Concentration camps

The War Relocation Authority (WRA) oversaw construction of ten concentration camps in sparsely populated and isolated areas. Between June and October 1942, Japanese Americans were transferred from the "assembly centers" to the larger camps. Housing approximately 120,000 people, the camps were designed to be self-contained communities, complete with hospitals, post offices, schools, warehouses, and residential areas. The WRA attempted to establish normalcy by setting up newspapers, a degree of self-government, sports leagues, and social events. But confinement, monotony, and harsh conditions exacerbated tensions between pro- and anti-camp administration residents and between the disempowered Issei and their U.S.-born Nisei children. At several centers, conflicts erupted into violence and at the Manzanar concentration camp the unrest resulted in fatal shootings. The WRA gradually granted work and school leave to those they considered "loyal." The last camp closed in March 1946.

World War II (34)
Concentration camps (155)
The journey (77)
Living conditions (693)
Food (113)
Facilities, services, and camp administration (636)
Medical care and health issues (153)
Holidays and festivals (175)
Sports (180)
Education (669)
Publications (29)
Minidoka Irrigator (184)
Tulean Dispatch (427)
Heart Mountain Sentinel (480)
Manzanar Free Press (409)
Denson Tribune (Jerome) (177)
Gila News-Courier (436)
Granada Pioneer (341)
Poston Chronicle (670)
Rohwer Outpost (408)
Topaz Times (433)
Newell Star (110)
Religion (142)
Work and jobs (434)
Organized labor (31)
Impact of incarceration (141)
Conflicts, intimidation, and violence (147)
Manzanar riot/uprising (4)
Poston strike (2)
Arts and literature (129)
Social and recreational activities (508)
Weddings (32)
Funerals (61)

Related articles from the Densho Encyclopedia :
Concentration Camps, U.S.A. (book), Gila River, Heart Mountain, Jerome, Manzanar, Minidoka, Poston (Colorado River), Psychological effects of camp, Rohwer, Sites of incarceration, Topaz, Tule Lake

155 items
img "At Heart Mountain, Block 27, 1944" (ddr-densho-242-5)
Caption on front: "At Heart Mountain Block 27 1944." Caption by Ike Hatchimonji: "Heart Mountain, Wyoming. Block 27. 1944. Front: Nobue, Gloria, Kumezo. Back: Mike and Ike."
Two girls standing in front of barracks (ddr-densho-292-1)
img Two girls standing in front of barracks (ddr-densho-292-1)
Caption on reverse: "Topaz, Utah. Shigeko Omori on left, Mary Kaibe, right 17 years. 1943? Nishioka family residence Block 31A, family # 20752."
Gidra, Vol. I, No. 5 (August 1969) (ddr-densho-297-5)
doc Gidra, Vol. I, No. 5 (August 1969) (ddr-densho-297-5)
Selected article titles: "CINCIP Is Here!!" (p. 1), "The Burden of Life" (p. 1), "Hey, Look Me Over" (p. 5), "The Chinese in Los Angeles" (p. 6), "The Korean Americans" (p. 8), "The Filipino Immigrant" (p. 9).
Gidra, Vol. I, No. 6 (September 1969) (ddr-densho-297-6)
doc Gidra, Vol. I, No. 6 (September 1969) (ddr-densho-297-6)
Selected article titles: "Isaac Honored" (p. 1), "Birth of Amerasia" (p. 1), "Hoover's Yellow Peril" (p. 2), "Dawn of Awakening" (p. 2), "UCLA Sells Out" (p. 5), "Potential for What" (p. 5), "The Failure of Democracy in a Time of Crisis" (p. 6-7).
