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Expatriation/repatriation/deportation

From 1943 to 1946, over 20,000 Japanese Americans applied to leave the United States for Japan in a process called "repatriation" (for Issei as non-citizens) or "expatriation" (for Nisei as citizens). Some Issei considered repatriation preferable to remaining in a country that had long discriminated against them. For Nisei, who had rarely been to Japan, expatriation meant renouncing their U.S. citizenship. Some were pressured to do so by family members or extremists; others were bitter about their mistreatment by the government. In total, only 4,724 ended up leaving for Japan directly from the camps and many eventually returned to the U.S. Nearly all Nisei who wanted to were able to regain their citizenship, although the process was long and difficult.

World War II (215)
Resistance and dissidence (80)
Expatriation/repatriation/deportation (201)

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201 items
Letter from Wayne M. Collins, Attorney-at-Law, March 27, 1950 (ddr-csujad-55-2259)
doc Letter from Wayne M. Collins, Attorney-at-Law, March 27, 1950 (ddr-csujad-55-2259)
Correspondence and update from attorney Wayne Collins regarding the status of mass equity suits for Japanese Americans who renounced their U.S. citizenship during their incarceration during World War II. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: sac_jaac_2362
Memo from W.W. Woodbury, American Vice Consul, to Masako Adachi, September 21, 1951 (ddr-csujad-55-2250)
doc Memo from W.W. Woodbury, American Vice Consul, to Masako Adachi, September 21, 1951 (ddr-csujad-55-2250)
Memorandum of understanding from W.W. Woodbury to Masako Adachi regarding her application for permit for exit from Japan. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: sac_jaac_2353
Label used for repatriation baggage (ddr-csujad-55-1490)
doc Label used for repatriation baggage (ddr-csujad-55-1490)
Label used for luggage of former internees during repatriation. From the Mary F. Clark scrapbook, "Before I Forget, 1942-1947," page 130. See also sac_jaac_1334 through sac_jaac_1529. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: sac_jaac_1492
Letter from Akio Adachi to Sio, October 9, 1951 (ddr-csujad-55-2248)
doc Letter from Akio Adachi to Sio, October 9, 1951 (ddr-csujad-55-2248)
Correspondence from Aki [Akio Adachi] to Sio [Masako Adachi?] regarding her travel from Japan to the United States, family affairs, and Akio's work. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: sac_jaac_2351
Letter from Tetsujiro Nakamura, Tule Lake Defense Committee, to Masako Adachi, January 21, 1949 (ddr-csujad-55-2260)
doc Letter from Tetsujiro Nakamura, Tule Lake Defense Committee, to Masako Adachi, January 21, 1949 (ddr-csujad-55-2260)
Correspondence from Tetsujiro Nakamura to Masako Adachi regarding the cancellation of renunciation and restoration of citizenship for plaintiffs and financial issues involved in the cases. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: sac_jaac_2363
Petitions from Temporary Council of Block Chairmen on behalf of  the Japanese nationals of Heart Mountain Relocation Project (ddr-csujad-55-878)
doc Petitions from Temporary Council of Block Chairmen on behalf of the Japanese nationals of Heart Mountain Relocation Project (ddr-csujad-55-878)
Petition request for medical supplies, food for those on a special diet, release of non-propaganda Japanese films, clothing allowances, release and shipment of cameras and long-wave radios, increased vegetables, spending money, communication with relatives in Japan, equal treatment as Germans and Italians, and repatriation instructions. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization …
Japanese repatriation on the Liner Matsonian (ddr-csujad-55-1495)
img Japanese repatriation on the Liner Matsonian (ddr-csujad-55-1495)
Scrapbook page containing a black and white photograph of Japanese internees boarding the steam liner, Matsonian, about to be repatriated to Japan. From the Mary F. Clark scrapbook, "Before I Forget, 1942-1947," page 134. See also sac_jaac_1334 through sac_jaac_1529. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: sac_jaac_1497
Memo from the Foreign Service of the United States of America to Masako Adachi, September 4, 1951 (ddr-csujad-55-2309)
doc Memo from the Foreign Service of the United States of America to Masako Adachi, September 4, 1951 (ddr-csujad-55-2309)
Memorandum of understanding from the Foreign Service of the United States to Masako Adachi regarding her passport and notification of departure from Japan. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: sac_jaac_2414
Menu from the S.S. President Cleveland (ddr-csujad-55-2253)
doc Menu from the S.S. President Cleveland (ddr-csujad-55-2253)
Dinner menu served on board the S.S. President Cleveland sailing from Japan to the United States. Cover includes an illustration of Spanish dancers and musicians. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: sac_jaac_2356
Memo from Thomas H. Murfin, American Vice Consul, to Masako Adachi, October 11, 1950 (ddr-csujad-55-2256)
doc Memo from Thomas H. Murfin, American Vice Consul, to Masako Adachi, October 11, 1950 (ddr-csujad-55-2256)
Memorandum of understanding from Thomas Murfin to Masako Adachi regarding Adachi's application for a passport. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: sac_jaac_2359
Letter from Masako Adachi to Foreign Service of the U.S. of America, August 29, 1951 (ddr-csujad-55-2251)
doc Letter from Masako Adachi to Foreign Service of the U.S. of America, August 29, 1951 (ddr-csujad-55-2251)
Correspondence from Masako Adachi to the United States Foreign Service regarding Adachi's travel and repatriation to the United States. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: sac_jaac_2354
Supplemental affidavit to be submitted with passport applications of Japanese
doc Supplemental affidavit to be submitted with passport applications of Japanese "renunciants" (ddr-csujad-55-2308)
