal shootings. The WRA gradually granted work and school leave to those they considered "loyal." The last camp closed in March 1946.

World War II (54)
Concentration camps (556)

Related articles from the Densho Encyclopedia :
Concentration Camps, U.S.A. (book), Gila River, Heart Mountain, Jerome, Manzanar, Minidoka, Poston (Colorado River), Psychological effects of camp, Rohwer, Sites of incarceration, Topaz, Tule Lake

556 items
An Oral History with Mitsuhiko H. Shimizu - Segment 1 (ddr-csujad-29-57-1)
vh An Oral History with Mitsuhiko H. Shimizu - Segment 1 (ddr-csujad-29-57-1)
Issei community leader and businessman in Los Angeles's Little Tokyo recounts his arrest by Federal Bureau of Investigation after Pearl Harbor, his experiences in internment camps in North Dakota and Louisiana, and the Manzanar incarceration camp, California. This oral history was conducted for the Japanese American Oral History Project, Oral History Program, CSU Fullerton. Translated into ...
An Oral History with Katsuma Mukaeda - Segment 1 (ddr-csujad-29-56-1)
vh An Oral History with Katsuma Mukaeda - Segment 1 (ddr-csujad-29-56-1)
Chairman of Japanese American Cultural Center and former president of Japanese Chamber of Commerce recounts conditions of prewar Los Angeles's Little Tokyo, its wartime conversion into a black community, postwar reestablishment as a Japanese-American cultural and commercial center. Includes comments on discriminatory legislation, prewar Japan-American relations. World War II removal and incarceration, camp conditions, wartime repatriation ...
An Oral History with Reverend Seytsu Takahashi - Segment 1 (ddr-csujad-29-58-1)
vh An Oral History with Reverend Seytsu Takahashi - Segment 1 (ddr-csujad-29-58-1)
Issei Buddhist bishop and superintendent of Kayasan Temple in Little Tokyo since 1931 recounts his wartime experiences and internment at Fort Missoula, Montana; Livingstone, Louisiana; and Crystal City, Texas. Transcribed in both Japanese and English. This oral history was conducted for the Japanese American Oral History Project, Oral History Program, CSU Fullerton. Audio is found in ...
Bo Sakaguchi oral history interview - Segment 1 (ddr-csujad-31-13-1)
vh Bo Sakaguchi oral history interview - Segment 1 (ddr-csujad-31-13-1)
Oral history of Bo Sakaguchi, recorded as part of Asian American Studies 390, California State University, Northridge. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: JSFVOH_01-16
Frank Emi oral history interview - Segment 1 (ddr-csujad-31-2-1)
vh Frank Emi oral history interview - Segment 1 (ddr-csujad-31-2-1)
Oral history of Frank Emi, recorded as part of Asian American Studies 390, California State University, Northridge. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: JSFVOH_01-01
An Oral History with Norman Y. Mineta - Segment 1 (ddr-csujad-29-55-1)
vh An Oral History with Norman Y. Mineta - Segment 1 (ddr-csujad-29-55-1)
Japanese American congressman, representing the Thirteenth Congressional District of California, born and raised in San Jose, California, discusses his early life, graduation from the University of California, Berkeley, and receiving a commission and serving in the armed forces from 1953-1956. Recalls the removal, "relocation," and incarceration of Japanese Americans during World War II at the Heart ...
