Expatriation/repatriation/deportation

From 1943 to 1946, over 20,000 Japanese Americans applied to leave the United States for Japan in a process called "repatriation" (for Issei as non-citizens) or "expatriation" (for Nisei as citizens). Some Issei considered repatriation preferable to remaining in a country that had long discriminated against them. For Nisei, who had rarely been to Japan, expatriation meant renouncing their U.S. citizenship. Some were pressured to do so by family members or extremists; others were bitter about their mistreatment by the government. In total, only 4,724 ended up leaving for Japan directly from the camps and many eventually returned to the U.S. Nearly all Nisei who wanted to were able to regain their citizenship, although the process was long and difficult.

World War II (66)
Resistance and dissidence (73)
Expatriation/repatriation/deportation (162)

Related articles from the Densho Encyclopedia :
Joe Kurihara

162 items
The Newell Star, Vol. I, No. 36 (November 2, 1944) (ddr-densho-284-39)
doc The Newell Star, Vol. I, No. 36 (November 2, 1944) (ddr-densho-284-39)
Selected article titles: "Repatriates Now Being Resettled in Manchukuo" (p. 1), "WRA Takes Step to Close Leupp Center" (p. 1), and "3 Japanese Captives Shot by Denver Hospital Guard" (pp. 1-2).
The Newell Star, Special Edition (November 26, 1945) (ddr-densho-284-102)
doc The Newell Star, Special Edition (November 26, 1945) (ddr-densho-284-102)
Special publication titled "Second Japan Sailing: Departure of Family Groups Set by Justice Department."
The Newell Star, Vol. I, No. 6 (April 13, 1944) (ddr-densho-284-11)
doc The Newell Star, Vol. I, No. 6 (April 13, 1944) (ddr-densho-284-11)
Selected article titles: "Co-ordinators Tender Resignations: Return to Normal State Given Reason for Action" (p. 1, 3), "H. Black Quells Segregation and Repatriation Rumors" (p. 1, 4), "Reserve Corps Status Defined" (p. 1), and "Fiscal Section Reveals 5011 Colonists on WRA Payroll" (p. 2).
The Newell Star, Extra (October 26, 1945) (ddr-densho-284-94)
doc The Newell Star, Extra (October 26, 1945) (ddr-densho-284-94)
Special publication titled "From Department of Justice: Repatriation Announcement Made."
The Newell Star, Vol. II, No. 44 (November 2, 1945) (ddr-densho-284-96)
doc The Newell Star, Vol. II, No. 44 (November 2, 1945) (ddr-densho-284-96)
Selected article titles: "Repatriate News Expected Soon" (p. 1), "New Asst. Project Director: Shelly to Expand Tule Relocation Services" (p. 1), and "Establish Housing Project for 500 Near Sacramento" (p. 2).
The Newell Star, Extra (December 10, 1945) (ddr-densho-284-107)
doc The Newell Star, Extra (December 10, 1945) (ddr-densho-284-107)
Special publication titled "Justice Dept. Announces Policy on Repatriation."
The Newell Star, Vol. II, No. 50 (December 14, 1945) (ddr-densho-284-108)
doc The Newell Star, Vol. II, No. 50 (December 14, 1945) (ddr-densho-284-108)
Selected article titles: "Tule Lake Figures: Over 5500 Relocate Since First of Year" (p. 1), "Nisei Merchant Marine Relates Trip to Japan" (p. 2), "Monday, Dec. 17: Deadline for Repatriates' Property Disposal Is Set" (p. 2), and "Former Residents Write of Conditions in East" (p. 3).
The Newell Star, Vol. I, No. 16 (June 15, 1944) (ddr-densho-284-23)
doc The Newell Star, Vol. I, No. 16 (June 15, 1944) (ddr-densho-284-23)
Selected article titles: "Graduation for 120 Seniors on Friday" (p. 1), "Repatriation Requests in Transit to Japan" (PP. 1-2), and "All Meetings, Entertainments Must Be Registered with Police" (p. 2).
The Newell Star, Vol. I, No. 5 (April 6, 1944) (ddr-densho-284-10)
doc The Newell Star, Vol. I, No. 5 (April 6, 1944) (ddr-densho-284-10)
Selected article titles: "Sentence Nine Draft Evaders" (p. 1), "Duplicate Forms Needed for Repatriation-Records" (p. 1), "Personnel Mess Fire Caused by Overheating" (p. 2), and "Groundwork Laid for Tule Lake Baseball Association" (p. 6).
