Education

Schools were quickly organized in the concentration camps, but they suffered from crude facilities and lack of teaching materials. Instruction was given for nursery through high school, and adult education was offered. Trained teachers were in short supply, however, and uncertified Japanese Americans with college degrees often filled in. The War Relocation Authority (WRA) deliberately emphasized Americanization in the education program. Some found it painfully ironic to watch incarcerated youth recite the Pledge of Allegiance.

Education (782)

782 items
Manzanar, staff housing (ddr-densho-343-56)
img Manzanar, staff housing (ddr-densho-343-56)
A teacher at Manzanar posing in a swim suit in the staff housing gardens.
Toy Loan Library (ddr-densho-342-4)
doc Toy Loan Library (ddr-densho-342-4)
Booklet describing the Manzanar Toy Loan Project organized by Ruth Beckwith, Senior Elementary Teacher.
Letter (with envelope) to Molly Wilson from Sandie Saito (June 7, 1944) (ddr-janm-1-21)
doc Letter (with envelope) to Molly Wilson from Sandie Saito (June 7, 1944) (ddr-janm-1-21)
Handwritten letter to Molly Wilson from Sandie Saito (June 7, 1944). Envelope is postmarked June 7, 1944 from Chicago, Illinois.
Letter (with envelope) to Molly Wilson from Violet Saito (July 1, 1943) (ddr-janm-1-75)
doc Letter (with envelope) to Molly Wilson from Violet Saito (July 1, 1943) (ddr-janm-1-75)
Handwritten letter to Molly Wilson from Violet Saito (July 1, 1943). Envelope is postmarked July 14, 1943 from the Granada (Amache) Incarceration Camp in Amache, Colorado.
Letter (with envelope) to Molly Wilson from Chiyeko Akahoshi (March 25, 1943) (ddr-janm-1-105)
doc Letter (with envelope) to Molly Wilson from Chiyeko Akahoshi (March 25, 1943) (ddr-janm-1-105)
Handwritten letter to Molly Wilson from Chiyeko Akahoshi (March 25, 1943). Envelope is postmarked March 26, 1943 from the Manzanar Incarceration Camp in Manzanar, California.
Greeting card (with envelope) to Molly Wilson from Mary Murakami (July 1, 1943) (ddr-janm-1-34)
doc Greeting card (with envelope) to Molly Wilson from Mary Murakami (July 1, 1943) (ddr-janm-1-34)
Greeting card to Molly Wilson from Mary Murakami (July 1, 1943). White card with illustration in green of a sign and cacti. The sign reads "Greetings from Poston" on the front of card. Envelope is postmarked July 2, 1943 from the Poston (Colorado River) Incarceration Camp in Parker, Arizona.
Letter (with envelope) to Molly Wilson from Chiyeko Akahoshi (June 8, 1942) (ddr-janm-1-102)
doc Letter (with envelope) to Molly Wilson from Chiyeko Akahoshi (June 8, 1942) (ddr-janm-1-102)
Handwritten letter to Molly Wilson from Chiyeko Akahoshi (June 8, 1942). Envelope is postmarked June 15, 1942 from the Manzanar Incarceration Camp in Manzanar, California.
Letter (with envelope) to Molly Wilson from Sandie Saito (April 3, 1943) (ddr-janm-1-15)
doc Letter (with envelope) to Molly Wilson from Sandie Saito (April 3, 1943) (ddr-janm-1-15)
Handwritten letter to Molly Wilson from Sandie Saito (April 3, 1943). Envelope is postmarked April 5, 1943 from the Granada (Amache) Incarceration Camp in Amache, Colorado.
Letter (with envelope) to Molly Wilson from Violet Saito (June 6, 1943) (ddr-janm-1-74)
doc Letter (with envelope) to Molly Wilson from Violet Saito (June 6, 1943) (ddr-janm-1-74)
Handwritten letter to Mollie Wilson from Violet Saito (June 6, 1943). Envelope is postmarked June 7, 1943 from the Granada (Amache) Incarceration Camp in Amache, Colorado.
Letter (with envelope) to Molly Wilson from Violet Saito (March 26, 1943) (ddr-janm-1-73)
doc Letter (with envelope) to Molly Wilson from Violet Saito (March 26, 1943) (ddr-janm-1-73)
Handwritten letter to Mollie Wilson from Violet Saito (March 26, 1943). Envelope is postmarked March 31, 1943 from the Granada (Amache) Incarceration Camp in Amache, Colorado.
