Concentration camps

The War Relocation Authority (WRA) oversaw construction of ten concentration camps in sparsely populated and isolated areas. Between June and October 1942, Japanese Americans were transferred from the "assembly centers" to the larger camps. Housing approximately 120,000 people, the camps were designed to be self-contained communities, complete with hospitals, post offices, schools, warehouses, and residential areas. The WRA attempted to establish normalcy by setting up newspapers, a degree of self-government, sports leagues, and social events. But confinement, monotony, and harsh conditions exacerbated tensions between pro- and anti-camp administration residents and between the disempowered Issei and their U.S.-born Nisei children. At several centers, conflicts erupted into violence and at the Manzanar concentration camp the unrest resulted in fatal shootings. The WRA gradually granted work and school leave to those they considered "loyal." The last camp closed in March 1946.

Concentration camps (170)

Related articles from the Densho Encyclopedia :
Concentration Camps, U.S.A. (book), Gila River, Heart Mountain, Jerome, Manzanar, Minidoka, Poston (Colorado River), Psychological effects of camp, Rohwer, Sites of incarceration, Topaz, Tule Lake

170 items
img "At Heart Mountain, Block 27, 1944" (ddr-densho-242-5)
Caption on front: "At Heart Mountain Block 27 1944." Caption by Ike Hatchimonji: "Heart Mountain, Wyoming. Block 27. 1944. Front: Nobue, Gloria, Kumezo. Back: Mike and Ike."
Two girls standing in front of barracks (ddr-densho-292-1)
img Two girls standing in front of barracks (ddr-densho-292-1)
Caption on reverse: "Topaz, Utah. Shigeko Omori on left, Mary Kaibe, right 17 years. 1943? Nishioka family residence Block 31A, family # 20752."
Gidra, Vol. I, No. 6 (September 1969) (ddr-densho-297-6)
doc Gidra, Vol. I, No. 6 (September 1969) (ddr-densho-297-6)
Selected article titles: "Isaac Honored" (p. 1), "Birth of Amerasia" (p. 1), "Hoover's Yellow Peril" (p. 2), "Dawn of Awakening" (p. 2), "UCLA Sells Out" (p. 5), "Potential for What" (p. 5), "The Failure of Democracy in a Time of Crisis" (p. 6-7).
Gidra, Vol. I, No. 5 (August 1969) (ddr-densho-297-5)
doc Gidra, Vol. I, No. 5 (August 1969) (ddr-densho-297-5)
Selected article titles: "CINCIP Is Here!!" (p. 1), "The Burden of Life" (p. 1), "Hey, Look Me Over" (p. 5), "The Chinese in Los Angeles" (p. 6), "The Korean Americans" (p. 8), "The Filipino Immigrant" (p. 9).
Group of Issei and Nisei in front of barrack (ddr-densho-310-2)
img Group of Issei and Nisei in front of barrack (ddr-densho-310-2)
Ichikawa family in front of their barrack at Minidoka concentration camp. Also pictured are family friends, Yahachi Suzuki and Mr. Hino. (Front Row, left to right) Akira Ichikawa, Hiroko Ichikawa (Back Row, left to right) Satoru Ichikawa, Mr. Hino, Etsuko Ichikawa, Yasashi Ichikawa, Shinya Ichikawa (In Yasahi's arms), Kazuya Ichikawa, Noriko Ichikawa, Yahachi Suzuki
Letter (with envelope) to Mollie Wilson from Mary Murakami (December 25, 1942) (ddr-janm-1-32)
doc Letter (with envelope) to Mollie Wilson from Mary Murakami (December 25, 1942) (ddr-janm-1-32)
Handwritten letter to Mollie Wilson from Mary Murakami (December 25, 1942). Envelope is postmarked December 20, 1942 from the Poston (Colorado River) Incarceration Camp in Parker, Arizona.
Letter (with envelope) to Mollie Wilson from Violet Saito (August 25, 1943) (ddr-janm-1-76)
doc Letter (with envelope) to Mollie Wilson from Violet Saito (August 25, 1943) (ddr-janm-1-76)
Handwritten letter to Mollie Wilson from Violet Saito (August 25, 1943). Envelope is postmarked August 26, 1943 from the Granada (Amache) Incarceration Camp in Amache, Colorado.
Christmas card (with envelope) to Molly Wilson from Sandie Saito (December 18, 1943) (ddr-janm-1-18)
doc Christmas card (with envelope) to Molly Wilson from Sandie Saito (December 18, 1943) (ddr-janm-1-18)
Christmas card to Molly Wilson from Sandie Saito (December 18, 1943). Blue card with illustration in white of two lambs looking at a shining star. "Joyous Christmas" is on the bottom center on front of card. Envelope is postmarked December 18, 1943 from the Granada (Amache) Incarceration Camp in Amache, Colorado.
Christmas card (with envelope) to Mollie Wilson from Miyeko Imamura (c. 1944) (ddr-janm-1-68)
doc Christmas card (with envelope) to Mollie Wilson from Miyeko Imamura (c. 1944) (ddr-janm-1-68)
