Naturalization

Unlike other immigrants to the United States, Japanese and other Asians were not permitted to become naturalized American citizens until 1952. Under existing laws, naturalization was limited to "free white persons and to aliens of African nativity and to persons of African descent." Despite many attempts by Japanese immigrants (Issei) to gain citizenship, they were usually rejected on the grounds that the Issei were neither white nor black. The 1922 Supreme Court case Ozawa v. U.S. cemented the status of the issei as "aliens ineligible to citizenship" once and for all. It wasn't until 1952 with the passage of the Immigration and Nationality Act that Issei were finally allowed to become naturalized U.S. citizens.

Immigration and citizenship (435)
Naturalization (182)

Related articles from the Densho Encyclopedia :
Immigration Act of 1952, Naturalization Act of 1790, Ozawa v. United States, Tokutaro Slocum, Francis Walter

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182 items
Carbon copy letter from Ai Chih Tsai to Ng Boksu (ddr-densho-446-413)
doc Carbon copy letter from Ai Chih Tsai to Ng Boksu (ddr-densho-446-413)
Responding to Ng Boksu's inquiry about Taiwanese in the U.S. just before WWII. (5 pages)
Letter from Ryo Tsai to Robert Cashman (ddr-densho-446-301)
doc Letter from Ryo Tsai to Robert Cashman (ddr-densho-446-301)
Ai Chih Tsai is getting help from the UNRRA Shanghai office and will do all it can to get him a visa before Sept when the UNRRA office will close. Ai Chih Tsai's brother is in Shanghai and they are enjoying their visit together. No available West Coast church for Ai Chih Tsai at present.
Letter from Robert Cashman to Ryo Tsai (ddr-densho-446-279)
doc Letter from Robert Cashman to Ryo Tsai (ddr-densho-446-279)
Cashman sent a letter in support of Ai Chih Tsai's immigration case
Letter from Ai Chih Tsai to President Franklin D. Roosevelt (ddr-densho-446-123)
doc Letter from Ai Chih Tsai to President Franklin D. Roosevelt (ddr-densho-446-123)
Request for executive action to change status to "friendly alien" based on prior work for U.S. government in order to avoid deportation, to avoid consequences for wife and baby, and to allow Tsai to be considered for employment in the American Consulate in Formosa and Chinese Embassy [typed draft]
Letter and document from Mas Yonemura (ddr-densho-422-539)
doc Letter and document from Mas Yonemura (ddr-densho-422-539)
Letter about Henri Takahashi citizenship application and list of questions and answers for Citizenship exam
Identification card (ddr-densho-34-133)
img Identification card (ddr-densho-34-133)
The U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Service issued this identification card after Frank Yoshito Kitamoto became a naturalized citizen of the United States on July 13, 1953.
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