Naturalization

Unlike other immigrants to the United States, Japanese and other Asians were not permitted to become naturalized American citizens until 1952. Under existing laws, naturalization was limited to "free white persons and to aliens of African nativity and to persons of African descent." Despite many attempts by Japanese immigrants (Issei) to gain citizenship, they were usually rejected on the grounds that the Issei were neither white nor black. The 1922 Supreme Court case Ozawa v. U.S. cemented the status of the issei as "aliens ineligible to citizenship" once and for all. It wasn't until 1952 with the passage of the Immigration and Nationality Act that Issei were finally allowed to become naturalized U.S. citizens.

Immigration and citizenship (435)
Naturalization (182)

Related articles from the Densho Encyclopedia :
Immigration Act of 1952, Naturalization Act of 1790, Ozawa v. United States, Tokutaro Slocum, Francis Walter

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182 items
Letter from Gordon K. Chapman to Ai Chih Tsai (ddr-densho-446-283)
doc Letter from Gordon K. Chapman to Ai Chih Tsai (ddr-densho-446-283)
Response to Tsai's letter with request for employment. Chapman will present offer to Japanese ministers conference. Note that others are waiting for positions.
Letter from Robert Cashman to Ryo Tsai (ddr-densho-446-282)
doc Letter from Robert Cashman to Ryo Tsai (ddr-densho-446-282)
Enclosed is a letter from Ai Chih Tsai. Request for update on the status of his need for a job
Letter from Ryo Tsai to Seido Ogawa (ddr-densho-446-289)
doc Letter from Ryo Tsai to Seido Ogawa (ddr-densho-446-289)
Ai Chih Tsai wants to work in a Japanese church, at least five years, possibly indefinitely. He would accept a church in Southern California or Seattle. Ryo would prefer Southern California but is glad to go to Seattle.
Letter from Seido Ogawa to Ryo Tsai (ddr-densho-446-292)
doc Letter from Seido Ogawa to Ryo Tsai (ddr-densho-446-292)
Ogawa will travel to San Diego on July 18 to meet with Ryo (Morikawa) Tsai and with Haruo Ishimaru.
Letter from Ryo Tsai to H.A. Blundin (ddr-densho-446-304)
doc Letter from Ryo Tsai to H.A. Blundin (ddr-densho-446-304)
Thank you for letter. Ai Chih Tsai has submitted his necessary paperwork to the American Consul in Shanghai and that his case would be forwarded to the State Department. Ai Chih Tsai's parents are both Formosans of Chinese descent but remained in Formosa after 1895. After V-J Day (Aug 15, 1945), Formosa reverted to China, and …
Letter from Ryo Tsai to Robert Cashman (ddr-densho-446-284)
doc Letter from Ryo Tsai to Robert Cashman (ddr-densho-446-284)
Situation is more complicated. Mixed information about next steps. Ai Chih Tsai will work with Shanghai Consulate and Ryo (Morikawa) Tsai will work with Immigration and Naturalization Service in Philadelphia. Ryo is trying to find Ai Chih a job through working with the Reverends Kikuchi, Ogawa, and Chapman (Presbyterian office in San Francisco)
Letter from Tei Utsunomiya, Secretary to Seido Ogawa, to Ryo Tsai (ddr-densho-446-298)
doc Letter from Tei Utsunomiya, Secretary to Seido Ogawa, to Ryo Tsai (ddr-densho-446-298)
Arrangements for Ryo (Morikawa) Tsai to travel to Los Angeles to meet with Miss Leung on July 25. Seido Ogawa will meet Ryo at the train station.
Letter from Seido Ogawa to Ryo Tsai (ddr-densho-446-307)
doc Letter from Seido Ogawa to Ryo Tsai (ddr-densho-446-307)
Ogawa met with Robert Cashman to discuss employment for Ai Chih Tsai. Request for Ai Chih Tsai to write to them for further assistance.
Letter from Seido Ogawa to Ryo Tsai (ddr-densho-446-286)
doc Letter from Seido Ogawa to Ryo Tsai (ddr-densho-446-286)
Ogawa is working on a job for Ai Chih Tsai. Query if Ai Chih is interested in a west coast church in Southern California or Seattle
Letter from Lt. Col. Merillat Moses to Immigration and Naturalization Service (ddr-densho-446-160)
doc Letter from Lt. Col. Merillat Moses to Immigration and Naturalization Service (ddr-densho-446-160)
Letter in support of Tsai's requests to change his status to friendly alien. As Tsai's immediate chief, Moses has a strong personal interest in this case and requests that every effort be made to change Tsai's registration.