Christmas card to Mollie Wilson from Miyeko Imamura (c. 1944). Black card, red border with illustration in red/green/blue of a woman in a Christmas dress holding a yellow handkerchief in one hand and a basket of holly in the other. "Yoo Hoo!" is on the front of card. Envelope is postmarked but does not ...
Saying goodbye (ddr-hmwf-1-50)
img Saying goodbye (ddr-hmwf-1-50)
"Kiyo Sato departure (24-18-C) Dec. 1, 1943 at gate" as described on back, l18 f11 1/50 G3snap, Plus x DK20-40' D76-18'
Photograph of Sandie Saito (ddr-janm-1-132)
img Photograph of Sandie Saito (ddr-janm-1-132)
Black and white image of Sandie Saito. She has curly hair with a bow in it and is wearing a collared Roosevelt High School letterman's sweater. She is standing at the west end of the football field at the Granada (Amache) Incarceration Camp. Written on the photograph is: "To Molly. Just, Sandie". The caption along ...
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 82, No. 7 (February 20, 1976) (ddr-pc-48-7)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 82, No. 7 (February 20, 1976) (ddr-pc-48-7)
Selected article titles: "To the Point: Ushio's Record" (p. 1), "Nat'l Faces 100-G Deficit" (p. 1), "Ye Editor's Desk: An Uncompromising Hayakawa" (p. 1), and "Concent. Camps" (p. 2).
Pacific Citizen, Vol 68, No. 2 (January 10, 1969) (ddr-pc-41-2)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol 68, No. 2 (January 10, 1969) (ddr-pc-41-2)
Select article titles: "Hayakawa means to keep campus open, warning signs up" (p. 1); "PC columnists T. Murayama dies aboard ship" (p. 1); "Wakamatsu Colony centennial celebration at Coloma Jan. 26" (p. 1); "Issue of Detention camps in a Democracy" (p. 3); "JACL meets with SFSC people" (p. 4).
Postcard to Dr. Keizaburo
doc Postcard to Dr. Keizaburo "Kei" Koyama from Lois Sato (ddr-one-5-32)
Postcard addressed to Dr. Keizaburo Koyama at Camp Livingston from Lois Sato at Minidoka. Postmarked Sep 17, 1942. On the left side of the front of the postcard is a purple "Censored" stamp. On the back of the postcard is a handwritten message from Lois Sato. She writes about the weather at Minidoka and the eating ...
Postcard to Dr. Keizaburo
doc Postcard to Dr. Keizaburo "Kei" Koyama from Teru Koyama (ddr-one-5-65)
One cent postcard addressed to Dr. Keizaburo Koyama at Santa Fe Detention Station from his wife, Teru Koyama, at Minidoka. Postmarked Aug 16, 1943. To the left of the postmark “Aug-24-43” is written. "Examined" stamp in the lower left corner with "25-3" written on it. On the back dated Aug 15, 1943. Teru writes about the ...
Envelope and letter to Dr. Keizaburo
doc Envelope and letter to Dr. Keizaburo "Kei" Koyama from Teru Koyama and Eva Koyama (ddr-one-5-19)
Yellowed envelope addressed to Dr. Keizaburo Koyama in Camp Livingston from his wife, Teru Koyama, in the Portland Assembly Center. The envelope is postmarked Jul 13, 1942. In red pencil “7/16-42” is written just below the postmark. On the left side of the envelope is a purple "CENSORED" stamp with unknown initials below the stamp ...
Postcard to Dr. Keizaburo
doc Postcard to Dr. Keizaburo "Kei" Koyama from Teru Koyama (ddr-one-5-35)
Front of one cent postcard is addressed to Dr. Keizaburo Koyama at Camp Livingston from his wife, Teru Koyama, at Minidoka. Postmarked Oct. 1942 over a six cent airmail stamp. On the left side of the front of the postcard is a purple "Censored" stamp. The message on the back of the postcard is dated Sept ...
Postcard to Dr. Keizaburo
doc Postcard to Dr. Keizaburo "Kei" Koyama from Teru Koyama (ddr-one-5-29)
One cent postcard addressed to Dr. Keizaburo Koyama at Camp Livingston from his wife, Teru Koyama, at Minidoka. The return sender information has both a mailing and telegram address listed. Postmarked Sep. 15, 1942. Below the postmark “9/20/42” is written in red pencil. On the left side of the postcard is a purple "Censored ...
Christmas card and envelope to Dr. Keizaburo
doc Christmas card and envelope to Dr. Keizaburo "Kei" Koyama from Mr. and Mrs. S. Nii (ddr-one-5-46)
Envelope addressed to Mr. Kei Koyama at Camp Livingston, no return sender information. Postmarked Dec 22, 1942, in Hunt, Idaho. In red pencil “Dec 20, 1943” is written above a purple "EXAMINED" stamp. On the back of the envelope are two additional "Internment Camp" stamps; one is dated Dec 28, 1942; the second is dated Jan ...
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