Naturalization

Unlike other immigrants to the United States, Japanese and other Asians were not permitted to become naturalized American citizens until 1952. Under existing laws, naturalization was limited to "free white persons and to aliens of African nativity and to persons of African descent." Despite many attempts by Japanese immigrants (Issei) to gain citizenship, they were usually rejected on the grounds that the Issei were neither white nor black. The 1922 Supreme Court case Ozawa v. U.S. cemented the status of the issei as "aliens ineligible to citizenship" once and for all. It wasn't until 1952 with the passage of the Immigration and Nationality Act that Issei were finally allowed to become naturalized U.S. citizens.

Immigration and citizenship (435)
Naturalization (182)

Related articles from the Densho Encyclopedia :
Immigration Act of 1952, Naturalization Act of 1790, Ozawa v. United States, Tokutaro Slocum, Francis Walter

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182 items
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 44, No. 4 (January 25, 1957) (ddr-pc-29-4)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 44, No. 4 (January 25, 1957) (ddr-pc-29-4)
Selected article titles: "Builders using gov't financing sued for race bias in selling tract homes" (p. 1); "Eisenhower urges statehood for Hawaii & Alaska" (p.1); "Japan refugee returns home after year stay in California, in Uncle Sam uniform" (p. 1); "Nisei opera soloist set for S.F. season" (p. 2); "Temporary farm worker program extended for Mexicans; …
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 44, No. 7 (February 15, 1957) (ddr-pc-29-7)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 44, No. 7 (February 15, 1957) (ddr-pc-29-7)
Selected article titles: "Justice Dep't officals to visit West Coast to investigate claims" (p. 1); "Dr. Rusch decorated at Embassy for promoting Japanese American friendship" (p. 1); "Rev. Kano retires from active ministry among Japanese in Nebraska; helped Issei with Americanization instructions" (p. 2); "Brotherhood Week program in L.A. set" (p. 3); "JACL joins 48 Nat'l …
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 48, No. 1 (January 2, 1959) (ddr-pc-31-1)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 48, No. 1 (January 2, 1959) (ddr-pc-31-1)
Selected article titles: "War bride studies for naturalization while in hospital, discharged as citizen" (p. 1), "Sansei youth return $4,000 found in bag given them to wrap small purchase items" (p. 1), "Race bias charged in employment of clerical workers" (p. 1), "Mass naturalization rites of 126 Issei, integration of evacuees into So. Jersey community recalled …
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 49, No. 14 (October 2, 1959) (ddr-pc-31-40)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 49, No. 14 (October 2, 1959) (ddr-pc-31-40)
Selected article titles: "President signs amendment to immigration bill" (p. 1), "Elderly Issei in 80s and 90s sworn in as new citizens" (p. 1), "Few Japanese farm laborers able to save million yen from three-year U.S. stay" (p. 1), "Nisei discrimination topic of Yoshino speech" (p. 1), "Nisei administrative assistant to Burns steps into political job …
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 48, No. 14 (April 3, 1959) (ddr-pc-31-14)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 48, No. 14 (April 3, 1959) (ddr-pc-31-14)
Selected article titles: "Walter bill liberalizes Immigration Act" (p. 1), "Nisei newcomer in Arizona successful in nursery business" (p. 1), "Tule Lake center may be youth honor camp" (p. 1), "UCLA medical research reports success with measle vaccine, Nisei doctor aids" (p. 1), "Bent on suicide, Nisei speeds into busy intersection kills one, maims two" (p. …
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 66, No. 2 (January 12, 1968) (ddr-pc-40-2)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 66, No. 2 (January 12, 1968) (ddr-pc-40-2)
Selected article titles: "Race not important in determining whether one tolerates or rejects transplanted organ, says Nisei" (p. 1), "JACL can take on part of Negro problem, Marutani tells CCDC" (p. 1), "An unselfish Issei who comforted the needy, the sick for 50 years honored by Salt Lake" (p. 1), "Four couples cited for giving comfort …
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 43, No. 3 (July 20, 1956) (ddr-pc-28-29)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 43, No. 3 (July 20, 1956) (ddr-pc-28-29)
Selected article titles: "Claimants requested to refrain from writing Dep't of Justice for 60 days as all claims being reviewed under 1955 amendment" (p. 1), "Kibei fired as security risk in plea to Eisenhower" (p. 1), "Action unlikely on committee ok'd bill to return war vested property" (p. 1), "Renunciation law and segregation termed by Myer …
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 81, No. 25 (December 19-26, 1975) (ddr-pc-47-50)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 81, No. 25 (December 19-26, 1975) (ddr-pc-47-50)
