Naturalization

Unlike other immigrants to the United States, Japanese and other Asians were not permitted to become naturalized American citizens until 1952. Under existing laws, naturalization was limited to "free white persons and to aliens of African nativity and to persons of African descent." Despite many attempts by Japanese immigrants (Issei) to gain citizenship, they were usually rejected on the grounds that the Issei were neither white nor black. The 1922 Supreme Court case Ozawa v. U.S. cemented the status of the issei as "aliens ineligible to citizenship" once and for all. It wasn't until 1952 with the passage of the Immigration and Nationality Act that Issei were finally allowed to become naturalized U.S. citizens.

Immigration and citizenship (434)
Naturalization (182)

Related articles from the Densho Encyclopedia :
Immigration Act of 1952, Naturalization Act of 1790, Ozawa v. United States, Tokutaro Slocum, Francis Walter

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182 items
Harry Matsuoka's certificate of naturalization (ddr-densho-390-31)
doc Harry Matsuoka's certificate of naturalization (ddr-densho-390-31)
Harry's certificate of naturalization with a name change decree typed on the back, changing his name from Tomio to Harry as part of naturalization.
Autobiography of Arthur Yakabi (ddr-densho-401-3)
doc Autobiography of Arthur Yakabi (ddr-densho-401-3)
Photocopy of Arthur Yakabi's handwritten autobiography detailing his childhood in Peru, detention in the United States during WWII, and his adulthood in the United States.
Letter from Robert Cashman to American Consul General in Shanghai (ddr-densho-446-276)
doc Letter from Robert Cashman to American Consul General in Shanghai (ddr-densho-446-276)
Refers to Ai Chih Tsai's May 26 letter regarding the requirement for him to enter the US as an immigrant. Affidavit in support of Ai Chih Tsai
Letter from Robert Cashman to American Consul General in Shanghai (ddr-densho-446-242)
doc Letter from Robert Cashman to American Consul General in Shanghai (ddr-densho-446-242)
Affidavit in support of Ai Chih Tsai's appeal to return to U.S. with immigration status without qualification.
Letter from Robert Cashman to Ai Chih Tsai (ddr-densho-446-275)
doc Letter from Robert Cashman to Ai Chih Tsai (ddr-densho-446-275)
Sorry to learn that Tsai has been delayed in returning home from Shanghai. Enclosed letter to Consul General with offer of further assistance.
Letter from Robert Cashman to Ai Chih Tsai (ddr-densho-446-288)
doc Letter from Robert Cashman to Ai Chih Tsai (ddr-densho-446-288)
Letter of support for Ai Chih Tsai's application for entrance into the United States. Chicago Theological Seminary can offer Ai Chih Tsai a position on the clerical staff at $1800/year
Statement of Support for Ai Chih Tsai [unsigned] (ddr-densho-446-310)
doc Statement of Support for Ai Chih Tsai [unsigned] (ddr-densho-446-310)
Statement of sponsorship and resources for Ai Chih Tsai so he will not be a public charge in the USA. This was to help him get an immigrant visa to USA. Likely drafted in early Sept before Tsai was granted quota number.
Letter from H.A. Blundin to Ryo Tsai (ddr-densho-446-306)
doc Letter from H.A. Blundin to Ryo Tsai (ddr-densho-446-306)
Thank you for letter from August 30. UNRRA received cable from UNRRA-Shanghai that a special quota number has been allotted to Ai Chih Tsai and he will be granted a visa by the end of Sept. He should go to American Consulate in Shanghai on September 12, 1947.
Letter from Edward J. Ennis to Ai Thich Tsai (ddr-densho-446-116)
doc Letter from Edward J. Ennis to Ai Thich Tsai (ddr-densho-446-116)
Acknowledges request for assistance in changing alien status. U.S. law offers no way to do this except by complying with naturalization statutes. Recommends contacting Immigration and Naturalization Services Department in Philadelphia.