Letter from Ryo Tsai to United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration (UNRRA) (ddr-densho-446-299)
doc Letter from Ryo Tsai to United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration (UNRRA) (ddr-densho-446-299)
Request for assistance with Ai Chih Tsai's visa application. Request for documentation of Ai Chih Tsai's travel arrangements with UNRRA as well as any record of conversations regarding his return to the US. US Consulate in Shanghai and US State Department must approve Ai Chih Tsai's visa for him to return.
Letter from Robert Cashman to Ryo Tsai (ddr-densho-446-302)
doc Letter from Robert Cashman to Ryo Tsai (ddr-densho-446-302)
Thank you for letter. Mr. Shimadzu may not be of legal help, but he may have some helpful ideas.
Letter from Robert Cashman to Ryo Tsai (ddr-densho-446-300)
doc Letter from Robert Cashman to Ryo Tsai (ddr-densho-446-300)
Introduction for Ai Chih Tsai to write to Rev. Misaki Shimadzu in Shanghai for assistance with visa.
Letter from Ryo Tsai to Albert W. Palmer (ddr-densho-446-277)
doc Letter from Ryo Tsai to Albert W. Palmer (ddr-densho-446-277)
Request for assistance returning Ai Chih Tsai to the United States. Immigrant quota from China is 150 with thousands waiting to immigrate. Ai Chih Tsai needs assurance of employment.
Carbon copy letter from Ai Chih Tsai to J.Y. Lai (ddr-densho-446-414)
doc Carbon copy letter from Ai Chih Tsai to J.Y. Lai (ddr-densho-446-414)
Responding to Mr. Lai's letter about the history of Christians in Taiwan. (3 pages)
Letter from Robert Cashman to Ryo Tsai (ddr-densho-446-293)
doc Letter from Robert Cashman to Ryo Tsai (ddr-densho-446-293)
Employment offer from Chicago Theological Seminary is bona fide and offered in good faith to satisfy immigration requirements, though Cashman has it in mind that Ai Chih Tsai may not accept it. All is well in Chicago.
Letter from Ai Chih Tsai to Immigration and Naturalization Service (ddr-densho-446-117)
doc Letter from Ai Chih Tsai to Immigration and Naturalization Service (ddr-densho-446-117)
Request for assistance changing Tsai's status to Chinese Formosan, friendly alien, and a path to U.S. citizenship. Enclosed copies of previous request to Departments of State and Justice along with complete copies of these correspondences.
Letter from H.A. Blundin, UNRRA, to Ryo Tsai (ddr-densho-446-303)
doc Letter from H.A. Blundin, UNRRA, to Ryo Tsai (ddr-densho-446-303)
Clarification of situation. Ai Chih Tsai has to use quota system as a Chinese citizen wanting to immigrate to US. There is quota availability at this time. UNRRA is in contact with Shanghai and will do all it can.
Letter from Seido Ogawa to Ryo Tsai (ddr-densho-446-297)
doc Letter from Seido Ogawa to Ryo Tsai (ddr-densho-446-297)
International Institute contacted Ogawa with 3 questions about Ai Chih Tsai situation. Invitation for Ryo (Morikawa) Tsai to visit Los Angeles to discuss the matter with Miss Leung and Miss Durward of International Institute
Letter from Ryo Tsai to Robert Cashman (ddr-densho-446-291)
doc Letter from Ryo Tsai to Robert Cashman (ddr-densho-446-291)
Ryo (Morikawa) Tsai received letter from Immigration and Naturalization Service office in Philadelphia saying that she cannot petition for Ai Chih Tsai's return since he is a Chinese citizen. Applying for immigration is the only route. Ai Chih Tsai will stay in US at least 5 years and wants to work in a West Coast church.
Letter from Ryo Tsai to Robert Cashman (ddr-densho-446-295)
doc Letter from Ryo Tsai to Robert Cashman (ddr-densho-446-295)
Thank you very much for job offer at Chicago Theological Seminary for Ai Chih Tsai. Hopeful that this will be a deciding factor in his obtaining a visa. ACT wrote that there is no updates on his case from Shanghai.
Letter from Gordon K. Chapman to Ai Chih Tsai (ddr-densho-446-273)
doc Letter from Gordon K. Chapman to Ai Chih Tsai (ddr-densho-446-273)
Chapman agrees to find a specific field for Ai Chih Tsai. Request for full details of Tsai's Christian ministry in the US.
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