The Newell Star, Vol. I, No. 1 (March 9, 1944) (ddr-densho-284-6)
doc The Newell Star, Vol. I, No. 1 (March 9, 1944) (ddr-densho-284-6)
Selected article titles: "Extravagant Use of Rice Must Be Curtailed - Hayward" (p. 1), "74 Come from Poston Center" (p. 1), and "Myer Refutes Manzanar Rumor on Expatriation" (p. 3).
The Newell Star, Vol. II, No. 52 (December 28, 1945) (ddr-densho-284-110)
doc The Newell Star, Vol. II, No. 52 (December 28, 1945) (ddr-densho-284-110)
Selected article titles: "Tule Parolees to Be Granted Hearings Soon" (p. 1), "Justice Dept.: Renunciants May Now Apply for Hearings" (pp. 1-2), "3550 Voluntary Repatriates En Route to Japan" (p. 1), and "Need for More Workers Announced by Placement" (p. 2).
The Newell Star, Vol. II, No. 6 (February 9, 1945) (ddr-densho-284-55)
doc The Newell Star, Vol. II, No. 6 (February 9, 1945) (ddr-densho-284-55)
Selected article titles: "Notice to Prospective Repatriates Received" (pp. 1-2), "Equal Treatment Assured Students" (p. 1), and "Canada Uncertain on Segregation" (p. 1).
The Newell Star, Extra (November 17, 1945) (ddr-densho-284-100)
doc The Newell Star, Extra (November 17, 1945) (ddr-densho-284-100)
Special publication titled "Justice Department Repatriation: First Departure Next Friday."
Statement by Dillon S. Myer about constitutional principles involved in the relocation program (ddr-densho-381-15)
doc Statement by Dillon S. Myer about constitutional principles involved in the relocation program (ddr-densho-381-15)
A statement from Dillon S. Myer, Director of the War Relocation Authority, presented before the Costello Sub-committee of the House Committee on Un-American Activities. Myer discusses the benefits of leave regulations in relation to the constitutionality of the evacuation and relocation program.
Card from Juro Nakamura to Tamako Inouye (ddr-densho-383-548)
doc Card from Juro Nakamura to Tamako Inouye (ddr-densho-383-548)
Farewell note before Nakamura leaves on August 30th for repatriation.
Relocating a People (ddr-densho-356-1012)
doc Relocating a People (ddr-densho-356-1012)
Brochure encouraging employers to hire Japanese Americans held in WRA camps.
Relocation of Japanese-Americans (ddr-densho-356-847)
doc Relocation of Japanese-Americans (ddr-densho-356-847)
Pamphlet produced by the War Relocation Authority describing the forced removal of Japanese Americans from the West Coast, conditions in camp, and the WRA's role.
Yuriko Domoto's Memorandum of Understanding (ddr-densho-356-822)
doc Yuriko Domoto's Memorandum of Understanding (ddr-densho-356-822)
Yuriko Domoto Tsukada's memorandum of understanding requesting permanent leave from Amache.
Pertinent Facts About Relocation Centers and Japanese-Americans (ddr-densho-356-1013)
doc Pertinent Facts About Relocation Centers and Japanese-Americans (ddr-densho-356-1013)
Brochure of random facts about Japanese-Americans produced by the War Relocation Authority.
Notice and General Instructions to Japanese Seeking Repatriation (ddr-densho-356-976)
doc Notice and General Instructions to Japanese Seeking Repatriation (ddr-densho-356-976)
Information from the Western Defense Command and the Wartime Civil Control Administration on how to apply for repatriation to Japan.
Hiroshi Kashiwagi Interview Segment 5 (ddr-densho-1002-4-5)
vh Hiroshi Kashiwagi Interview Segment 5 (ddr-densho-1002-4-5)
Discussion of decision in camp to renounce U.S. citizenship, family's near-deportation to Japan

This interview was conducted by sisters Emiko and Chizuko Omori for their 1999 documentary, Rabbit in the Moon, about the Japanese American resisters of conscience in the World War II incarceration camps. As a result, the interviews in this collection are typically …

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