Education

Schools were quickly organized in the concentration camps, but they suffered from crude facilities and lack of teaching materials. Instruction was given for nursery through high school, and adult education was offered. Trained teachers were in short supply, however, and uncertified Japanese Americans with college degrees often filled in. The War Relocation Authority (WRA) deliberately emphasized Americanization in the education program. Some found it painfully ironic to watch incarcerated youth recite the Pledge of Allegiance.

Education (782)

782 items
Painting of a classroom scene (ddr-manz-2-49)
img Painting of a classroom scene (ddr-manz-2-49)
Caption: "'Gee, that angleworm's my name' said Haruo, slouched over the classroom steps as Mr. Lamphere showed his shorthand pupils how to write their name in the Gregg manner."
Painting of roll call at Manzanar High School (ddr-manz-2-52)
img Painting of roll call at Manzanar High School (ddr-manz-2-52)
Caption: "Roll call is taken. This was the first day of school he study hall. Converted from a former mess ahll, resounded with laughter as Mr. Vanderjagt aide would call a name a squeaky soprano would respond 'Here,' only to be followed by an off-pitch bass 'Heah.'"
Painting of a cooking class at Manzanar High School (ddr-manz-2-48)
img Painting of a cooking class at Manzanar High School (ddr-manz-2-48)
"A cooking class. What vitamins do potatoes have? Miss Smith teaches her girls in what used to be the kitchen of mess hall 7."
End of school celebration (ddr-densho-152-33)
img End of school celebration (ddr-densho-152-33)
Japanese Americans watch the last day of school celebration.
First grade students and teacher (ddr-densho-152-13)
img First grade students and teacher (ddr-densho-152-13)
Original caption: "Wanda Watson and several of her first graders."
Evelyn Dell in front of school building (ddr-densho-152-3)
img Evelyn Dell in front of school building (ddr-densho-152-3)
Evelyn Dell stands in front of the Heart Mountain Elementary School building where she worked as a fourth grade teacher.
Japanese Americans taking English language class (ddr-densho-151-406)
img Japanese Americans taking English language class (ddr-densho-151-406)
Original caption: Manzanar Relocation Center, Manzanar, California. Part of a class under the Adult Education Program at this War Relocation Authority center. It is composed of Issei and Kibei evacuees who are studying the Ideals of American Citizenship and the English language with which they are unfamiliar. There are 18 such classes, each averaging 20 volunteer ...
Class photograph (ddr-manz-7-54)
img Class photograph (ddr-manz-7-54)
Caption on reverse: "Manzanar, Building C."
Stafford Press, March 1943 (ddr-densho-156-425)
doc Stafford Press, March 1943 (ddr-densho-156-425)
Publication of the Sixth Grade, Stafford School, Minidoka concentration camp.
Stafford Press, June 1943 (ddr-densho-156-428)
doc Stafford Press, June 1943 (ddr-densho-156-428)
Publication of the Sixth Grade, Stafford School, Minidoka concentration camp.
Students (ddr-densho-161-39)
img Students (ddr-densho-161-39)
L to R: Toshiko Sakamoto, Rumi Tonai, Fudge Amemiya, Reiko Rikimaru, Julia Yoshioka, Fumi Sotomura, Justine Sekiyama, Yoneko Ibusuke.
API