Naturalization

Unlike other immigrants to the United States, Japanese and other Asians were not permitted to become naturalized American citizens until 1952. Under existing laws, naturalization was limited to "free white persons and to aliens of African nativity and to persons of African descent." Despite many attempts by Japanese immigrants (Issei) to gain citizenship, they were usually rejected on the grounds that the Issei were neither white nor black. The 1922 Supreme Court case Ozawa v. U.S. cemented the status of the issei as "aliens ineligible to citizenship" once and for all. It wasn't until 1952 with the passage of the Immigration and Nationality Act that Issei were finally allowed to become naturalized U.S. citizens.

Immigration and citizenship (290)
Naturalization (128)

Related articles from the Densho Encyclopedia :
Immigration Act of 1952, Naturalization Act of 1790, Ozawa v. United States, Tokutaro Slocum, Francis Walter

128 items
The Northwest Times Vol. 3 No. 47 (June 11, 1949) (ddr-densho-229-214)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 3 No. 47 (June 11, 1949) (ddr-densho-229-214)
"House Unanimously Passes Resolution to Give "All' Right to U.S. Citizenship" (p. 1), "JACL ADC Seeks "Same Consideration' as Japanese for Okinawa People" (p. 1), "Solons Act on Two Appropriations Providing for Claims Processing" (p. 1).
The Northwest Times Vol. 1 No. 47 (July 8, 1947) (ddr-densho-229-35)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 1 No. 47 (July 8, 1947) (ddr-densho-229-35)
"Fights Use of Japanese in Job Classification" (p. 1), "ADC Receives New Version of H.R. 3999" (p. 1), "NVC Supports Measure on Citizenship" (p. 1).
The Northwest Times Vol. 2 No. 100 (December 4, 1948) (ddr-densho-229-161)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 2 No. 100 (December 4, 1948) (ddr-densho-229-161)
"OK of Measure for Equality Seen Likely" (p. 1), "Joint Rites Set for Six GI War Dead Saturday, Dec. 11 in Bukkyo-Kai; One of Nisei Heroes is Winner of DSC" (p. 1), "JACL Will Give Claims Forms" (p. 1).
The Northwest Times Vol. 3 No. 31 (April 16, 1949) (ddr-densho-229-198)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 3 No. 31 (April 16, 1949) (ddr-densho-229-198)
"Hopes Rise on Senate Approval of Judd's ENI Legislation" (p. 1), "Local ADC Fund Push of $5,000 Starts April 20" (p. 1),
The Northwest Times Vol. 2 No. 25 (March 17, 1948) (ddr-densho-229-95)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 2 No. 25 (March 17, 1948) (ddr-densho-229-95)
"Epinal War Heroes' Remains Removed" (p. 1), "Congress Gets Another Bill Aiding Issei" (p. 1), "Story of the 442nd" (p. 2), "Frisco Saints, Berkeley Nisseis to Tangle for "Oriental Title" (p. 3).
The Northwest Times Vol. 3 No. 65 (August 13, 1949) (ddr-densho-229-232)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 3 No. 65 (August 13, 1949) (ddr-densho-229-232)
"Next "Open Night' on Wed., Aug. 17; Take Advantage of It, Okada Urges" (p. 1), "Illinois Senator Cites Record of Nisei GI's in Urging Passage of Judd Bill" (p. 2).
The Northwest Times Vol. 2 No. 24 (March 13, 1948) (ddr-densho-229-94)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 2 No. 24 (March 13, 1948) (ddr-densho-229-94)
"Center Blaze Sufferers Get Loss Claims" (p. 1), "Nisei War Memorial Army Raises $1,623 Here" (p. 1), "Union Membership Sought for Issei" (p. 2), "Fights Seizure of Alien's Land for War Claims" (p. 4).
The Northwest Times Vol. 4 No. 68 (August 23, 1950) (ddr-densho-229-237)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 4 No. 68 (August 23, 1950) (ddr-densho-229-237)
"Walter Bill Runs into Confusion" (p. 1), "Travel Bureau Office in N.Y. Will Open Soon" (p. 1), "Sgt. I. Furukawa Killed in Action" (p. 1).