Holiday issue organized into sections A 1-12, B 1-12, C 1-12, D 1-12, and E 1-6. Selected article titles: "Samurai of the Wine Country" (pp. A-1, C-1, C-5, C-8, C-10-D-1), "The Forgotten Nisei" (pp. A-1, A-3-A-5, A-8), "Tokie Was Naturalized 'Twice'" (pp. A-10, B-4), "Anti-Nisei Discrimination in the Mormon State" (pp. B-10-B-11), and "WW2 Gov't Cover …
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 89, No. 2056 (August 17, 1979) (ddr-pc-51-32)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 89, No. 2056 (August 17, 1979) (ddr-pc-51-32)
Selected article titles: "Issei Naturalization Class Reactivating" (p. 1), "Job Bias Cases by Japanese Firms in U.S. Viewed" (p. 1), "Assemblyman Mori's Day of Remembrance Bill Signed" (p. 1), and "Question and Answer Fact Sheet: Didn't Pearl Harbor Justify Your Detention?" (pp. 5, 7).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 89, No. 2050 (July 6, 1979) (ddr-pc-51-26)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 89, No. 2050 (July 6, 1979) (ddr-pc-51-26)
Selected article titles: "U.S. Leadership May Be Compromised: Eskimo Whaling vs. Moratorium Major IWC Issue" (pp. 1, 5), "East Wind: A Point of View: Redress" (p. 4), "From the Frying Pan: Tragedy of Vietnam's 'Boat People'" (p. 5), and "Pacific Sq. Marks Tanabata" (p. 8).
Pacific Citizen, Vol. 122, No. 7 (April 5-18, 1996) (ddr-pc-68-7)
doc Pacific Citizen, Vol. 122, No. 7 (April 5-18, 1996) (ddr-pc-68-7)
Selected article titles: "What's Growing Fast, Creating Wealth and Voting? It's the AP Community, Study Says" (pp. 1, 12), "27th Trek to Manzanar Is Set for April 27 as Site Is Developed" (p. 5), "Naturalization Program Begun by APA Group" (p. 5), and "East Wind: The Asian Candidacy" (pp. 8, 12).
Agreement for renunciation of Japanese citizenship (ddr-csujad-46-49)
doc Agreement for renunciation of Japanese citizenship (ddr-csujad-46-49)
Agreement for renunciation of Japanese citizenship of Yoneichi Matsushige. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: csus_nac_0049
Notice from Japan Consulate General, San Francisco, to Stanislaus Nihonjinkai, June 15, 1925 (ddr-csujad-46-32)
doc Notice from Japan Consulate General, San Francisco, to Stanislaus Nihonjinkai, June 15, 1925 (ddr-csujad-46-32)
Notice from Japan Consulate General, San Francisco, to Stanislaus Nihonjinkai. Sachiko and Tadashi Ozuchi's application for renunciation of their Japanese citizenship was accepted by the Japanese Government. Document in Japanese. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: csus_nac_0032
Arajiro Watari (ddr-csujad-8-98)
doc Arajiro Watari (ddr-csujad-8-98)
Oral history interview with Arajiro Watari. Information on the oral history project is found in: csuf_stp_0012A; Glossary in: csuf_stp_0014. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: FCPL Watari, Arajiro
Heiji and Chiyoko Kurakawa (ddr-csujad-8-34)
doc Heiji and Chiyoko Kurakawa (ddr-csujad-8-34)
Oral history interview with Heiji and Chiyoko Kurakawa. Information on the oral history project is found in: csuf_stp_0012A; Glossary in: csuf_stp_0014. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: FCPL Kurakawa, Heiji and Chiyoko
Momoyo Mizuki (ddr-csujad-8-91)
doc Momoyo Mizuki (ddr-csujad-8-91)
Oral history interview with Momoyo Mizuki. Information on the oral history project is found in: csuf_stp_0012A; Glossary in: csuf_stp_0014. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: FCPL Mizuki, Momoyo
Sada Yamamoto (ddr-csujad-8-100)
doc Sada Yamamoto (ddr-csujad-8-100)
Oral history interview with Sada Yamamoto. Information on the oral history project is found in: csuf_stp_0012A; Glossary in: csuf_stp_0014. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: FCPL Yamamoto, Sada
Ben Tsutomu Nakagawa (ddr-csujad-8-49)
doc Ben Tsutomu Nakagawa (ddr-csujad-8-49)
Oral history interview with Ben Tsutomu Nakagawa. Information on the oral history project is found in: csuf_stp_0012A; Glossary in: csuf_stp_0014. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: FCPL Nakagawa, Ben Tsutomu
Issei naturalization ceremony (ddr-densho-113-39)
img Issei naturalization ceremony (ddr-densho-113-39)
This picture, taken at the Broadway Performance Hall, shows the naturalization ceremony of many of Seattle's Issei.
Letter denying naturalization to Issei male (ddr-densho-126-2)
doc Letter denying naturalization to Issei male (ddr-densho-126-2)
Until 1952 U.S. law forbade people of Japanese ancestry from becoming naturalized citizens. This letter was sent to George Mitsutaro Yoshihara, an issei male who applied for U.S. citizenship in 1947.
Application for naturalization (ddr-densho-126-3)
doc Application for naturalization (ddr-densho-126-3)
U.S. law forbade people of Japanese ancestry from becoming naturalized citizens until 1952. This document is an application for naturalization filed by an issei male in 1947.
img "The graduation exercise of the Americanization School sponsored by Japanese Ancestral Society" (ddr-densho-259-394)
Front of photograph: "The graduation exercise of the Americanization School sponsored by Japanese Ancestral Society Portland, Oreg. May 28, 1953." Caption by Homer Yasui: "Group portrait of the Issei in the Portland area who graduated from the Americanization school, in preparation for taking their citizenship examinations."
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