Naturalization

Unlike other immigrants to the United States, Japanese and other Asians were not permitted to become naturalized American citizens until 1952. Under existing laws, naturalization was limited to "free white persons and to aliens of African nativity and to persons of African descent." Despite many attempts by Japanese immigrants (Issei) to gain citizenship, they were usually rejected on the grounds that the Issei were neither white nor black. The 1922 Supreme Court case Ozawa v. U.S. cemented the status of the issei as "aliens ineligible to citizenship" once and for all. It wasn't until 1952 with the passage of the Immigration and Nationality Act that Issei were finally allowed to become naturalized U.S. citizens.

Immigration and citizenship (290)
Naturalization (128)

Related articles from the Densho Encyclopedia :
Immigration Act of 1952, Naturalization Act of 1790, Ozawa v. United States, Tokutaro Slocum, Francis Walter

128 items
The Northwest Times Vol. 3 No. 36 (May 4, 1949) (ddr-densho-229-203)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 3 No. 36 (May 4, 1949) (ddr-densho-229-203)
"Religious, Civic Leaders Back Judd's Legislation, JACL Midwest Worker Says" (p. 1), "Evacuation Claims Queries, Replies" (p. 1).
The Northwest Times Vol. 4 No. 67 (August 19, 1950) (ddr-densho-229-236)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 4 No. 67 (August 19, 1950) (ddr-densho-229-236)
"Technical Move Stalls Action on Walter Bill" (p. 1), "House Version of Soldier Brides Act is Sent to President for Signature" (p. 1), "Japan Extends Farming Land Disposal Date" (p. 1).
The Northwest Times Vol. 5 No. 3 (January 10, 1951) (ddr-densho-229-264)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 5 No. 3 (January 10, 1951) (ddr-densho-229-264)
"3 Legislations Introduced to Congress : ADC" (p. 1), "Congress Gets Two Measures" (p. 1), "A New Year and an Unpleasant Korean War Faced by the Japanese" (p. 1).
The Northwest Times Vol. 3 No. 27 (April 2, 1949) (ddr-densho-229-194)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 3 No. 27 (April 2, 1949) (ddr-densho-229-194)
"Oregon's Top Court Rules Alien Land Laws Against Japanese Unconstitutional" (p. 1), "Tourist Trade Aids Economy of Japanese" (p. 1), "NCNC Unit Eyes ENI Passage" (p. 1).
The Northwest Times Vol. 1 No. 86 (November 21, 1947) (ddr-densho-229-73)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 1 No. 86 (November 21, 1947) (ddr-densho-229-73)
"80th Congress to Consider Naturalization Measure. Celler Bill to Open U.S. Citizenship to Alien Japanese" (p. 1), "Masaoka Returns to Wash. D.C. After West Tour" (p. 1), "Wreath Placed at Arlington" (p. 4).
The Northwest Times Vol. 1 No. 68 (September 19, 1947) (ddr-densho-229-55)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 1 No. 68 (September 19, 1947) (ddr-densho-229-55)
"Asks for Unity on Bainbridge in Hall Issue" (p. 1), "Canada Ends Voluntary "Repatriation' of Japanese at Government Expense" (p. 1), "Backs Americanism Body's Action" (p. 1), "LARA Reports Relief Aid to Needy Japan" (p. 1).
The Northwest Times Vol. 5 No. 7 (January 24, 1951) (ddr-densho-229-268)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 5 No. 7 (January 24, 1951) (ddr-densho-229-268)
"Nat'l JACL Tells Names of Chairmen" (p. 1), "McDonough Bill Similar to ENI" (p. 2).
The Northwest Times Vol. 3 No. 21 (March 12, 1949) (ddr-densho-229-188)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 3 No. 21 (March 12, 1949) (ddr-densho-229-188)
"Newspapers From Coast to Coast Back Judd Bill for Equality in Naturalization & Immigration" (p. 1), "Snake River JACL Doubles "48" (p. 1).
The Northwest Times Vol. 3 No. 24 (March 23, 1949) (ddr-densho-229-191)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 3 No. 24 (March 23, 1949) (ddr-densho-229-191)
"Delay by Senate on ENI Bill Looms; New York Post Scribe Fears Road "Very Uncertain" (p. 1), "President Inks Contraband Bill" (p. 1), "Letter to CARE from Japan" (p. 1).
The Northwest Times Vol. 4 No. 86 (October 28, 1950) (ddr-densho-229-251)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 4 No. 86 (October 28, 1950) (ddr-densho-229-251)
"Portland to Dedicate Nisei War Memorial Monument at Rites Sunday" (p. 1), "Truman Points to Flaws in McCarran Bill" (p. 1), ""Clean' Naturalization Measure Sought" (p. 4).
The Northwest Times Vol. 3 No. 18 (March 2, 1949) (ddr-densho-229-185)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 3 No. 18 (March 2, 1949) (ddr-densho-229-185)
"House Passes Judd's ENI Measure" (p. 1), "A Few More Queries, Replies on Evacuation Claims Law" (p. 1), "B.C. Japanese Count Days as March 31, 1949, Nears; Federal Curbs End Then" (p. 1).
The Northwest Times Vol. 3 No. 26 (March 30, 1949) (ddr-densho-229-193)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 3 No. 26 (March 30, 1949) (ddr-densho-229-193)