The Northwest Times Vol. 3 No. 13 (February 12, 1949) (ddr-densho-229-180)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 3 No. 13 (February 12, 1949) (ddr-densho-229-180)
"Judd Bill Passed by House Unit Without Dissenting Vote" (p. 1), "Senate OK's Bill to Pay for Our Loss" (p. 1), "Tokuda's Eye Third N.W. Title as Basketball Tourney Nears; Fierce Fight for Crown Looms" (p. 1).
The Northwest Times Vol. 3 No. 48 (June 15, 1949) (ddr-densho-229-215)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 3 No. 48 (June 15, 1949) (ddr-densho-229-215)
"Economy-Minded Solons Pass Over Funds Set Aside for Claims" (p. 1), "House OK's ENI Legislation; Senate Unit Will Study It" (p. 1).
The Newell Star, Vol. II, No. 43 (October 26, 1945) (ddr-densho-284-93)
doc The Newell Star, Vol. II, No. 43 (October 26, 1945) (ddr-densho-284-93)
Selected article titles: "Those Seeking Changes in Forms Must Write" (p. 1), "Minidoka Camp Closes 9 Days Ahead of Schedule" (p. 1), "General Stilwell's Action Commended by Secy. Ickes" (p. 2), and "3 Govt. Departments: Remove or Modify Rules for Employment of Nisei" (p. 4).
img "The graduation exercise of the Americanization School sponsored by Japanese Ancestral Society" (ddr-densho-259-394)
Front of photograph: "The graduation exercise of the Americanization School sponsored by Japanese Ancestral Society Portland, Oreg. May 28, 1953." Caption by Homer Yasui: "Group portrait of the Issei in the Portland area who graduated from the Americanization school, in preparation for taking their citizenship examinations."
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 89, No. 2056 (August 17, 1979) (ddr-pc-51-32)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 89, No. 2056 (August 17, 1979) (ddr-pc-51-32)
Selected article titles: "Issei Naturalization Class Reactivating" (p. 1), "Job Bias Cases by Japanese Firms in U.S. Viewed" (p. 1), "Assemblyman Mori's Day of Remembrance Bill Signed" (p. 1), and "Question and Answer Fact Sheet: Didn't Pearl Harbor Justify Your Detention?" (pp. 5, 7).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 89, No. 2050 (July 6, 1979) (ddr-pc-51-26)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 89, No. 2050 (July 6, 1979) (ddr-pc-51-26)
Selected article titles: "U.S. Leadership May Be Compromised: Eskimo Whaling vs. Moratorium Major IWC Issue" (pp. 1, 5), "East Wind: A Point of View: Redress" (p. 4), "From the Frying Pan: Tragedy of Vietnam's 'Boat People'" (p. 5), and "Pacific Sq. Marks Tanabata" (p. 8).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 122, No. 7 (April 5-18, 1996) (ddr-pc-68-7)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 122, No. 7 (April 5-18, 1996) (ddr-pc-68-7)
Selected article titles: "What's Growing Fast, Creating Wealth and Voting? It's the AP Community, Study Says" (pp. 1, 12), "27th Trek to Manzanar Is Set for April 27 as Site Is Developed" (p. 5), "Naturalization Program Begun by APA Group" (p. 5), and "East Wind: The Asian Candidacy" (pp. 8, 12).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 44, No. 4 (January 25, 1957) (ddr-pc-29-4)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 44, No. 4 (January 25, 1957) (ddr-pc-29-4)
Selected article titles: "Builders using gov't financing sued for race bias in selling tract homes" (p. 1); "Eisenhower urges statehood for Hawaii & Alaska" (p.1); "Japan refugee returns home after year stay in California, in Uncle Sam uniform" (p. 1); "Nisei opera soloist set for S.F. season" (p. 2); "Temporary farm worker program extended for Mexicans; ...
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 44, No. 7 (February 15, 1957) (ddr-pc-29-7)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 44, No. 7 (February 15, 1957) (ddr-pc-29-7)
Selected article titles: "Justice Dep't officals to visit West Coast to investigate claims" (p. 1); "Dr. Rusch decorated at Embassy for promoting Japanese American friendship" (p. 1); "Rev. Kano retires from active ministry among Japanese in Nebraska; helped Issei with Americanization instructions" (p. 2); "Brotherhood Week program in L.A. set" (p. 3); "JACL joins 48 Nat'l ...