Group of Issei and Nisei in front of barrack (ddr-densho-310-2)
img Group of Issei and Nisei in front of barrack (ddr-densho-310-2)
Ichikawa family in front of their barrack at Minidoka concentration camp. Also pictured are family friends, Yahachi Suzuki and Mr. Hino. (Front Row, left to right) Akira Ichikawa, Hiroko Ichikawa (Back Row, left to right) Satoru Ichikawa, Mr. Hino, Etsuko Ichikawa, Yasashi Ichikawa, Shinya Ichikawa (In Yasahi's arms), Kazuya Ichikawa, Noriko Ichikawa, Yahachi Suzuki
Saying goodbye (ddr-hmwf-1-50)
img Saying goodbye (ddr-hmwf-1-50)
"Kiyo Sato departure (24-18-C) Dec. 1, 1943 at gate" as described on back, l18 f11 1/50 G3snap, Plus x DK20-40' D76-18'
Christmas card (with envelope) to Molly Wilson from Sandie Saito (December 18, 1943) (ddr-janm-1-18)
doc Christmas card (with envelope) to Molly Wilson from Sandie Saito (December 18, 1943) (ddr-janm-1-18)
Christmas card to Molly Wilson from Sandie Saito (December 18, 1943). Blue card with illustration in white of two lambs looking at a shining star. "Joyous Christmas" is on the bottom center on front of card. Envelope is postmarked December 18, 1943 from the Granada (Amache) Incarceration Camp in Amache, Colorado.
Photograph of Sandie Saito (ddr-janm-1-132)
img Photograph of Sandie Saito (ddr-janm-1-132)
Black and white image of Sandie Saito. She has curly hair with a bow in it and is wearing a collared Roosevelt High School letterman's sweater. She is standing at the west end of the football field at the Granada (Amache) Incarceration Camp. Written on the photograph is: "To Molly. Just, Sandie". The caption along ...
Letter (with envelope) to Mollie Wilson from Mary Murakami (December 25, 1942) (ddr-janm-1-32)
doc Letter (with envelope) to Mollie Wilson from Mary Murakami (December 25, 1942) (ddr-janm-1-32)
Handwritten letter to Mollie Wilson from Mary Murakami (December 25, 1942). Envelope is postmarked December 20, 1942 from the Poston (Colorado River) Incarceration Camp in Parker, Arizona.
Letter (with envelope) to Mollie Wilson from Violet Saito (August 25, 1943) (ddr-janm-1-76)
doc Letter (with envelope) to Mollie Wilson from Violet Saito (August 25, 1943) (ddr-janm-1-76)
Handwritten letter to Mollie Wilson from Violet Saito (August 25, 1943). Envelope is postmarked August 26, 1943 from the Granada (Amache) Incarceration Camp in Amache, Colorado.
Christmas card (with envelope) to Mollie Wilson from Miyeko Imamura (c. 1944) (ddr-janm-1-68)
doc Christmas card (with envelope) to Mollie Wilson from Miyeko Imamura (c. 1944) (ddr-janm-1-68)
Christmas card to Mollie Wilson from Miyeko Imamura (c. 1944). Black card, red border with illustration in red/green/blue of a woman in a Christmas dress holding a yellow handkerchief in one hand and a basket of holly in the other. "Yoo Hoo!" is on the front of card. Envelope is postmarked but does not ...
Envelope and letter to Dr. Keizaburo
doc Envelope and letter to Dr. Keizaburo "Kei" Koyama from Teru Koyama and Eva Koyama (ddr-one-5-19)
Yellowed envelope addressed to Dr. Keizaburo Koyama in Camp Livingston from his wife, Teru Koyama, in the Portland Assembly Center. The envelope is postmarked Jul 13, 1942. In red pencil “7/16-42” is written just below the postmark. On the left side of the envelope is a purple "CENSORED" stamp with unknown initials below the stamp ...
Postcard to Dr. Keizaburo
doc Postcard to Dr. Keizaburo "Kei" Koyama from Teru Koyama (ddr-one-5-35)
Front of one cent postcard is addressed to Dr. Keizaburo Koyama at Camp Livingston from his wife, Teru Koyama, at Minidoka. Postmarked Oct. 1942 over a six cent airmail stamp. On the left side of the front of the postcard is a purple "Censored" stamp. The message on the back of the postcard is dated Sept ...
Postcard to Dr. Keizaburo
doc Postcard to Dr. Keizaburo "Kei" Koyama from Lois Sato (ddr-one-5-32)
Postcard addressed to Dr. Keizaburo Koyama at Camp Livingston from Lois Sato at Minidoka. Postmarked Sep 17, 1942. On the left side of the front of the postcard is a purple "Censored" stamp. On the back of the postcard is a handwritten message from Lois Sato. She writes about the weather at Minidoka and the eating ...
