Education

Schools were quickly organized in the concentration camps, but they suffered from crude facilities and lack of teaching materials. Instruction was given for nursery through high school, and adult education was offered. Trained teachers were in short supply, however, and uncertified Japanese Americans with college degrees often filled in. The War Relocation Authority (WRA) deliberately emphasized Americanization in the education program. Some found it painfully ironic to watch incarcerated youth recite the Pledge of Allegiance.

Education (782)

782 items
Fifth-grade girls playing (ddr-densho-37-77)
img Fifth-grade girls playing (ddr-densho-37-77)
Original WRA caption: The girls of the lower fifth grade, taught by Mrs. Rhoda McGarva, are here shown playing "Two Deep."
Nursery school child (ddr-densho-37-164)
img Nursery school child (ddr-densho-37-164)
Original WRA caption: Little nursery school girl singing "Twinkle, Twinkle Little Star.
High school graduation (ddr-densho-37-325)
img High school graduation (ddr-densho-37-325)
Original WRA caption: Tule Lake Segregation Center, Newell, California. Guy Ceek, assistant high school principal of Tri-State High School at Tule Lake Center, hands out honor awards at commencement exercises June 16. This was the first commencement since segregation.
Kindergarten class (ddr-densho-64-4)
img Kindergarten class (ddr-densho-64-4)
Mako Nakagawa is in the second row, third from left.
Autograph book (ddr-densho-64-6)
doc Autograph book (ddr-densho-64-6)
Mako Nakagawa collected signatures from classmates and teachers when preparing to leave Crystal City internment camp, Texas.
Girls Glee Club (ddr-densho-159-183)
img Girls Glee Club (ddr-densho-159-183)
The Amache High School choir director was Lowell M. Jackson.
High school orchestra (ddr-densho-159-181)
img High school orchestra (ddr-densho-159-181)
The Amache High School orchestra conductor was Charles Hinman.
Student essay:
doc Student essay: "Rain" (ddr-densho-171-147)
Excerpt: "The black hovering clouds indicated rain -- heavy rain. The day appeared like night, darker and darker it got."
Student essay:
doc Student essay: "WAR!!!" (ddr-densho-171-118)
Excerpt: "War, the root of all evil has again descented upon humanity."
Student essay (ddr-densho-171-176)
doc Student essay (ddr-densho-171-176)
Excerpt: "I was a little girl in pigtails when I had my first experience with false fingernails."
Letter from a camp teacher to her family (ddr-densho-171-4)
doc Letter from a camp teacher to her family (ddr-densho-171-4)
Excerpt: "First, thank you for the many packages. The hangers and lamp came Saturday." Sent from Minidoka concentration camp, Idaho.
Student essay:
doc Student essay: "War" (ddr-densho-171-99)
Excerpt: "War is hell! Innocent children, men and women are killed by bombs, billions of dollars are spent for ships, planes, and guns..."
Student essay (ddr-densho-171-159)
doc Student essay (ddr-densho-171-159)
Excerpt: "The sudden return of the many students who were formerly attending N.Y.A. school settle throughout the country struck me rather strange."
Letter from a camp teacher to her family (ddr-densho-171-47)
doc Letter from a camp teacher to her family (ddr-densho-171-47)
Excerpt: "Jerry has officially received his unsatisfactory rating and will appeal within 15 days." Sent from Minidoka concentration camp, Idaho.
Letter from a camp teacher to her family (ddr-densho-171-67)
doc Letter from a camp teacher to her family (ddr-densho-171-67)
Excerpt: "I've just taken care of my income tax. When I get the Idaho forms I'll be all set." Sent from Minidoka concentration camp, Idaho.
Student essay (ddr-densho-171-107)
doc Student essay (ddr-densho-171-107)
Excerpt: "I think that war isi the most useless way to settle problems among nations, but as long as there are people on this world there will be war."
Student essay
doc Student essay "Eighteen Seventy Five" (ddr-densho-171-131)
Excerpt: "A low fast enemy plane swoops down upon the lone American outpost somwhere in the South Pacific, firing all six guns in unison."
Letter from a camp teacher to her family (ddr-densho-171-72)
doc Letter from a camp teacher to her family (ddr-densho-171-72)
Excerpt: "Not much has happened since I last wrote, but the weekend is booked full and I'm not sure when I'll get another chance." Sent from Minidoka concentration camp, Idaho.
Student essay (ddr-densho-171-168)
doc Student essay (ddr-densho-171-168)
Excerpt: "Some people think that war is just to have power over all nations and kill and make destruction as others."
Letter from a camp teacher to her family (ddr-densho-171-73)
doc Letter from a camp teacher to her family (ddr-densho-171-73)
Excerpt: "Summer seems officially here today. The past week has been very cold with the most persistent high wind I've seen." Sent from Minidoka concentration camp, Idaho.
Letter from a camp teacher to her family (ddr-densho-171-35)
doc Letter from a camp teacher to her family (ddr-densho-171-35)
Excerpt: "It seems the excitement has been going all week." Sent from Minidoka concentration camp, Idaho.
Student essay:
doc Student essay: "Killed in Action" (ddr-densho-171-114)
Excerpt: "People only knew him as a dissipated boy whom no one would associate with, except his few degenerate friends."
Student essay (ddr-densho-171-142)
doc Student essay (ddr-densho-171-142)
Excerpt: "'Dec. 7, 1941, Pearl Harbor attacked by Japs' was the news that came from the commentators throughout the nation."
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