Naturalization

Unlike other immigrants to the United States, Japanese and other Asians were not permitted to become naturalized American citizens until 1952. Under existing laws, naturalization was limited to "free white persons and to aliens of African nativity and to persons of African descent." Despite many attempts by Japanese immigrants (Issei) to gain citizenship, they were usually rejected on the grounds that the Issei were neither white nor black. The 1922 Supreme Court case Ozawa v. U.S. cemented the status of the issei as "aliens ineligible to citizenship" once and for all. It wasn't until 1952 with the passage of the Immigration and Nationality Act that Issei were finally allowed to become naturalized U.S. citizens.

Immigration and citizenship (435)
Naturalization (182)

Related articles from the Densho Encyclopedia :
Immigration Act of 1952, Naturalization Act of 1790, Ozawa v. United States, Tokutaro Slocum, Francis Walter

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182 items
The Northwest Times Vol. 3 No. 48 (June 15, 1949) (ddr-densho-229-215)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 3 No. 48 (June 15, 1949) (ddr-densho-229-215)
"Economy-Minded Solons Pass Over Funds Set Aside for Claims" (p. 1), "House OK's ENI Legislation; Senate Unit Will Study It" (p. 1).
Naturalization certificate (ddr-densho-23-15)
doc Naturalization certificate (ddr-densho-23-15)
Certificate of naturalization for Bunshiro Tazuma, aged seventy. The landmark case Ozawa v. United States (United States Supreme Court, 1922) barred the Issei from becoming American citizens even though many had been permanent residents since the late 1800s. In 1952, the Immigration and Nationality Act was passed, and the Issei were finally allowed to become citizens.
Naturalization certificate (ddr-densho-23-16)
doc Naturalization certificate (ddr-densho-23-16)
Sawano Tazuma and her husband Bunshiro operated the Tazuma Ten-Cent Store at 12th Avenue and Jackson Street in Seattle's Nihonmachi. The Tazumas were not allowed to become naturalized American citizens until 1952, when the Immigration and Nationality Act was passed. Sawano finally became a citizen in 1954 at the age of fifty-eight, thirty-five years after settling …
The Northwest Times Vol. 2 No. 43 (May 19, 1948) (ddr-densho-229-111)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 2 No. 43 (May 19, 1948) (ddr-densho-229-111)
"Two Congressmen Point Out Wrong of Racial Bias against Minorities; Cite Plight of Japanese Americans" (p. 1), "Senate OK's Citizenship for War Vets" (p. 1), "Endorsements of Evacuation Claims Bills Now Urged by JACL-ADC in D.C.; Hearings Scheduled to Start Friday" (p. 1).
The Northwest Times Vol. 4 No. 72 (September 9, 1950) (ddr-densho-229-241)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 4 No. 72 (September 9, 1950) (ddr-densho-229-241)
"Truman Must Approve or Veto Walter Bill by Today; Ten-Day Period Ends" (p. 1), "C-B-I Hero's Wife Awaits Truman Okay" (p. 1), "Masaoka, Brilliant ADC Chief, Named to Distinguished Leadership Award" (p. 2).
The Northwest Times Vol. 4 No. 99 (December 13, 1950) (ddr-densho-229-257)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 4 No. 99 (December 13, 1950) (ddr-densho-229-257)
"House Approves Walter Measure" (p. 1), "JACL Calls Attention to Bias on FHA Homes for Veterans" (p. 1), "Fort Lincoln Cemetery Decides to Adopt Segregation Policy" (p. 2).
The Northwest Times Vol. 3 No. 2 (January 5, 1949) (ddr-densho-229-169)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 3 No. 2 (January 5, 1949) (ddr-densho-229-169)
"Truman Shows Interest in Rights Bill" (p. 1), "Pa. Solon Vows to Present Measure for Equality in Naturalization" (p. 1).
The Northwest Times Vol. 1 No. 41 (June 13, 1947) (ddr-densho-229-29)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 1 No. 41 (June 13, 1947) (ddr-densho-229-29)
"House Unit Hears Masaoka's Plea for National FEPC Legislation" (p. 1), "H.R. 3771 Asks U.S. Citizenship for Alien Parents of GI's, Vets" (p. 1), "Equal Rights for Nisei in Trade Sought" (p. 1).