The second Rohwer Reunion,
doc The second Rohwer Reunion, "Not Just a Memory" (ddr-csujad-1-51)
A booklet of the second Rohwer Reunion held at Marriott Hotel, Torrance, California, April 16-18, 1999. Personally identifiable information is removed from the image. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: ike_02_01_001
Historical photographs and documents, from internment camps to Military Intelligence Service Language School [order form] (ddr-csujad-1-190)
doc Historical photographs and documents, from internment camps to Military Intelligence Service Language School [order form] (ddr-csujad-1-190)
A book order form. Books published by TecCom Productions include: Manzanar, Tule Lake, Rohwer, Heart Mountain, Assembly Center I (Santa Anita, Pomona, Fresno, Tulare, Pinedale, Salinas), Assembly Center II (Turlock, Tanforan, Stockton, Sacramento, Marysville, Portland, Puyallup). See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: ike_03_01_004
[Leaflets related to Rohwer Arkansas Relocation Center] (ddr-csujad-1-48)
doc [Leaflets related to Rohwer Arkansas Relocation Center] (ddr-csujad-1-48)
Contains leaflets for "Rohwer and Jerome Relocation Centers" symposium sponsored by the Center for Arkansas Studies at University of Arkansas, Little Rock, in 1993 and Rohwer/Jerome monument dedication trip tour in 1992; and a letter from Nick Katsuki, Chairman, Rohwer Arkansas Relocation Center Research and Preservation Committee, in 1991. See this object in the California State ...
Lil Dan'l, one year in a relocation center (ddr-csujad-1-57)
doc Lil Dan'l, one year in a relocation center (ddr-csujad-1-57)
A booklet of a pictorial review of incarcerees' first year experience in the Rohwer incarceration camp, Arkansas. Lil Dan'l is a fictitious character in the "Poston outpost," a magazine published in the camp, symbolizing the incarcerees in the camp. This booklet was published to remember their experience in the Rohwer camp. See this object in the ...
Memo from Co-ordinating Committee to Mr. W. [Willard E.] Schmidt, Chief of Administrative Police, March 24, 1944 (ddr-csujad-2-69)
doc Memo from Co-ordinating Committee to Mr. W. [Willard E.] Schmidt, Chief of Administrative Police, March 24, 1944 (ddr-csujad-2-69)
Memo regarding new list of fielders. Presents list of active, terminated, and new fielders and messengers of the committee, including dates of entry and termination. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: sjs_sch_0069
Relocation Center standard description, Assistant Clerk-Stenographer (CAF-3) (ddr-csujad-2-77)
doc Relocation Center standard description, Assistant Clerk-Stenographer (CAF-3) (ddr-csujad-2-77)
Description for Position #X-1007, Assistant Clerk-Stenographer (CAF-3) includes general description, distinguishing features from other clerk positions, and examples of work. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: sjs_sch_0077
Report of the informal meeting of the stockade internees and the Co-ordinating Committee of the Tule Lake Center (ddr-csujad-2-68)
doc Report of the informal meeting of the stockade internees and the Co-ordinating Committee of the Tule Lake Center (ddr-csujad-2-68)
Report provides minutes of meeting requested by stockade incarcerees, listing the incarcerees, Co-ordinating Committee members, and others in attendance and presenting paraphrased text, identifying speakers by name. Topics addressed include incarcerees' difficulties in talking honestly, especially when they are spoken with in groups rather than individually; incarcerees' understanding of conditions in the camp outside of the ...