Letter from Harrison Ray Anderson to Ai Chih Tsai (ddr-densho-446-272)
doc Letter from Harrison Ray Anderson to Ai Chih Tsai (ddr-densho-446-272)
Anderson will continue to find a way to get Tsai back to US. Perhaps a West Coast church will be available.
Letter from Gordon K. Chapman to Rev. Sumio Koga (ddr-densho-446-270)
doc Letter from Gordon K. Chapman to Rev. Sumio Koga (ddr-densho-446-270)
When Ai Chih Tsai was with UNRRA, he was no longer in the US military and was not able to return without a visa. It appears that he needs to secure a job which would lead to a 4-D nonquota visa. What are ACT's abilities to be successful in a pulpit in the US and intentions …
Letter from Ryo Tsai to the Commissioner of Immigration and Naturalization in Philadelphia (ddr-densho-446-244)
doc Letter from Ryo Tsai to the Commissioner of Immigration and Naturalization in Philadelphia (ddr-densho-446-244)
Petition for immigration visa for Ai Chih Tsai. Education and employment history in US. Supporting financial documents.
The Newell Star, Vol. II, No. 43 (October 26, 1945) (ddr-densho-284-93)
doc The Newell Star, Vol. II, No. 43 (October 26, 1945) (ddr-densho-284-93)
Selected article titles: "Those Seeking Changes in Forms Must Write" (p. 1), "Minidoka Camp Closes 9 Days Ahead of Schedule" (p. 1), "General Stilwell's Action Commended by Secy. Ickes" (p. 2), and "3 Govt. Departments: Remove or Modify Rules for Employment of Nisei" (p. 4).
Letter from Gordon K. Chapman to Ai Chih Tsai (ddr-densho-446-271)
doc Letter from Gordon K. Chapman to Ai Chih Tsai (ddr-densho-446-271)
US Embassy advised Ai Chih Tsai that he needs a call from a church to support his case to return to US. The Chicago church has 2 ministers and this is ample. Request for notification if Tsai has another congregation in mind and if his desire is to return to the U.S. as a permanent resident …
Letter from Lt. Col. Merillat Moses to Immigration and Naturalization Service (ddr-densho-446-118)
doc Letter from Lt. Col. Merillat Moses to Immigration and Naturalization Service (ddr-densho-446-118)
Letter in support of Tsai's requests to change his status to friendly alien. As Tsai's immediate chief, Moses has a strong personal interest in this case and requests that every effort be made to change Tsai's registration.
Letter from Ai Chih Tsai to President Franklin D. Roosevelt (ddr-densho-446-122)
doc Letter from Ai Chih Tsai to President Franklin D. Roosevelt (ddr-densho-446-122)
Request for executive action to change status to "friendly alien" based on prior work for U.S. government in order to avoid deportation, to avoid consequences for wife and baby, and to allow Tsai to be considered for employment in the American Consulate in Formosa and Chinese Embassy [final draft]
Letter from Ryo Tsai to H.A. Blundin (ddr-densho-446-305)
doc Letter from Ryo Tsai to H.A. Blundin (ddr-densho-446-305)
Ryo has received welcome news that Ai Chih Tsai has received his quota number through the U.S. Consul in Shanghai. Thank you for UNRRA's assistance.
Letter from Ryo Tsai to Chicago Marriage License Bureau (ddr-densho-446-274)
doc Letter from Ryo Tsai to Chicago Marriage License Bureau (ddr-densho-446-274)
Request for a copy of Ai Chih and Ryo Tsai's original marriage certificate
Letter from Ryo Tsai to Seido Ogawa, Congregational Committee for Christian Democracy (ddr-densho-446-280)
doc Letter from Ryo Tsai to Seido Ogawa, Congregational Committee for Christian Democracy (ddr-densho-446-280)
Ai Chih Tsai wants to stay in US for maybe 5 years after his reentry instead of 6 months. Ryo Morikawa Tsai asks Ogawa if there is employment for Ai Chih Tsai. Ryo Morikawa Tsai also looking for a job but unemployment is high. Kenji has a job at the County Fair in Del Mar.
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