Affidavit form for individuals of Japanese ancestry who renounced their American citizenship during World War II. Form partially completed by Masako Adachi. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: sac_jaac_2413
Hirayama family aboard the Liner Matsonian (ddr-csujad-55-1496)
img Hirayama family aboard the Liner Matsonian (ddr-csujad-55-1496)
Scrapbook page containing a black and white photograph of the Hirayama family aboard the steam liner, Matsonian, as they are repatriated to Japan. From the Mary F. Clark scrapbook, "Before I Forget, 1942-1947," page 135. See also sac_jaac_1334 through sac_jaac_1529. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: sac_jaac_1498
Memo from Richard B. Finn to Masako Adachi, January 10, 1950 (ddr-csujad-55-2262)
doc Memo from Richard B. Finn to Masako Adachi, January 10, 1950 (ddr-csujad-55-2262)
Memorandum of understanding from Richard Finn to Masako Adachi regarding voting certificates. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: sac_jaac_2365
Repatriation statistics and clipping (ddr-csujad-55-1494)
doc Repatriation statistics and clipping (ddr-csujad-55-1494)
Scrapbook page containing statistics on repatriation from Crystal City Department of Justice Internment Camp and a newspaper clipping including a photograph of a Japanese family as they returned to Japan. From the Mary F. Clark scrapbook, "Before I Forget, 1942-1947," page 133. See also sac_jaac_1334 through sac_jaac_1529. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese …
Request for repatriation: family summary (ddr-csujad-55-186)
doc Request for repatriation: family summary (ddr-csujad-55-186)
Form attached to the Individual Request for Repatriation for those applying to be repatriated as a group. Respondents are required to list the name, relationship, age, sex, and place of birth for family members who also applying for repatriation. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: sac_jaac_0188
Letter from Robert H. Henrion, Sgt 1C, 24th Inf Div, to American Consular Service, November 18, 1949 (ddr-csujad-55-2255)
doc Letter from Robert H. Henrion, Sgt 1C, 24th Inf Div, to American Consular Service, November 18, 1949 (ddr-csujad-55-2255)
Correspondence from Robert H. Henries to American Consular Service regarding a recommendation for Masako Adachi. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: sac_jaac_2358
Individual request for repatriation, Form WCCA R-100 (ddr-csujad-55-185)
doc Individual request for repatriation, Form WCCA R-100 (ddr-csujad-55-185)
Form distributed to individuals requesting repatriation. Questions cover the individual's personal description, citizenship, entry into the United States, residence outside of the United States, education, employment, previous residences, and relatives. Form WCCA R-100. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: sac_jaac_0187
Memo from J.L. O'Rourke, Officer in Charge, Crystal City Internment Camp, to the Personnel of all Divisions, Crystal City Internment Camp, December 3, 1945 (ddr-csujad-55-1498)
doc Memo from J.L. O'Rourke, Officer in Charge, Crystal City Internment Camp, to the Personnel of all Divisions, Crystal City Internment Camp, December 3, 1945 (ddr-csujad-55-1498)
Memorandum of understanding from J.L. O'Rourke to "The Personnel from All Divisions" expressing his appreciation regarding the repatriation process at Crystal City Department of Justice Internment Camp. From the Mary F. Clark scrapbook, "Before I Forget, 1942-1947," page 136. See also sac_jaac_1334 through sac_jaac_1529. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project …
To the descendants of George and Masako Okabe (ddr-csujad-55-2311)
doc To the descendants of George and Masako Okabe (ddr-csujad-55-2311)
Transcription of an oral history interview with George and Masako Okabe regarding their experiences during World War II. Interview covers Pearl Harbor, mass removal, daily life at Tule Lake and Grenada incarceration camps, repatriation to Japan, and return to U.S. Includes Yamazaki's report on the interview for her Sophomore World History class. See this object in …
Letter from Harold A. Barratt, Depot Manager, to Foreign Service of the United States of America, August 24, 1951 (ddr-csujad-55-2252)
doc Letter from Harold A. Barratt, Depot Manager, to Foreign Service of the United States of America, August 24, 1951 (ddr-csujad-55-2252)
Correspondence from Harold Barratt to Foreign Service of the United States regarding the employment of Masako Adachi. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: sac_jaac_2355
Issue slip (ddr-csujad-55-2254)
doc Issue slip (ddr-csujad-55-2254)
List of items belonging to Masako Adachi being transported from Japan to the United States. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: sac_jaac_2357
Report on renunciation suits (ddr-csujad-55-2249)
doc Report on renunciation suits (ddr-csujad-55-2249)
Report from attorney Wayne Collins to clients regarding developments in renunciation suits. Covers habeas corpus proceedings, mass equity suits, results achieved by mass suits, alien enemy act, effects of Supreme Court decisions, individual hearings, what renunciants must not do, renunciant plaintiffs in Japan, and conclusions. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization …
Diary on daily life at Tule Lake Camp (ddr-csujad-2-61)
doc Diary on daily life at Tule Lake Camp (ddr-csujad-2-61)
Diary of daily life at Tule Lake Camp for two days : March 9, 1944 and March 30, 1944. Diary in the form of interviews from anonymous Tule Lake incarcerees. Describes threat of violence from other incarcerees regarding food shortage, an art exhibit, repatriation, and the psychological impact of incarceration. See this object in the California …
Letter from S. [Koni] to Hon [F de Amat], November 13,1943 (ddr-csujad-2-4)
doc Letter from S. [Koni] to Hon [F de Amat], November 13,1943 (ddr-csujad-2-4)
Letter from Shunichi K. to [F. de Amat] requesting status on his application to be repatriated to Japan with his wife. See this object in the California State Universities Japanese American Digitization project site: sjs_sch_0004
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