"Revelle Points Out Generals' High Opinion of Fighting 442nd Combat Team" (p. 1), "Seattle JACL Chapter Urges Issei to Apply for Naturalization Now" (p. 1), "Evacuation Claims Queries, Replies" (p. 4).
The Northwest Times Vol. 2 No. 33 (April 14, 1948) (ddr-densho-229-101)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 2 No. 33 (April 14, 1948) (ddr-densho-229-101)
"Pacific Northwest Trade Helps Orient Recovery, NWA Aide Says" (p. 1), "House Will Hear Legislations on Naturalization April 19" (p. 1), "Orders Halt on Hearing Against CIO" (p. 1), "JACL to File Brief with Top Court to Back Takahashi in Fish Case" (p. 2).
The Northwest Times Vol. 2 No. 30 (April 3, 1948) (ddr-densho-229-99)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 2 No. 30 (April 3, 1948) (ddr-densho-229-99)
"Canada Curbs on Japanese to Continue" (p. 1), "House Gets Few More Measures to Aid 3 Japanese Aliens" (p. 1), "Judd Urges Quick Amendment on Naturalization Bills" (p. 4).
The Northwest Times Vol. 3 No. 55 (July 9, 1949) (ddr-densho-229-222)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 3 No. 55 (July 9, 1949) (ddr-densho-229-222)
"Hawaii Governor Promises to Do What He Can to Push ENI Bill" (p. 1), "Claims Office Due to Open" (p. 1).
The Northwest Times Vol. 1 No. 51 (July 22, 1947) (ddr-densho-229-38)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 1 No. 51 (July 22, 1947) (ddr-densho-229-38)
"Senate Passes Rider to Soldier Brides Act" (p. 1), "House to Debate One Hour on Evacuation Claims Bill" (p. 1), "Tables Deportation, Naturalization Measures" (p. 1).
The Northwest Times Vol. 5 No. 2 (January 6, 1951) (ddr-densho-229-263)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 5 No. 2 (January 6, 1951) (ddr-densho-229-263)
"Ballots Sent to Members of JACL for Vote" (p. 1), "Naturalization Equality Bill to Get Priority in 82nd Congress, Says Masaoka in His '51 Plans" (p. 1), "Masaoka and Fujii's Attorneys Attack Cal's 37-Year-Old Alien Land Law" (p. 1).
The Northwest Times Vol. 2 No. 46 (May 29, 1948) (ddr-densho-229-114)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 2 No. 46 (May 29, 1948) (ddr-densho-229-114)
"Issei Urged to Fill Out First Papers" (p. 1), "2 Stowaways on Ship will be Deported" (p. 1), "Third Parley on U.S. Rights Ends in D.C." (p. 4).
The Northwest Times Vol. 3 No. 19 (March 5, 1949) (ddr-densho-229-186)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 3 No. 19 (March 5, 1949) (ddr-densho-229-186)
"Extension of War Brides' Act or GI Fiancees' Act Opposed by House Judiciary Members" (p. 1), "Here's How House Passed Judd ENI Bill; If Approved by Senate, It Could Mean Death of 1924 Oriental Exclusion Act" (p. 1).
The Northwest Times Vol. 4 No. 78 (September 30, 1950) (ddr-densho-229-247)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 4 No. 78 (September 30, 1950) (ddr-densho-229-247)
"Confusion Reigns in the Nation's Capitol After House, By a Whopping Majority, Votes to Override Vetoed Walter Bill" (p. 1), "Congress Amends Trading Act" (p. 1), "Volunteer Solicitors Cover District in Annual Community Chest Campaign; Our Goal This Year Will be $9,100" (p. 1).
The Northwest Times Vol. 3 No. 56 (July 13, 1949) (ddr-densho-229-223)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 3 No. 56 (July 13, 1949) (ddr-densho-229-223)
"B.C. Fishermen Disapprove of Biased Action" (p. 1), "Talks on ENI to be Heard" (p. 1), "Schmoe, Rev. Andrews to Leave this Week for Hiroshima City" (p. 1).
The Northwest Times Vol. 2 No. 44 (May 22, 1948) (ddr-densho-229-112)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 2 No. 44 (May 22, 1948) (ddr-densho-229-112)
"JACL-ADC Seeks VFW Endorsement of H.R. 5004, Measure Favoring Naturalization for U.S. Issei" (p. 1), "Three Named to Unit to Adjust Differences on H.R. 3566" (p. 1).
The Northwest Times Vol. 4 No. 101 (December 20, 1950) (ddr-densho-229-259)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 4 No. 101 (December 20, 1950) (ddr-densho-229-259)
"Sen. Russell Objects to Walter Bill" (p. 1), "Three Courses on Far East Offered by U.W." (p. 1), "Senate Receives Walter Measure" (p. 4).
The Northwest Times Vol. 3 No. 12 (February 9, 1949) (ddr-densho-229-179)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 3 No. 12 (February 9, 1949) (ddr-densho-229-179)
"Senate Unit Backs Bill on Equality" (p. 1), "Pvt. Ninomiya Rites Saturday" (p. 1), "Additional Claims Queries, Replies" (p. 2).
The Northwest Times Vol. 4 No. 71 (September 6, 1950) (ddr-densho-229-240)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 4 No. 71 (September 6, 1950) (ddr-densho-229-240)
"Korean Situation Hampers ADC Efforts to Win Boost in Claims Plan Budget" (p. 1), "Walter Bill OK by Truman Expected Soon" (p. 1), "ADC Releases Full Text of GI Bride Bill" (p. 1).
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