Education

Schools were quickly organized in the concentration camps, but they suffered from crude facilities and lack of teaching materials. Instruction was given for nursery through high school, and adult education was offered. Trained teachers were in short supply, however, and uncertified Japanese Americans with college degrees often filled in. The War Relocation Authority (WRA) deliberately emphasized Americanization in the education program. Some found it painfully ironic to watch incarcerated youth recite the Pledge of Allegiance.

Education (714)

714 items
Report card (ddr-densho-34-140)
doc Report card (ddr-densho-34-140)
The project school at the Minidoka concentration camp issued this report card to Frank Kitamoto for the school year 1944-45. He was in kindergarten.
Annual summary report from nursery school (ddr-densho-34-135)
doc Annual summary report from nursery school (ddr-densho-34-135)
The nursery school at Minidoka concentration camp issued annual summary reports for its students. This report is for Y. (Frank) Kitamoto.
Children playing on a seesaw (ddr-densho-37-603)
img Children playing on a seesaw (ddr-densho-37-603)
Original WRA caption: Gila River Relocation Center, Rivers, Arizona. Kindergarten and Nursery children having a grand time on the see-saw.
Nursery school (ddr-densho-37-560)
img Nursery school (ddr-densho-37-560)
Original WRA caption: Topaz, Utah. Central Utah Relocation Center. Nursery school.
Art class (ddr-densho-37-509)
img Art class (ddr-densho-37-509)
Original WRA caption: Granada Relocation Center, Amache, Colorado. An adult art class under the direction of Tokio Ueyama, working in pencil sketch charcoals and oils. Adult art classes are extremely popular at the Amache Center.
Elementary school flagpole dedication (ddr-densho-37-718)
img Elementary school flagpole dedication (ddr-densho-37-718)
Original WRA caption: Dedication of the flag pole at the Stafford Elementary School conducted by the Boy Scouts of the Hunt troop. The Stafford School is one of two elementary schools in the Minidoka Relocation Center.
Home economics class (ddr-densho-37-39)
img Home economics class (ddr-densho-37-39)
Original WRA caption: Students in the high school home economics class.
Girls preparing for commencement (ddr-densho-37-691)
img Girls preparing for commencement (ddr-densho-37-691)
Original WRA caption: Girls at the Hunt High School, Minidoka Relocation Center, prepare for commencement exercises.
Japanese American welding (ddr-densho-39-7)
img Japanese American welding (ddr-densho-39-7)
Original museum description: Photograph, black and white glossy taken at Minidoka internment camp. Shows man welding in a shop. Information attached to the back says it is an adult education class in welding. (Info from original museum description)
High school recess (ddr-densho-93-40)
img High school recess (ddr-densho-93-40)
Original Ansel Adams caption: High school recess period, Manzanar Relocation Center, California / photograph by Ansel Adams.
Schoolchildren (ddr-densho-93-46)
img Schoolchildren (ddr-densho-93-46)
Original Ansel Adams caption: School children, Manzanar Relocation Center, California / photograph by Ansel Adams.
The Newell Star, Vol. I, No. 39 (November 23, 1944) (ddr-densho-284-41)
doc The Newell Star, Vol. I, No. 39 (November 23, 1944) (ddr-densho-284-41)
Selected article titles: "Commencement Tomorrow Evening: 230 Graduating Seniors to Receive Diplomas" (pp. 1, 3-4), "Arrival of 67 Hawaiian Nisei Here Disclosed" (p. 1), and "Nip the Cold 'Bug': Hospital Chief Gives Rules for Prevention" (p. 2).
The Newell Star, Vol. III, No. 3 (January 18, 1946) (ddr-densho-284-113)
doc The Newell Star, Vol. III, No. 3 (January 18, 1946) (ddr-densho-284-113)
Selected article titles: "Holland: Relocation Plans for All Free People Made" (p. 1), "Clarify Rules Regarding Alien Registration" (p. 1), "Southern Pacific Railroad Looking for More Workers" (p. 2), and "Student Relocation Council Services Offered Students" (p. 4).
Flag ceremony (ddr-densho-113-14)
img Flag ceremony (ddr-densho-113-14)
These children are watching a flag ceremony near the elementary school in Minidoka concentration camp.
Page of Hisa Nimura Horiuchi Scrapbook (ddr-densho-325-37)
doc Page of Hisa Nimura Horiuchi Scrapbook (ddr-densho-325-37)
This page of the scrapbook shows documents from two distinct periods of Hisa's wartime life. At the top is the form where Hisa formally requests to drop out of high school after her father is forced to move to the Santa Fe Department of Justice Internment Camp after being branded a trouble maker. While not ...
Yukio Sewing Class Exhibition at Heart Mountain (ddr-densho-339-30)
img Yukio Sewing Class Exhibition at Heart Mountain (ddr-densho-339-30)
Caption on front: "Yukio Sewing Class Exhibition / Heart Mountain Wyoming, Nov. 24-25-26-1944."
Education Section Summary (ddr-densho-342-8)
doc Education Section Summary (ddr-densho-342-8)
Report to Manzanar Project Director Ralph Merritt and his general staff meeting.
Japanese Americans in makeshift classroom (ddr-densho-151-368)
img Japanese Americans in makeshift classroom (ddr-densho-151-368)
Original caption: Manzanar Relocation Center, Manzanar, California. An elementary school with voluntary attendance has been established with volunteer teachers, most of whom are college graduates. These young evacuees are eager to learn and do not mind the lack of equipment.
API