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 48, No. 14 (April 3, 1959) (ddr-pc-31-14)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 48, No. 14 (April 3, 1959) (ddr-pc-31-14)
Selected article titles: "Walter bill liberalizes Immigration Act" (p. 1), "Nisei newcomer in Arizona successful in nursery business" (p. 1), "Tule Lake center may be youth honor camp" (p. 1), "UCLA medical research reports success with measle vaccine, Nisei doctor aids" (p. 1), "Bent on suicide, Nisei speeds into busy intersection kills one, maims two" (p. ...
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 66, No. 2 (January 12, 1968) (ddr-pc-40-2)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 66, No. 2 (January 12, 1968) (ddr-pc-40-2)
Selected article titles: "Race not important in determining whether one tolerates or rejects transplanted organ, says Nisei" (p. 1), "JACL can take on part of Negro problem, Marutani tells CCDC" (p. 1), "An unselfish Issei who comforted the needy, the sick for 50 years honored by Salt Lake" (p. 1), "Four couples cited for giving comfort ...
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 81, No. 25 (December 19-26, 1975) (ddr-pc-47-50)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 81, No. 25 (December 19-26, 1975) (ddr-pc-47-50)
Holiday issue organized into sections A 1-12, B 1-12, C 1-12, D 1-12, and E 1-6. Selected article titles: "Samurai of the Wine Country" (pp. A-1, C-1, C-5, C-8, C-10-D-1), "The Forgotten Nisei" (pp. A-1, A-3-A-5, A-8), "Tokie Was Naturalized 'Twice'" (pp. A-10, B-4), "Anti-Nisei Discrimination in the Mormon State" (pp. B-10-B-11), and "WW2 Gov't Cover ...
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 43, No. 3 (July 20, 1956) (ddr-pc-28-29)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 43, No. 3 (July 20, 1956) (ddr-pc-28-29)
Selected article titles: "Claimants requested to refrain from writing Dep't of Justice for 60 days as all claims being reviewed under 1955 amendment" (p. 1), "Kibei fired as security risk in plea to Eisenhower" (p. 1), "Action unlikely on committee ok'd bill to return war vested property" (p. 1), "Renunciation law and segregation termed by Myer ...
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 44, No. 6 (February 8, 1957) (ddr-pc-29-6)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 44, No. 6 (February 8, 1957) (ddr-pc-29-6)
Selected article titles: "Nisei hopes for U.S.-Japan ties told to new envoy Masaoka confers with MacArthur II, newly U.S. ambassador to Japan" (p. 1); "See boost in Japan quota of immigrants" (p. 1); "Masaoka to speak at Philadelphia fete" (p. 1); "JACL urges early enactment of civil rights bill this session" (p. 1); "College Scholarship plus ...
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 45, No. 3 (July 26, 1957) (ddr-pc-29-29)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 45, No. 3 (July 26, 1957) (ddr-pc-29-29)
Select article titles: "Almost 20,000 Mainland Issei Naturalized Within Past Decade" (p. 1); "Senate Takes Up Civil Rights Bill, 71-18 Vote" (p. 1); "Washington JACL Office analyses House Subcommittee report on Japanese farm labor" (p. 1); "Lonely airman's Japanese wife recovers from suicide attempt; steps to regain custody of children stirs interest in Kansas City" (p. ...
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 44, No. 23 (June 7, 1957) (ddr-pc-29-23)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 44, No. 23 (June 7, 1957) (ddr-pc-29-23)
Select article titles: "26,000 Japanese War Brides in U.S. Group Told" (p. 1); "Senate Committee Amends Claims Supplemental Appropriation Bill" (p.1 ); "Non-profit groups listed for 1st time as claim awardees" (p. 1); "JACL participates in Memorial Day Rites at Arlington Cemetery; sagging Nisei interest in war dead scored by D.C. JACLers" (p. 1); "Rep Judd's ...
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