The Northwest Times Vol. 1 No. 81 (November 4, 1947) (ddr-densho-229-68)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 1 No. 81 (November 4, 1947) (ddr-densho-229-68)
"Nisei War Dead Start for Home" (p. 1), "Naturalization Class to Open For Overseas War Brides" (p. 1), "Civil Rights Committee Adopts JACL-ADC Recommendations" (p. 1).
The Northwest Times Vol. 1 No. 22 (March 25, 1947) (ddr-densho-229-9)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 1 No. 22 (March 25, 1947) (ddr-densho-229-9)
"Text of Masaoka's Speech : Clarifies Japanese-American Situation" (p. 1), "Seeks Linguists" (p. 1)
The Northwest Times Vol. 3 No. 43 (May 28, 1949) (ddr-densho-229-210)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 3 No. 43 (May 28, 1949) (ddr-densho-229-210)
"Canada's Japanese Unit Offices Will be Shut as of July 31" (p. 1), "Three Newspapers Support Passage of Judd's Measure for Equality with Editorials" (p. 1), ""House for Hiroshima' Group Will Depart United States for Japan Friday, Jun 24" (p. 1).
The Northwest Times Vol. 4 No. 73 (September 13, 1950) (ddr-densho-229-242)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 4 No. 73 (September 13, 1950) (ddr-densho-229-242)
"President Truman Vetoes Walter Resolution, Calls It "Vague and Ill-Defined'; Urges Congress to Reconsider" (p. 1), "Kaiser & Frazier Will Manufacture Automobiles in Japan next January" (p. 1), "Convention Public Forum Will Probe JACL's "Blueprint for Tomorrow" (p. 1).
The Northwest Times Vol. 4 No. 102 (December 23, 1950) (ddr-densho-229-260)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 4 No. 102 (December 23, 1950) (ddr-densho-229-260)
"Chinese Fear Mass Removal of Their Kind" (p. 1), "Ex-U Aide Says Evacuation Book Led to Ouster" (p. 1), "Pushes Walter Bill" (p. 2).
The Northwest Times Vol. 3 No. 38 (May 11, 1949) (ddr-densho-229-205)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 3 No. 38 (May 11, 1949) (ddr-densho-229-205)
"Chinese OK Rider to Judd Measure" (p. 1), "Baptists Will Note Fiftieth Year Here" (p. 1), "List Contributors toward Local ADC Fund Drive" (p. 1).
The Northwest Times Vol. 5 No. 6 (January 20, 1951) (ddr-densho-229-267)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 5 No. 6 (January 20, 1951) (ddr-densho-229-267)
"Yorty's Bill Would End Racial Bias" (p. 1), "Loss Caused by Leasehold Sale Allowed Under Claims Act : ADC" (p. 1), "Tentative 3-Day Program Announced for '51 N.W. Young Buddhist Conclave" (p. 1).
The Northwest Times Vol. 2 No. 36 (April 24, 1948) (ddr-densho-229-104)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 2 No. 36 (April 24, 1948) (ddr-densho-229-104)
"Matsuoka Elected Chairman of Jackson Council" (p. 1), "Ex-Envoy to Japan Believes Time Ripe to Drop Ban on Japanese in Immigration, Naturalization Bill" (p. 1), "Hearings Open on H.R. 5004; Four Testify" (p .1),
The Northwest Times Vol. 3 No. 3 (January 8, 1949) (ddr-densho-229-170)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 3 No. 3 (January 8, 1949) (ddr-densho-229-170)
"House Receives Three Identical Bills for Equality in Naturalization" (p. 1), "Masaoka Signs Up As Lobbyist" (p. 1), "Truman Reaffirms Civil Rights Stand in Annual State of Union Message" (p. 2).
The Northwest Times Vol. 3 No. 17 (February 26, 1949) (ddr-densho-229-184)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 3 No. 17 (February 26, 1949) (ddr-densho-229-184)
"File-Even If You Lack Written Proof of Losses" (p. 1), "Judiciary Committee Favors Judd's Bill for Equality in Naturalization, Immigration" (p. 1).
The Northwest Times Vol. 3 No. 64 (August 10, 1949) (ddr-densho-229-231)
doc The Northwest Times Vol. 3 No. 64 (August 10, 1949) (ddr-densho-229-231)
"File Your Evacuation Losses Claims; JACL Open Night Tonight" (p. 1), "Job of Crushing Zaibatsu Ended; Board Dissolved" (p. 1), "Last Minute Senate Action Sought on Judd Bill or Walter Resolution" (p. 2).
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