Students walking to barracks (ddr-densho-151-360)
img Students walking to barracks (ddr-densho-151-360)
Original caption: Manzanar Relocation Center, Manzanar, California. Pre-school children on the way to their barrack homes from morning class at this War Relocation Authority center for evacuees of Japanese ancestry.
Students studying in shade (ddr-densho-151-365)
img Students studying in shade (ddr-densho-151-365)
Original caption: Manzanar Relocation Center, Manzanar, California. An elementary school with voluntary attendance has been established with volunteer evacuee teachers, most of whom are college graduates. No school equipment is as yet obtainable and available tables and benches are used. However, classes are often held in the shade of the barrack building.
Japanese Americans studying in classroom (ddr-densho-151-367)
img Japanese Americans studying in classroom (ddr-densho-151-367)
Original caption: Manzanar Relocation Center, Manzanar, California. An elementary school with voluntary attendance has been established with volunteer evacuee teachers, most of whom are college graduates. No school equipment is as yet obtainable and available tables and benches are used.
Fourth grade students (ddr-densho-152-20)
img Fourth grade students (ddr-densho-152-20)
A group of fourth grade students outside the Heart Mountain Elementary School building. Original caption: Mutsu Shimada, Melvin Kani, Kenneth Aratani, Franklin Kawanami.
Fourth grade students (ddr-densho-152-19)
img Fourth grade students (ddr-densho-152-19)
A group of fourth grade students outside the Heart Mountain Elementary School building.
Fourth grade class (ddr-densho-152-16)
img Fourth grade class (ddr-densho-152-16)
Fourth grade class with teacher, Evelyn Dell, pose in front of the Heart Mountain Elementary School building.
End of school celebration (ddr-densho-152-31)
img End of school celebration (ddr-densho-152-31)
Members of the fourth grade class perform in the last day of school celebration.
Heart Mountain high school principal (ddr-densho-152-28)
img Heart Mountain high school principal (ddr-densho-152-28)
Jack Corbett, principal of the high school at Heart Mountain concentration camp.
Evelyn Dell in front of the teacher's office (ddr-densho-152-25)
img Evelyn Dell in front of the teacher's office (ddr-densho-152-25)
Original caption: "Taken in front of office at Green Gable Court."
Painting of a Manzanar High School gym class (ddr-manz-2-47)
img Painting of a Manzanar High School gym class (ddr-manz-2-47)
Caption: "Did you ever see such individual dress attire? This is a high school gym class I ran into on the dusty field next to block 7. Facing each other in a circle, they would clap their hands, say something, laugh. Off in the corner another class came dashing by."
Painting of an administration scene at Manzanar (ddr-manz-2-43)
img Painting of an administration scene at Manzanar (ddr-manz-2-43)
Caption: "I visited Dr. Carter today because school has opened and I am to make drawings of class scenes. It seemed a hundred people were rushing in and out of her office. All over her desk; the telephone rang all the time."
Painting of the nursery school at Manzanar (ddr-manz-2-44)
img Painting of the nursery school at Manzanar (ddr-manz-2-44)
Caption: "It's nap time, but there's more noise than rest. The youngsters wriggle around, won't lie still. The teachers look exhausted. The scam in the foreground turns around. 'Hiya popa, watcha doin'?' Rest time in the nursery class."
Painting of students going to class (ddr-manz-2-53)
img Painting of students going to class (ddr-manz-2-53)
Caption: "Students hurry to the classes as the belling's on this foggy morning."
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