Holiday greeting card (ddr-csujad-3-17)
img Holiday greeting card (ddr-csujad-3-17)
Christmas card of Santa Claus presenting a landscape photo of the Tule Lake incarceration camp featuring a barbed wire fence, snow covered path to a gate leading outside camp to a railroad crossing, and a hillside. Card reads "Season's greetings." See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: tos_01_001_018
Holiday greeting card (ddr-csujad-3-16)
img Holiday greeting card (ddr-csujad-3-16)
Christmas card of Santa Claus presenting a photo of the Tule Lake incarceration camp featuring a barbed wire fence, what appears to be a section of a guard tower, and a distant hillside. Card reads "Season's greetings." See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: tos_01_001_017
Holiday greeting card (ddr-csujad-3-19)
img Holiday greeting card (ddr-csujad-3-19)
Christmas card featuring Santa Claus presenting an aerial photo of the Tule Lake incarceration camp showing buildings, a train, and the surrounding landscape. Card reads "Season's greetings." See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: tos_01_001_020
Tule Lake landscape photograph (ddr-csujad-3-3)
img Tule Lake landscape photograph (ddr-csujad-3-3)
Photograph taken from high vantage point, with electical tower in foreground, of Tule Lake incarceration camp depicting expanse of camp buildings against the basin landscape. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: tos_01_001_003
Tule Lake nighttime panorama (ddr-csujad-3-6)
img Tule Lake nighttime panorama (ddr-csujad-3-6)
High vantage point panoramic nighttime photograph of Tule Lake camp with the lights from the buildings inside camp on. The photograph shows the expanse of the camp against the darkened landscape. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: tos_01_001_006
Tule Lake landscape panoramic photograph (ddr-csujad-3-5)
img Tule Lake landscape panoramic photograph (ddr-csujad-3-5)
High vantage point panoramic photograph of Tule Lake camp showing expanse of camp including buildings, railroad, roadways, and the basin landscape. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: tos_01_001_005
Tule Lake rooftops (ddr-csujad-3-4)
img Tule Lake rooftops (ddr-csujad-3-4)
Photograph looking across rooftops of buildings at Tule Lake towards hills in the distance. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: tos_01_001_004
Letter from Usami Terada to Mr. and Mrs. A.W. Thomas, October 3, 1943 (ddr-csujad-4-18)
doc Letter from Usami Terada to Mr. and Mrs. A.W. Thomas, October 3, 1943 (ddr-csujad-4-18)
A letter from Usami Terada, an incarceree at the Rohwer incarceration camp, to Mr. and Mrs. A.W. Thomas in Lawndale, California. The letter discusses the Japanese American incarcerees returning to California and the West Coast. He describes the returning people as "half bred or wife of Caucasian" and a female attending Pasadena Junior College. He expresses ...
Letter from Usami Terada to Mr. and Mrs. A.W. Thomas, September 17, 1943 (ddr-csujad-4-16)
doc Letter from Usami Terada to Mr. and Mrs. A.W. Thomas, September 17, 1943 (ddr-csujad-4-16)
A letter from Usami Terada, an incarceree in the Rohwer incarceration camp, to Mr. and Mrs. A. W. Thomas in Lawndale, California. It is a condolence letter for their family members' passing. This letter also includes updates on: the weather in Arkansas, Usami's garden in the camp, and his younger brother, "Tsuyoshi." This letter is enclosed ...
Letter from [Emiko Amy Terada] to Laura Thomas, September 13, 1943 (ddr-csujad-4-17)
doc Letter from [Emiko Amy Terada] to Laura Thomas, September 13, 1943 (ddr-csujad-4-17)
A letter to Laura Thomas, Lawndale, California. The letter was probably written by Emiko Amy Terada, an incarceree at the Rohwer incarceration camp, and enclosed in the same envelope along with the letter written by Usami Terada, which can be found at: csudh_nis_0017. The letter contains basic correspondence between the two individuals, talking about family members, ...
Thomas and Terada families (ddr-csujad-4-30)
img Thomas and Terada families (ddr-csujad-4-30)
A photograph of the Thomas and Terada families taken during their visit of the exhibition, "And then they came for us...: marking the 75th anniversary of Executive Order 9066 authorizing the mass incarceration of Japanese-American citizens during WWII." Photographed are Laura Thomas, Emiko Amy Terada, Nancy Terada, and James H. Osborne. It is taken at CSU ...
Postcard from [Emiko] Amy Terada to Miss Laura Thomas, January 12, 1942 (ddr-csujad-4-3)
doc Postcard from [Emiko] Amy Terada to Miss Laura Thomas, January 12, 1942 (ddr-csujad-4-3)
A postcard sent from Emiko Amy Terada, an incarceree at the Rohwer incarceration camp, to Miss Laura Thomas, at a P.O. Box address in Lawndale, California. The postcard was postmarked in McGehee, Arkansas. It is an acknowledgement letter in which Emiko thanks Laura for sending a package to her. In the letter, she also mentions that ...
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