Education

Schools were quickly organized in the concentration camps, but they suffered from crude facilities and lack of teaching materials. Instruction was given for nursery through high school, and adult education was offered. Trained teachers were in short supply, however, and uncertified Japanese Americans with college degrees often filled in. The War Relocation Authority (WRA) deliberately emphasized Americanization in the education program. Some found it painfully ironic to watch incarcerated youth recite the Pledge of Allegiance.

World War II (66)
Concentration camps (595)
Education (936)

936 items
Painting of the Manzanar High School 1943 graduation (ddr-manz-2-54)
img Painting of the Manzanar High School 1943 graduation (ddr-manz-2-54)
Caption: "Approximately 200 students graduated at second Manzanar High School commencement."
Painting of a scene at Manzanar Grammar School (ddr-manz-2-45)
img Painting of a scene at Manzanar Grammar School (ddr-manz-2-45)
Caption on reverse: "First graders at Manzanar Grammar School."
Painting of a woodworking class (ddr-manz-2-50)
img Painting of a woodworking class (ddr-manz-2-50)
Caption: "The boys in the woodcarving class of Mr. Bouche were being praised for their good work that day. The teacher was kept very busy showing his pupils how to hold the chisel."
Painting of roll call at Manzanar High School (ddr-manz-2-52)
img Painting of roll call at Manzanar High School (ddr-manz-2-52)
Caption: "Roll call is taken. This was the first day of school he study hall. Converted from a former mess ahll, resounded with laughter as Mr. Vanderjagt aide would call a name a squeaky soprano would respond 'Here,' only to be followed by an off-pitch bass 'Heah.'"
Painting of a Manzanar High School gym class (ddr-manz-2-47)
img Painting of a Manzanar High School gym class (ddr-manz-2-47)
Caption: "Did you ever see such individual dress attire? This is a high school gym class I ran into on the dusty field next to block 7. Facing each other in a circle, they would clap their hands, say something, laugh. Off in the corner another class came dashing by."
Painting of a cooking class at Manzanar High School (ddr-manz-2-48)
img Painting of a cooking class at Manzanar High School (ddr-manz-2-48)
"A cooking class. What vitamins do potatoes have? Miss Smith teaches her girls in what used to be the kitchen of mess hall 7."
Painting of the Manzanar High School 1944 graduation (ddr-manz-2-11)
img Painting of the Manzanar High School 1944 graduation (ddr-manz-2-11)
Caption: "Manzanar High School commencement of 1944. Our democratic country has people representing all nation[s] - Mr. Ralph P. Merritt."
Painting of a classroom scene (ddr-manz-2-49)
img Painting of a classroom scene (ddr-manz-2-49)
Caption: "'Gee, that angleworm's my name' said Haruo, slouched over the classroom steps as Mr. Lamphere showed his shorthand pupils how to write their name in the Gregg manner."
Painting of an administration scene at Manzanar (ddr-manz-2-43)
img Painting of an administration scene at Manzanar (ddr-manz-2-43)
Caption: "I visited Dr. Carter today because school has opened and I am to make drawings of class scenes. It seemed a hundred people were rushing in and out of her office. All over her desk; the telephone rang all the time."
Painting of a scene at Manzanar Grammar School (ddr-manz-2-46)
img Painting of a scene at Manzanar Grammar School (ddr-manz-2-46)
Caption: "'Teacher, I know - ' At the other end of the same barrack. First graders of Miss Joh sit awkwardly about the mess table. A question has just been asked. Little Hiroshi, on the end slowly lifts his hand 'Teacher, I know.'"
Painting of the nursery school at Manzanar (ddr-manz-2-44)
img Painting of the nursery school at Manzanar (ddr-manz-2-44)
Caption: "It's nap time, but there's more noise than rest. The youngsters wriggle around, won't lie still. The teachers look exhausted. The scam in the foreground turns around. 'Hiya popa, watcha doin'?' Rest time in the nursery class."
Painting of Manzanar High School (ddr-manz-2-51)
img Painting of Manzanar High School (ddr-manz-2-51)
Caption: "Manzanar High School. Studies took on great importance in these barrack classrooms. This was a day before the week-end holiday."
Painting of students going to class (ddr-manz-2-53)
img Painting of students going to class (ddr-manz-2-53)
Caption: "Students hurry to the classes as the belling's on this foggy morning."
Letter to Molly Wilson from Tomoko Ikeda (June 10, 1942) (ddr-janm-1-1)
doc Letter to Molly Wilson from Tomoko Ikeda (June 10, 1942) (ddr-janm-1-1)
Handwritten letter written by Tomoko Ikeda to Molly Wilson, June 10, 1942. Letter was written from an assembly center or a relocation center, and mentions adjusting to food in center and missing school.
Letter (with envelope) to Mollie Wilson from Lillian (Nobie) Igasaki (March 31, 1944) (ddr-janm-1-51)
doc Letter (with envelope) to Mollie Wilson from Lillian (Nobie) Igasaki (March 31, 1944) (ddr-janm-1-51)
Handwritten letter to Molly Wilson from Lillian (Nobie) Igasaki (March 31, 1944). Envelope is postmarked April 1, 1944 from the Manzanar Incarceration Camp in Manzanar, California.
Letter (with envelope) to Molly Wilson from Sandie Saito (April 3, 1943) (ddr-janm-1-15)
doc Letter (with envelope) to Molly Wilson from Sandie Saito (April 3, 1943) (ddr-janm-1-15)
Handwritten letter to Molly Wilson from Sandie Saito (April 3, 1943). Envelope is postmarked April 5, 1943 from the Granada (Amache) Incarceration Camp in Amache, Colorado.
Letter to Molly Wilson from Mary Murakami (October 6, 1942) (ddr-janm-1-29)
doc Letter to Molly Wilson from Mary Murakami (October 6, 1942) (ddr-janm-1-29)
Handwritten letter to Molly Wilson from Mary Murakami (October 6, 1942).
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