Expatriation/repatriation/deportation

From 1943 to 1946, over 20,000 Japanese Americans applied to leave the United States for Japan in a process called "repatriation" (for Issei as non-citizens) or "expatriation" (for Nisei as citizens). Some Issei considered repatriation preferable to remaining in a country that had long discriminated against them. For Nisei, who had rarely been to Japan, expatriation meant renouncing their U.S. citizenship. Some were pressured to do so by family members or extremists; others were bitter about their mistreatment by the government. In total, only 4,724 ended up leaving for Japan directly from the camps and many eventually returned to the U.S. Nearly all Nisei who wanted to were able to regain their citizenship, although the process was long and difficult.

World War II (66)
Resistance and dissidence (73)
Expatriation/repatriation/deportation (162)

Related articles from the Densho Encyclopedia :
Joe Kurihara

162 items
Frank Sumida Interview Segment 33 (ddr-densho-1000-261-33)
vh Frank Sumida Interview Segment 33 (ddr-densho-1000-261-33)
First impressions of Japan

This material is based upon work assisted by a grant from the Department of the Interior, National Park Service. Any opinions, finding, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the Department of the Interior.

Arthur Ogami Interview Segment 32 (ddr-densho-1000-154-32)
vh Arthur Ogami Interview Segment 32 (ddr-densho-1000-154-32)
Disembarking in Japan: staying behind at the port to help unload baggage
Arthur Ogami Interview Segment 27 (ddr-densho-1000-154-27)
vh Arthur Ogami Interview Segment 27 (ddr-densho-1000-154-27)
Undergoing an interview prior to expatriation: questioned regarding possibly joining the Japanese Imperial Army
Gene Akutsu Segment 35 (ddr-densho-1000-1-35)
vh Gene Akutsu Segment 35 (ddr-densho-1000-1-35)
Deciding between being considered a "repatriate" or an "expatriate"
Tetsujiro
vh Tetsujiro "Tex" Nakamura Interview Segment 6 (ddr-densho-1000-263-6)
Making the decision to help renunciants regain their U.S. citizenship

This material is based upon work assisted by a grant from the Department of the Interior, National Park Service. Any opinions, finding, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the Department of …

Tom Akashi Interview Segment 34 (ddr-densho-1000-164-34)
vh Tom Akashi Interview Segment 34 (ddr-densho-1000-164-34)
Observing changes in the pro-Japan organizations during the institution of the renunciation program
Tom Akashi Interview Segment 35 (ddr-densho-1000-164-35)
vh Tom Akashi Interview Segment 35 (ddr-densho-1000-164-35)
Father arrested by the FBI and removed from Tule Lake along with sixty-nine others
Tom Akashi Interview Segment 44 (ddr-densho-1000-164-44)
vh Tom Akashi Interview Segment 44 (ddr-densho-1000-164-44)
Life in Japan, postwar: working for a land reclamation project, then finding a job with a Japanese construction company as an interpreter
Tom Akashi Interview Segment 43 (ddr-densho-1000-164-43)
vh Tom Akashi Interview Segment 43 (ddr-densho-1000-164-43)
Initial experiences in Japan: freezing cold, living on army surplus rations
Tom Akashi Interview Segment 23 (ddr-densho-1000-164-23)
vh Tom Akashi Interview Segment 23 (ddr-densho-1000-164-23)
Father decides to volunteer to go to Japan, wife and children insist on accompanying him
Tom Akashi Interview Segment 37 (ddr-densho-1000-164-37)
vh Tom Akashi Interview Segment 37 (ddr-densho-1000-164-37)
Witnessing the frenzy of people applying to renounce their U.S. citizenship
Tom Akashi Interview Segment 24 (ddr-densho-1000-164-24)
vh Tom Akashi Interview Segment 24 (ddr-densho-1000-164-24)
Feeling shocked upon hearing of family's decision to go to Japan; labeled a "disloyal" by peers
Tom Akashi Interview Segment 38 (ddr-densho-1000-164-38)
vh Tom Akashi Interview Segment 38 (ddr-densho-1000-164-38)
Mother communicates via coded letters to try to discover father's whereabouts after his removal from Tule Lake
Tom Akashi Interview Segment 45 (ddr-densho-1000-164-45)
vh Tom Akashi Interview Segment 45 (ddr-densho-1000-164-45)
Working for the Saga Prefecture military government, encouraged by boss to return to the United States
Tom Akashi Interview Segment 36 (ddr-densho-1000-164-36)
vh Tom Akashi Interview Segment 36 (ddr-densho-1000-164-36)
Personal feelings after father's arrest: angry, but "kind of proud"
Tom Akashi Interview Segment 41 (ddr-densho-1000-164-41)
vh Tom Akashi Interview Segment 41 (ddr-densho-1000-164-41)
Preparing for life in Japan: learning the language, feeling worried
Tom Akashi Interview Segment 42 (ddr-densho-1000-164-42)
vh Tom Akashi Interview Segment 42 (ddr-densho-1000-164-42)
Arrival in Japan: confronted with poverty and despair: "it was a dismal, dismal situation"
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