Postcard to Dr. Keizaburo
doc Postcard to Dr. Keizaburo "Kei" Koyama from Teru Koyama (ddr-one-5-65)
One cent postcard addressed to Dr. Keizaburo Koyama at Santa Fe Detention Station from his wife, Teru Koyama, at Minidoka. Postmarked Aug 16, 1943. To the left of the postmark “Aug-24-43” is written. "Examined" stamp in the lower left corner with "25-3" written on it. On the back dated Aug 15, 1943. Teru writes about the ...
Christmas card and envelope to Dr. Keizaburo
doc Christmas card and envelope to Dr. Keizaburo "Kei" Koyama from Mr. and Mrs. S. Nii (ddr-one-5-46)
Envelope addressed to Mr. Kei Koyama at Camp Livingston, no return sender information. Postmarked Dec 22, 1942, in Hunt, Idaho. In red pencil “Dec 20, 1943” is written above a purple "EXAMINED" stamp. On the back of the envelope are two additional "Internment Camp" stamps; one is dated Dec 28, 1942; the second is dated Jan ...
Postcard to Dr. Keizaburo
doc Postcard to Dr. Keizaburo "Kei" Koyama from Teru Koyama (ddr-one-5-29)
One cent postcard addressed to Dr. Keizaburo Koyama at Camp Livingston from his wife, Teru Koyama, at Minidoka. The return sender information has both a mailing and telegram address listed. Postmarked Sep. 15, 1942. Below the postmark “9/20/42” is written in red pencil. On the left side of the postcard is a purple "Censored ...
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 82, No. 7 (February 20, 1976) (ddr-pc-48-7)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 82, No. 7 (February 20, 1976) (ddr-pc-48-7)
Selected article titles: "To the Point: Ushio's Record" (p. 1), "Nat'l Faces 100-G Deficit" (p. 1), "Ye Editor's Desk: An Uncompromising Hayakawa" (p. 1), and "Concent. Camps" (p. 2).
Letter to Molly Wilson from Mary Murakami (October 6, 1942) (ddr-janm-1-29)
doc Letter to Molly Wilson from Mary Murakami (October 6, 1942) (ddr-janm-1-29)
Handwritten letter to Molly Wilson from Mary Murakami (October 6, 1942).
Christmas card (with envelope) to Molly Wilson from Chiyeko Akahoshi (December 17, 1942) (ddr-janm-1-103)
doc Christmas card (with envelope) to Molly Wilson from Chiyeko Akahoshi (December 17, 1942) (ddr-janm-1-103)
Christmas card to Molly Wilson from Chiyeko Akahoshi (December 17, 1942). White card with illustration in blue/red of a standing Eskimo and a sitting African American. "North and South it's on everyone's mouth - Merry Christmas to you" is on the front center of card. Envelope is postmarked December 17, 1942 from the Manzanar ...
Letter (with envelope) to Mollie Wilson from Miyeko Imamura (December 19, 1944) (ddr-janm-1-67)
doc Letter (with envelope) to Mollie Wilson from Miyeko Imamura (December 19, 1944) (ddr-janm-1-67)
Handwritten letter to Mollie Wilson from Miyeko Imamura (December 19, 1944). Envelope is postmarked December 19, 1944 from the Heart Mountain Incarceration Camp in Cody, Wyoming.
Letter (with envelope) to Molly Wilson from Miyeko Imamura (December 16, 1942) (ddr-janm-1-64)
doc Letter (with envelope) to Molly Wilson from Miyeko Imamura (December 16, 1942) (ddr-janm-1-64)
Handwritten letter to Molly Wilson from Miyeko Imamura (December 16, 1942). Envelope is postmarked February 20, 1943 from the Heart Mountain Incarceration Camp in Cody, Wyoming.
Letter (with envelope) to Molly Wilson from Violet Saito (October 10, 1942) (ddr-janm-1-71)
doc Letter (with envelope) to Molly Wilson from Violet Saito (October 10, 1942) (ddr-janm-1-71)
Handwritten letter to Mollie Wilson from Violet Saito (October 10, 1942). Envelope is postmarked October 12, 1942 from the Granada (Amache) Incarceration Camp in Amache, Colorado.
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